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A HAY RAKE CATECHISM.
•What is that grandpa?"
"A delapidate hay rake."
"Why is it delapidated?"
Because the owner instead of tak
jug it home and housing it left it in
the field, exposed to wind, rain, frost
"What did he do that for?"
"Because he is a philanthropist."
"Why is a farmer who leaves his
hay-rake in the field to become dilapi
dated a philanthropist?"
"It induces activity, gives employ
ment to labor, and profit to the manu
facturer and dealer."
"Does this man's wife think he is
"No, she wants a new dress and some
new shoes for the children, but can
not have them because he has to buy
a new hay rake to replace the one
which is delapidated."
"What does this man's wife think?"
"She thinks he is only a shiftless
farmer. Some wives do not appreciate
the higher ideals which inspire the
methods of their husbands."
To winter bees successfully the fol
lowing points should be observed with
each colony. A young queen under
one year old is preferable. She will be
in her prime the next spring; and if
other conditions are favorable, when
the harvest comes will have a strong
colony for business.
Many colonies perish during the win
ter because they do not have sufficient
stores to enable them to live through
the winter. The weight of the hive
will indicate whether there are suffi
cient stores. When natural stores are
found not to be sufficient, and there
should be something near 40 pounds
for the northern latitude, make a sirup
of granulated sugar, and feed early
in the fall, so the bees can fix it up
to suit them and store it away. Give
them one big feed in the beginning,
then give in small quantities. They
will not eat of the store syrup if made
out of dark sugar or molasses.
They must have warmth and dry
ness. The hive should be substantial
enough to keep rain and snow out.
Rut the bees must have air even dur
ing the coldest weather. The super
fluous moisture of the hive must be
carried away by ventilation, which
does not create drafts, nor allow an
escape of the warmth in the hive.
Straw hives do this well. Any hive
should be well packed with cushion
filled with clover chaff, over the combs
and ventilated above the packing. The
cushion should also be slightly raised
so the bees can get under it. After the
bees have settled down for the winter
do not disturb them in any way. Ex
posing them to low temperature, and
causing them to gorge themselves with
honey is likely to cause disease.
A dry cellar may be utilized for
wintering bees, but never risk them
In a damp cellar. It requires food to
bring them through in the cellar if
conditions are not unfavorable. They
will winter one-third less. They
should be carried into the cellar be
fore severe freezing and snowy wea
ther sets in. The colonies should be
prepared the same as for wintering
out doors. Exclude the light and any
influence that will disturb them. The
cellar ventilation should be good.
If the bees are content with their
surroundings they will remain quiet,
a nd you will conclude the temperature
of the cellar is all right. Should they
become very restless, during a warm
period of weather in the winter, re
move them to their summer stands,
tor a few hours or day, after they have
taken a cleansing flight, they will
Quiet down. They may then be re-
Placed in the cellar. They should not
be taken out of the cellar in the spring
whllfl the weather is cold! their long
•onflnement makes them sensitive to
the cold outside. If not careful In this
respect, the old bees will die off before
RANCH AND RANGE
there are young ones to fill their
I often wonder why it is so many
farmers who keep bees let them shift
for themselves. Then they wonder
why they do not have honey, like some
one else who has made a careful study
of his bees and gives them the little
care they need, at the proper time. It
is one oif the pleasures of the craft to
know the "blessed bees" will amply
repay for the little care and attention
we give them.
BEES AS POACHERS.
A very interesting case has originat
ed at Warwick, N. V., and if the decis
ion is sustained on appeal, a most im
portant precedent will be established.
Bees owned by one person punctured
the peaches of another while they
were ripening, extracting the juice
from the fruit, thus destroying it. The
plaintiff placed his damages at $250.
Local experts gave testimony in both
peach growing and bee keeping. The
justice gave judgment to the plaintiff
to the amount of $25 and costs. If the
case is sustained, it will render the
owners of the bees liable in damages
for their incursion on the premises of
other property holders, the same as
horses, pigs, and other trespassers. A
few years ago a suit was brought in
Delaware county against a farmer to
recover on a claim for pasturing bees.
The plaintiff alleged that the bees had
no right to obtain sustenance and ma
terial for making honey for the benefit
of the owners, from his property with
out compensation. The contention of
the plaintiff was sustained and judg
ment was entered.
INDIAN RUNNER DUCKS.
Since importing a trio of these
beautiful fowls from New York, we
have had many inquiries is regard to
them. We will say that they have
more than met our expectations as
egg producers. They are a great sur
prise in this respect, laying equal to
This is a breed that is new in the
United States, having been here only
five years. It has been bred in Eng
land for nearly 50 years, but its good
qualities seem to have been disregard
ed until a few poultry fanciers took
up the breed about five years ago.
They lay an egg much larger than
the ordinary hen's egg. In color the
eggs are a clear white, with a little
pinkish cast, much like the Pekin
ducks egg. They are excellent forag
ers, and grow better if given plenty
of room. The original home of these
fowls was in India, hence the name
Indian. They have strong legs, an
erect carriage, and are able to move
with great rapidity. In fact, they
are literally runners. Their bodi
being long and narrow, they have a
racy appearance. They are almost en
tirely free from the awkward "wad
dle" characteristic of ducks. They
have no characteristic of a keel, hav
ing a full round breast like a chicken.
The body is carried upright, with
head high, much like a pigeon. When
grown, they are easily kept, requiring
less food than the Pekins, but more
room. They stand shipment well. Be
ing a plump bird, they make a good
appearance when dressed. Their lay
ing qualities, however, is the greatest
card in their favor. Duck eggs being
much in demand for culinary purpos
es, this quality is sure to bring the
Runners into good demand. Judge
Hitchcock reported 260 eggs from one
duck in one year. A. J. Halleck, of
New York, reports 136 eggs in 142
days—a most remarkable egg record.
The history of the introduction of
these fowls into England seems to be
wrapped up somewhat in mystery,
but from the best information obtain
able it seems that a ship captain
brought a trio of them from India
about 1850 and gave them to some
friends. The same captain brought
some more a few years later. It is
no doubt true that all the present
stock descended from these importa
There are two distinct strains, the
black and white and the fawn and
white. The latter, however, are much
preferred, and our American standard
of perfection recognizes it only. The
cuto is a good likeness, and gives an
excellent idea of their appearance.
The drake here shown scored 94 Ms by
Judge Hitchcock, who pronounced
him an excellent specimen. The score
is good for a parti-colored fowl. The
duck here shown scored 94 .
We shall be pleased to answer any
questions that any onecares to ask
concerning these fowls. — Robinson
Bros., Portland, Or.
One of the wohst of the many dis
eases that infest the farmer's flock
is roup. It seems to be almost incur
able, and prevention is the best remedy
yet discovered. Every sneeze is not
the roup, nor every ache from cold la
grippe. But when roup does get hold
of a fowl the safest way to avert trou
ble is to kill the bird and effectually
burn the carcass. First of all prevent
this disease by starting with good
strong stock, clean houses, yards, and
drinking vessels, pure air. fresh water,
dry houses, no drafts and no vermin.
Do not feed scalding hot foods to make
the hens sweat, or use too much stim
ulating drugs. It will not hurt for the
hens to have a little fat on them in
winter. Remove all afflicted birds at
once, and if valuable birds place then]
in tight, warm coops. Let the bird
rest on clean straw, not on a roost.
It would be best to burn all the drop
pings and the straw to avoid a spread
of the disease. After each cleaning
give the coop a good wash with
some good disinfectant. It would be
better to place the coop in a shed
where the winds cannot strike it. If
the eyes and nostrils have bad dis
charges wash them with some anti
sceptic twice a day. A solution of hy
drogen dioxide, one part to two parts
distilled (boiled will do) water, is an
excellent remedy, as it makes only
a dead tissue and does no injury.
Of course, you cannot afford to take
all this trouble with common birds,
but if you have a fine specimen worth
several dollars it will possibly pay
you. Give the fowls that are exposed
a mixture of capricum, ginger, sul
phur and salt petre, equal parts, and
one- half as much linseed meal, fine
ground. Feed a tablespoonful to ten
fowls. As a tonic for sick birds give
a one-grain pill of quinine, once or
twice a day. Coal oil has been used
with marked success, but it seems slow
in action and rough in treatment. Put
your efforts to preventing this dis
ease and you will avoid trouble and
Mrs. J. R. King, of Weston, says the
Leader, is the owner of a courageous
and capable old hen, or nondescript
breed, that she wouldn't trade for a
whole flock of biooded poultry- It is
the only hen in Oregon, prehaps in the
United States, that ever fought and
killed a hawk. The battle occurred
a few days ago, when a chicken hawk
swooped down upon a band of baby
fowls, of which the old hen was the
mother. The hen didn't squawk and
run, calling upon her offspring to fol
low her, but with a fierce and well
directed peck buried her bill beneath
the hawk's left wing. It was a solar
plexus blow, and a clean knock-out.
The hawk seemed surprised and dazed.
It feebly arose, flew aimlessly against
a clothes line, and then dropped into
the garden, stone dead.
A California firm recently sold to
the German government 500 horses
for $50 per head. This lot was pur
chased in Nevada last year for $2.50
POULTRY BREEDERS' DIRECTORY.
This department will be found an effective means
of advertising Ibr those who have only a limited
number of sittings or fowls for sale, or for poultry
men at n clistiince who do not feel Justified In using
display space. Kates fie. per line each Insertion.
Light Brahmas, B. P. Kocks. s. ('. Br. Leghorns.
Four entries at state fair—three premiums, one Ist,
tWO -nds: Bventt poultry show, seven lsts, five
'2iids; eggs, f2 setting. Henry Nelson, Kverett, Wn.
W. F. Black Spanish, W. (rested Polish, B. Min
orcas, Br. and White Leghorns, B. P. Rocks. Cir
culars free. Fred A. .Johnson, Tacoma, Wash.
White Plymouth Rocks. Yard headed by cock
erel scored' 94 .5 4by Hewes. Kggs f2 per 15. J. D
Ulley, Box 852, Spokane, Wash.
My "Montauk Barred Plymouth Rocks"
Won 1-4 Regular and Hpeclal Prized
ut State Fair, IHOO
Hens $1..">0 to if'2.oo Cockerels, $2.00 to f3.00
Pullets, f'2.00 to f.'1.00
All Good Breeders
C. B. HTAPLKS
HI Pucltlc Avi'. Tacoma, Washington
Barred, Buff and White.
Seven prizes from state fair. Better than ever.
Have for sale a limited lumber of birds.
L. R. SCHOTT, N. Yakima, W.
Pure - Bred Poultry
F.ggs fi>r hatching from BlOWtl Leghorns, B. P
Hocks, mark MlnorcM. Our yards are stocked
with the beßt bloo<l money can buy and will pro
duce prize-winners in 1901, as they have in the past
for our customers and ourselves. Our Brown Lfft
horns and Plymouth Rooks are as good as any. Per
setting s 2, three letting*, $5. c. M. Cox <s Co.,
Are you Satisfied
with the way your scrub hens lay? My
averaged lf>o eKgsCea<'h«|last year; and I won all
prizes on them at Tacoma show and five] at Spo
as good as the best. Kggs bothjvarieties $3 per U
SOUTH SIDE POULTRY YARDS
H. H. Collier, Box 723, Tacoma, Wn
BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCKS
EGGS, $1.00 PER 15. C. M. SHIELDS, Prop.
RIVERSIDE POULTRY YARDS, MILTON, OREGON
Barred and White Plymouth Rookm
H. W ILLMAN,
Hartford, - - Washington
ItiUis Pullman Sleeping Cars, Elegant Din-
Ing Cars, Tourist Sleeping Care, Free Colo
nist Sleepers to
ST. PAUL. MINN.,
FARGO. NORTH DAK.,
GRAND FORKS. NORTH DAK.,
Through Tickets to
NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA,
All Points East and South.
Through Tickets to Japan and China via
Northern Pacific Steamship Co.
For information, time cards, maps and
tickets, call on or write
Gen. Agent. City Ticket Office, cor. Yes
ler Way and First Aye., Seattle.
Depot Ticket otllce, Columbia St. and
Western Aye., Seattle.
A. D. CHARLTON,
Asst. Gen. lass. Agt., 223 Morrison St.,