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FRUIT INSPECTORS REPORT.
Wnllii Will In County.
Editor Ranch and Range: In doing my work,
1 have visited 360 orchards and yards where
fruit trees grow in the past season. Went over the
ground twice, beiore and after spraying. There are
about 3,000 acres of orchard in this county, of which
1,500 acres were sprayed with the salt, sulphur and
lime solution in the months of March and April.
The principal pests, namely, green and woolly
aphis, the San Jose scale, codlin moth, also the fire
blight, has done considerable damage to the pear
orchards in this valley. As to spraying for the cod
lin moth, I do not believe it was done to a very
great extent, as at least two-thirds of the apples in
the lower part of the valley were wormy. The or
chards in the foothills and mountains are in a meas
ure clear of them. There are some orchards so sit
uated in the hills that they are shaded after 5 o'clock
in -the evening. . These are clear of the moth.
As to my observation in regard to fighting the
moth, I can say that there is a good many ways but
not enough yet. I have seen four varieties of birds
that destroy them; first, the flicker or yellow ham
mer. They pick the cocoons and worms from under
the bark; they also destroy ants, which help to pro
pagate the aphis. Next comes a very small gray
bird with black stripes on head and wings. I call
them chickadees, for want of a better name. They
pick them from under the bark; also the king bird
or bee martin, which takes Mr. Moth on the wing,
and is a sure shot. Fourth is a small brown spar
row, which also takes them on the wing. All of
these birds should be protected by law. I have come
to the conclusion that to spray with Paris green you
must get there before the moth. The trees that 1
sprayed last spring before they had shed all of their
bloom were the only ones that _ got any clean ap
ples from. I think the trouble is that we do not
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ranch and range.
spray carefully enough and heavily enough. I tried
the band system this year, and allow me to say that
I cannot speak too much praise of . it. I think 1
must have killed a hundred thousand worms with
two hundred bands. I am now going through my
orchard with an old corn cutter, scraping all the
rough bark off all my trees, and I .find worms and
cocoons on almost every tree, even after hatching
so many in the bands now.
I would say to my brother fruit growers, let us try
spraying, and hogs and chickens and birds and
bands, and first of all give our orchards a thorough
pruning and clearing up, and then if we don't get
rid of them you will have to get some one to write
that knows more than H. C. CHEW,
Fruit Inspector Walla Walla county.
Turnips as Feed.
At the Ontario Agricultural College in an experi
ment commenced February, 1897, six cows were di
vided into three lots.
Lot 1 was fed turnips just before milking, lot 2
was fed turnips after milking, and lot 3 received no
turnips but- was confined and milked in a stable
in which the odor of turnips fed to fattening steers
was very strong. During the first week lots 1 and
2 were fed 1 peck of turnips per cow daily and dur
ing the second week }_ bushel of turnips. The but
ter during these two weeks was scored as first
During the third week, when the amount of tur
nips was increased to 3 pecks per day, "the taint
was scarcely perceptible upon the milk,, although
the butter from lot 1 (turnips fed before milking)
showed a slight flavor of turnips."
The fourth week one bushel of turnips per cow
Wo.*« fed daily. This week there was a decided flavor
of turnips in the milk of both lots. At the com
mencement of the ripening process the cream from
lot 1 was heated to 65 degrees and 20 per cent, of
starter added, and that from lot 2 was heated to
75 degrees and allowed to develop its own acid for
24 hours. "Lot 2 was scored low on account of the
turnipy flavor, while lot 1 (turnips fed before milk
ing) showed no turnipy flavor, indicating that the
20 per cent, of starter added to the cream had over
come the turnipy flavor." The butter from lot 3
maintained its good quality during the four weeks,
notwithstanding the strong odor of turnips in the
During the sixth week all six of the cows were
given all the turnips they would eat. The mixed
cream was divided into three equal parts, all of
which gave a strong odor of turnips. The first lot
was heated to 75 degrees and allowed to ripen na
turally, the second lot was heated to 65 degrees and
20 per cent of starter added, and the third lot was
pasteurized and 20 per cent, of starter added. "The
butter from the first lot was very strong with the
flavor of turnips. Lot 2 was not so bad as lot 1,
while lot 3 (pasteurized) showed no turnip flavor
at all. This indicates that pasteurizing and adding
a starter will overcome the turnipy flavors in milk
The Ontario Agricultural College has completed
an experiment on the comparative value of oats and
green rye and alfalfa as a feed for dairy cows. The
rye, which was a medium crop, yielded at the rate
of 12,375 lbs. of green fodder per acre and the al
falfa yielded a first cutting at the rate of 15,300 lbs.
of green fodder per acre. The alfalfa was eaten
rather more readily, by the cows than the rye. The
milk yield was slightly in favor of the alfalfa.
When scored by an expert the rye butter scored 35
points for flavor and the alfalfa butter 40 points for
flavor, out of a possible score of 45 points. The plat
of alfalfa furnished two subsequent crops, which
made the total yield from the alfalfa plat more than
double that stated above, whereas the rye made
but an indifferent second growth.