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Deseret farmer. (Provo, Utah) 1904-1912, July 18, 1908, Image 10

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/2010218520/1908-07-18/ed-1/seq-10/

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I 10 TIE DESERETaJAR MtJER. Saturday, juiiYL i 8 1 9 o 8 .
I POULTRY
I REVERSIQNAL HEREDITY.
I 4 C. S. Gorline.
t
I Written for 'the "Dcscrct Farmer?, " T J
There is a lr.w of transmission ipv
I breeding that is hardly considered
worthy of serious consideration by
many skillfull breeders and yet it has
I often eauscu no end of bother to the
map who is endeavoring to reproduce
certain characteristics less certain pc
j culiaritics. For instance, in one case
I we knew a breeder of Brown Lcg
Ij horns who had taken great care in
Hi double mating to produce a. line of
H standard excellence and had succccd
H cd in obtaining the desired color, but
b his birds were faulty in comb. This
I, was before the standard was changed
I and although six points in the comb
Ij were adui!ssablc our friend admired
I and preferred but five and sought to
I; accomplish that end. In time he pro
Hi duccd a fine cockerel with the desired
H five point comb and he resolved to
If fix that peculiarity in all succeeding
II lrogcuy, and he did, but he also fixed
II another peculiarity that showed itscif
II in many generations in the females
II also, much to his chagrin, and tint
I! was a most decided fork in the rear of
It the blade. From sire to son and on
I; through several generations this pc
I; culiaxity was reproduced with an ck
I'
1 1 1 1 1 '
actness that became a positive mark.
There is a fundamental principle now
generally recognized, "predominant
characteristics of the sires arc most
often transmitted to the female pro
geny, while those of the darra arc re
produced in the male dcsccndcnts,"
but this law applies more often in
cross-heredity. It is very simple, too,
and so easy to accept the trite saw
that like will produce like and to rest
hopefully in the belief thrt the pro
genitor will be produced in the pro
geny in a second edition, but right
there is where rcvcrsional heredity
plays havoc with our theory, for be
it known Mr. Breeder, there arc two
progenitors if you please, and by the
law of direct heredity the peculiari
ties of both sire and dam arc trans
mitted to the offspring. Now, in the
case at hand, the fork in the blade
was transmitted to the female pro
geny as well as the male and was
painfully, transmitted for several gen
erations1 and would probably have
been so portrayed to the end of time,
but our friend was well aware of an
other principle involved which is t
the effect that the continuous repcti
tion of a structural change Will sure
ly effect an organic modification and
the application of a pair of scissors
to the rear of the blade in those
youngsters of each succeeding gener-
I j(ff W 'tryflL. W"fr i?fc HTtm 1""
I EMm " "y 'WSMm mnXy ordmrt i 50 eggs
I ;5KXL DftN HANS0N
I !& ELSINORE, UTAH
ation finallyMproduc.cd'r-abladel"in!SUc
cocding generations that-was standard"
m type. We know of jnorc than 6nst
breeder who has accomplished the.
. . ; i
scciningly impossible by the applied
tion of this principle. Environments
has much to do doubtless in the traiis?
mission of acquired peculiarities in
rcvcrsional heredity until such time
as those peculiarities become fixed
Frequently a peculiarity of the dam
will be tiansmittcd to daughter and
on down the female line for many
generations while a certain character
istic of the sire will be transmitted
to the male line from the same origi
nal mating from whence the female
line sprang, hence the difficulty gen
crally encountered in blending indi
vidual characteristics from any one
mating. Experience has shown re
peatedly that only care in selection
of the individuals in a mating will
produce results that will blend dc-'
sired characteristics in the progeny
even with the aid of strenuous meas
ures as noted above, for undesirable
characteristics arc more easily estab
lished in the offspring than those thn;
arc desired and by direct heredity
they may become almost impossible,
to eradicate except by strenuous!
measures and the most rigid care tin
.the selection of the individual. 'If
this care in selection be rigidly fol
lowed year after year, much may be
done in time to eradicate in a large,
measure, if not entirely so, the uiw
desirable peculiarities preserved a;id
transmitted by heredity. The prdb-
lem of heredity has in the past been
regarded as incapable of solution ljut
reasoning supported by observation
and an intelligent understanding jof
the laws of breeding will eventually
make clear a chapter in the Book of
Nature which has heretofore be,cn
unintelligible.
o
i
PESTS OF THE POULTRY YARD
;
C. S. Gorlinr. !
1 ;;
Animals and birds, like plants, re
subject to disease and death. Ds-.
ease and death are due to bacteria,
minute organisms that comprise a
class of low plants, of which there
arc more than twelve hundred known
varieties. About ninety-five per cent
of this number may 'be considered
as conducive to life, while the remain
ing five per cent will produce disease,
resulting in death, unless arrested.
The .word f microbe- was coined from
two Greek words, (micros, small, anil
bios, life,) to include all of the minute
plants termed bacteria. Now, bac- j
tcria while having the characteristics
of plants, possess also the power, likj I
animals, of independent motion and J
in their habit of feeding upon com
plex bodies. They arc also much
alike the lower forms of animal life
in that they multiply by simple di
vision. Each individual elongates,
then divides in the middle, ea'ch half
becoming a whole individual, which
in turns again -subdivides, and so on,
and the power of reproduction is sim
ply marvellous. It has been estimated
that each microbe will in one day pro
duce sixteen million descendants, so
that in two or three days they will be
numbered by billions, and their bulk
and weight would 'be enormous were
the multiplication not checked by lack
of food or by the rccumulation of
their own excreted products which
arc injurious to them. Many of these
bacteria arc parasitic, feeding upon
some other species, and they thrive
best in filth and foul air, and abound
in all putrescent or fermenting mix
tures containing organic matter.
Some of the more common diseases
caused by bacteria arc pustule, ery
sipelas, tuberculosis, typhoid fever,
hydrophobia, chicken cholera, roup,
etc. Indiscreet eating and drinking,
neglect of hygenic principles in any
way that will lower the vitality and ' '
these bacteria arc ready and waiting
to seize upon the system, causing dis
ease and often death. Doubtless, very
nearly ninety-five percent of ills in
the poultry yard arc due to ill feed
ing, unclean water and parasitic in
sects. If fe icnting food or dirty
water arc easy of accc-ss, look out.
There arc bacteria there by the mil
lion, for they abound in all ferment
ing mixtures and in watci. If lice or
mites are allowed to work their will
upon the flock, the effect upon the
birds will be devitalizing and low
vitality invites the disease germs or
microbes. Allow the roosts and i
dropping-'boards to accumulate filth,
and disease germs arc lurking in
every available space. Lice and mites . '
will appear and multiply, often when
we think that we arc absolutely free I
of them. Watch the sitting hens.
Dust them with insect powder once
or twice a week. An ordinary baking
powder can with the lid well perfor
ated with a sjiingle nnil makes, it

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