THE AT Y WITH SULU.
SLAVERY UNDER THE
Keccnt Act. of Adtnlnlslrntloti that in
In lllrect Violation of the Plain Pro
vision of the Constitution-Wot on
the Nntlonal l-'.scntcheon.
The tronty entered Into between hi
royal highness the Sultan of Sulu. Had
gl Mohamad Wound Klrnn. ruler of
7.r,(Xi slaves and 2.1,ooo fr lmi'ii. nnd
President WilMatn AlcKinley of Un
united States docs not recognize tl"'
emancipation proclamation issued by
President Lincoln on January 1. lo:t,
guarnutecing freedom t' the slaves In
the I 'nltrd States.
The treaty whleh permits tdavehohl
lng among the subjects of President
McKInleys protege and cmpiojc
transmitted hy Adjutant (Iciicrul Cor
hln to Secretary ltoot. It has not heen
sent to tho State department. Asslst
iint Secretary Hill said that the docu
ment Is of a military rather than of a
diplomatic ehnracter, as It was entered
Into hy the army and tho Sultan with
tho consent of President AlcKinley.
It in even doubtful whether or not
It -w ill be sent to Congress to lie formal
ly ratldcd. in accordance with the rule
established for the treatment of docu
ments affecting tho relation of the
United States with a foreign country
mid with the Indian tribe.
The State liepartmeiit Is arguing that
of fact tho so-called treaty Is not a
treaty lit all. Hut Is none the less bind
ing than a solemn promise and agree
ment made between two governments
to rcsmct condition mutually ngreed
tipon. it has been expressly authorized
by President AI'Klnlcy. although It is
a flagrant violation of tho Constitution
of tho United States, which declares:
"Artlelu XIII.: first -Neither sla
Tery or Involuntary servitude, except ns
a punishment for some crime whereof
tho pnrty shall have been duly convict
ed, shall exist within ihe I' lilted Statiw
nor In any phteo subject to their Juris
diction. "Second -Congress shall have power
to enforce this nrthio by appropriate
The treaty or contract has been con
sidered at a cabinet meeting and the
toleration of slavery and other forms
of medieval slavery countenanced by It
apparently meet with tho approvnl of
not only the President, but all his ad
visers. It W inoro than probable that the
Agreement will be considered as a part
of tho military operations In the Phil
ippines. A member of the cabinet said
to a reporter, In explaining the Presi
dent's act In ngreeing to a recognition
of slavery In Sulu, that (Seneral Otis
was obliged to accept the conditions
practically as ho found them, and made
nH treaty but a contract construed
"long the lines of an agreement be-
A-een this government and the uomes-
Ic Indian tribes.
Slavery lias existed in Sulu, he said.
r 800 vears, spam countenanced u,
id tho Sultan of Sulu would not agree
any treaty not according the same
ivllege granted by L Madrid gov-
s a concession, however, he agreed
tiTVTe incorporation 01 an ariicie in me
treatifpennlttlug tho slaves to pur
chase tl(yU" freedom for $20 a head, to
la. rtald ftMSUm. A
75.01)0 slaves to '
As (here are bikhu
doimUn, the admin-
;Vo honV that he will
be l'empted by the opportunity to re
alize a large revenue of "head money"
through slave taking advantago of
President McKlnley's beneficence. Hut
no provlslou was Incorporated provld
lng for any tribunal or other rueans of
determining when a slave could tako
advantage of his privilege.
There Is a distinct clause In tho treaty
between bis royal highness, the Sultan
of Solo, and President McKlnlcy, which
permits hltn to practice polygamy. Thta
concession Is veiled lu diplomatic
metaphor, which cedes Iladgl Mo
hamud Womol Ktran the right to con
Vluct his court (and Incidentally his do
linestlc affairs), with pretty much the
(same liberty that he and his noble an
cestors practiced for two centuries,
There Is no mention In the treaty of
direct financial emolument to the Sul
tau In properly maintaining his twelve
wives, but one of the articles of agree'
ineut stipulates that he shall draw from
the United States treasury a salary
equivalent to 12,000 Mexican dollars a
vcar, to be paid at the rate of fioo
American dollars a month. Washing
A I.ctfiil View of TrimtH.
It Is a favorite urguuictit lu favor of
trusts that they lower the price of com
modities, and thus benefit Ihe people.
(In this point. Senators Hanna and Al
lison, and all the others lu their wake,
are agreed. They are to lie extolled us
business enterprise, of a beneficial na
ture, though they ure not yet declared
to bu benevoleut associations. The
Texas Court of Civil Apiieal puts the
proper construction uimjii them lu t hw
Han Antonio Gas Company case. This
roiupitny became a member of a local
combine to control the private and pub
lic lighting of Kan Antonio, Texas. V
was concluded that the combine low
ered the price of gas, but lu pa swing
upon the forfeiture of Its charter Judge
V. S. Ely, of the higher court, says:
"If the combination was made an J
its object was lu restraint of trade auu
to cruute a monopoly, the statute de
nounces It, no matter If the Immediate
result of the combination may be the
ia lorary reduction of prices. To tlx
give this- (vuix'l u a rate lower than one
Wause Johnny carries with It the
statins H to
there are none out of employment and
that confidence Is very solid! Appeal
TiuMrnlns the Colls,
One by one, the links In the chain of
our slavery are being forged. Hardly
a day passes that does not mark an
encroachment upon tho jeople' rights.
Whit Willi the destruction of the peo
ple's money, the cornering of the prod
ucts of the country, through the work
ings of Innumerable trusts, the brar.cn
disregard of all restraint of law, one
would think the limit had been reached.
Hut not so. The Nebraska Independent
records another step in the road to the
ruin of the Ilepublic the suppression
of the Congressional Ilecord, the only
medium It-rough which tho people of
the Unite d States ran know what Is be
ing done by Congress. The .act has not
been cotisuuimati-d bs yet, but It Is In
cubating, and before n not In r Congress
shall have adjourned. In nil probability,
It will be a fact. The Independent says:
This last conspiracy of plutocracy
Is more far reaching nud dangerous to
liberty than any that has preceded It.
It Is an effort to do what Lincoln said
could not be done, "fool nil the people
all the lime." When the great eman
cipator made thai remark? he bad no
Idea that all tin- avenues of Information
would be gathered Into the hands of
plutocracy, lie counted upon the exe
cution of tin' constitutional guarantee
of a free press. He never dreamed that
the time would come when the Presi
dent of the United States would refuse
to let prlnled documents circulate
through the mulls - documents that con
tained nothing but statistics and refer
ences to the roiiHiituiiou nnn neciara
tlon of Independence. That McKlnley
has already done. Now another scheme
Is on foot. It Is the purpose of these
traitors, at the next session of Congress
to suppress the Congressional Ilecord.
The Congressional Heconl Is the only
Journal that publish In detail all the
debates and aetlotss of the members In
Congress. Its circulation has been
gradually restricted until It can not be
had at any of the regular sources of
supply, even In the largest cities. The
same power that has prevented the pop
ular circulation of tho Heconl, now
proposes to supprens It and abolish Its
publication. Will Americans permit It?
It Is the people's light to read the
daily proceedings of Congress In full.
Their representatives also have an
equal right to be heard In full. Moth
may bo readily secured by the adver
tisement and sale of the Hecord In every
postolllce at cost. Intelligent Ameii
can desire to hear both sides of every
question; f given such an opportunity
they would study these problems and
become as well Informed on economics
and government measures as the peo
ple of Switzerland, to whom every pus
slble opportunity Is given.
There should be an Inslstnnt demand
made In every Populist paper In tho
Union that Congress should pass a res
olutlon providing for the publication
and sale of the Congressional Ueeord ut
every postolllce and enough printed to
supply the demand. We must open the
light on the conspirators, or we will
soon lie beyond hope. Let every Popu
list editor sharpen up his pencil ami gi
for them. This tenth conspiracy Is the
worst of all conspiracies.
fa there any reason why municipal
ownership should succeed In Scotland
ami full In the Uultsd States?
Opponents of municipal ownership
aver that Its employment In this conn
try would result disastrously. Why?
Is It because Americans are lacking
In business Intelligence and business
honesty? Are tho citiaens of American
towns more stupid or more dishonest
than the citizens of Scottish towns?
Tako Clasgow, for Instance. There
the street car lines aro owned and op
crated by the municipality. The sew
age Is cured for by the city. The poHt
office department Is going to put In op
eratlon a public telephone plant. The
water works, are In charge of the city,
(as works aro public property and the
price of gas has licen reduced from
11.14 a thousand cubic feet to G3 cents
And yet, doing all these things, the
credit of Ohisgow Is good and the city
can borrow all the money needed for
public works at 2V4 per cent. Interest.
Ah for the street enr service, the fare
Is from 1 to 2 cents. The service Is first
class. The day's work of employes has
been reduced from fourteen to tell
hours, wages have been Increused and
uniforms aro furnished free of expense
And with what financial result? In
1NHS the street railways paid $10,000
Into the Is-nellt fund, paid Intercut, rent
ami expenses, paid $100,000 for th
keeping up of equipment ami had a
clear surplus of $2oo,ooo.
' Compare this record with that of tin
typical American street car company
compute the differences and reflect on
the benefits of municipal ownership.
Poimllnt I'Tiiiiiu-iel Principle.
The People s purty believes eoueern
lng money -
1. That It Is a creature of legislation
and that It does not matter of what m
terlal It Is made that a dollar mny be
made of paper as well as of silver or
' 2. That no dollar should lie redeem
able In any other kind of a dollar, but
that the promise of the government to
receive It for all dues ami the legal ten
der power are sufficient to make It good
;t. That the volume of money shoul
be Increased to about $.10 per capita
1. JII11L '111- ,1'llt
and control .all the u
try, auC I (ilt no ci
have Hi.' f' lit to Ins
'iie f l pie's p
the govervkl.,t h(
-I. That 'he government should Issue
nud contmliall the money of the conn
party believes that
ulimllil I4.41111 t.tit.
Ilioimyii I'I'tto the people, either ut a
low rutethlcrest or to employ the
Idle upon Works of public Improvement.
tl. The People's party believes In pos.
tal S'lviugs banks, for the safe depnit
of the earnings of the people.
Tbtf Principle I Popular.
We c:i mot call lo mind a single In-
here the proposition of public
.'sun of any nubile utility has
.enlly submttteil to tin voters
municipality that such proposi-
:i defeated. The fact Itull-
r t In rapid Increase In public favor
piin ip'.e of public ownership of
utilities. And why not, s'nee
i not nu Instance on record where
. t this principle has not nroveu
Hlid beneficial to the pub-
hili " ai.) .News.
1. 1 iy . time wheli blircluu
' hia si- f..
THE CULTURE Of TEA.
SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENTS ARE
MADE IN THE SOUTH.
Gardens In South Carolina Prod nre n
Hnperbtr Article at Twentj-fivc I'cr
Cent. Profit-A New and (Ironing In
dustry for the Southland.
Some years ago a few far-seeing men
of the Southern States looked far
Hough ahead to see that cotton would
ot always be king, and opened to ills
ussiun the problem of raising tea. At
that time cotton was king, and there
was no denying it, so the effort to cre
ate an Interest In tea raising proved
abortive. In less than fifteen years
nine a great war in which the South
was swept clean ns by a hurricane.
lino result of the war. minor perhaps.
besides some of the other results, was
that cotton was dethroned. Into tin;
new South was Introduced other forms
of agriculture, and not only that, but
maniifnetuivs which Ihe South horelo-
ore li.ol despised with pride In its
And now, a generation after the war
has closed, after King Cotton has been
deposed. Southerners themselves have
taken up the culture of ten In earnest.
bound to make It contribute to the gen-
ra! prosperity of that section of the
ountry. A leader among these leaders
Is Prof. Charles U. Shepard. of Pine-
hurst. Suiiimcrvillo, S. ('., and In a pub
lication of the agricultural department
lu Washington he tells of the success
of his experiment.
Since' he has made a profit of 2.1 per
cut. on his venture the undertaking Is
milled to he taken out of the class of
experiments and put In with tho solid
accomplishments that will endure. It
Is seven years since he first reported
on tho operations on the linehiirst es
tate. He says that It seems probable
from the facts so far gathered that the
cultivation of tea can be made profit
able lu the wanner portions of the
t.'n It imI States lu two ways, due Is by
istabllshlng a plantation on tin; scale
of tin experiment nt Sunimerville with
capital sufficient to carry the work to a
point where the product enn be offered
on equal terms with teas holding nn es
tablished place In the markets of the
United Stntes. The other Is to grow
tea for home use In the farm garden.
In either case tea growing can be un
dertaken safely only where the tem
perature rarely goes lower than 25 de
grees Fahrenheit, nnd never ltelow
Koro. nnd where a liberal supply of
water can be depended upon. There
Is probably no pluce In the United
States where tho rainfall Is sufficient
for the best results with the ten plant,
nud Irrigation should where possible be
provided fur In growing tea.
The experiment nt Summcrvillc, on
the growth and manufacture of ten, be
gau alsiut ten years ago. At the be
ginning It wns wisely on a small scale,
but has gradually been Increased until
now over fifty acres have been planted
In tea. When the plants arrive at full
bearing the yield should be nt least
10,000 pounds of high-grade tea; and
this should suffice for the object In
view, viz.'. to determine whether com
mercial tea muy be profitably grown
under the local conditions of soil, cli
mate mid labor.
One of the most productive of ;he
Sunimerville gardens Is that called the
IU.se garden. The output of green leaf
from It has been: Crop of ISll'J. All
pounds; crop or jmm, m pounds; crop
ot 1HP4, mi iHiunds; crop of ISP.".. :t.-U
pounds; crop or l.v.iii, (ton pounds; crop
tif 1S07. MX pounds; crop of IMPS, near
ly l.'JOO pounds. One thoiisan I Iwo
hiindml and sixty pounds of green leaf
will afford Iltr.t pounds of standard Piue
lilirst black tea. Hut the "Hose Oardeu"
Is not to be regarded ns nn exceptional
result, nor of illtth-ult Imitation. Two
larger gardens, also formerly plticy
wooils'jMinds. planted with Iinrjeellug
seedlings, promise successful rivalry
within a few years, and yet others ap
pear to he awakening lo a Inure vigor
Without undue endeavor. Prof. Shep
pnrd sold his crop of INPN. about H.IKmi
pounds, ns also about Coo pounds of the
crop of the previous year i which had
been bought to maintain prices), at u
profit of about 'Jo per cent. The Plne
limst black tea has a distinctly charac
teristic tlavor. and. like some of the
choicer Oriental teas. Its liquor has
more strength Hum its color indicates.
These qualities render Its Introduction
stow. Itul It hasNilwnys proved a illlll
cult matter to change the tate of lea
consumers; notablv so lu the b.t'oduc-
Hon of Ceylon tea Into (ircat lliitain.
the mother country of Its producer.
Ncvcrihelef s there has been a steadily
lucrcnstni; demand for linehurst tea.
and a great many people will drink no
tiivcn tea also is made at Plnehurst.
and has attracted keen Interest I'l the
trade. There Is probably a greater de
mand 111 the United States for gieen
than black tea. At present, a large
amount of sophisticated ;rec;i tea Is
consumed In this country. As It Is
chiefly made of Inferior leaf, highly
colored with Prussian blue, and faced
With powdered soapstoue, etc., so as
to bide nil natural defects. It cannot be
retarded us cither uuyitlou er hculth-
K ROSS TEA, GARDEN WITlrl A33AT1-HYBRID TEA ktfMMAt? J
ful. Hut the nature of the demand In-1
dlcntes a decided preference for the
taste and qimlUIr of green, I. e not
oxidized, teas, and should stimulate us
to supply In Its stead a pure, wholesome
article of the same type. Unfortunate
ly, green tens can ns yet be made by
hand only; they represent cheap Ori
ental labor, and In the lower and me
dium grndes'competltlon by American
manufacture is well-nigh Impossible.
Hl.ick tens can be made by machinery
In almost eiery step nfter the delivery
of the leaf In tho factory.
The cost of production of teas In this
country Is high, owing to the compara
tive ilearness of labor. This must be
met by a greater productiveness In the
field, by the substitution of machinery
for hand labor In the factory, and by
the manufacture of varieties of teas
which, from Inherent chemical causes,
cannot be brought from the Orle;'t.
I" I 1 1 rt (lilt Card 1 11 Corners.
Ther. im a large class of people who
might profitably add the cultivation ot
tea to that of (lowers and vegetables,
filling out Ihe corners of their gardens
nud home fields with ten bushes, ns
they do In China, or substituting use
ful its well ns ornamental evergreen
hedges of that plant for the present
unsightly and costly and frequently un
reliable fences. Cultivated in tills way.
the outlay of rune, lalsir and money
could hardly prove burdensome; and,
ns one result, the household should be
able to supply Its own lea pure.
strong and invigorating, Instead of the
wlshy-wnshy, ofteu far from cheap,
stuff generally sold throughout the
As these Utile tea gardens nre ex
tended nnd multiply factories will be
established In each neighborhood for
the larger manufacture of commercial
tea. whither the products of the gar
dens surrounding may be brought and
sold, precisely ns canning factories nnd
dairies consume the surplus production
of fruit and milk.
One feature In the cultivation of tea
has only to ls stated to appeal to every
one who plants, namely, that the season
for gathering the leaf lasts In this cli
mate for six months. Thus a crop Is
not dependent for nt least partial suc
cess upon the weather of any one or
two months, as Is so npt to be the care
with most of the objects of the hus
bandman's labor nnd solicitude.
For the present It will bo wiser to
limit the production of tea In the South
to the better grades, such us retail kx
from .10 cents to $1 per pound. The
greater cost of unskilled Labor In this
country than In the Orient should con
stitute a smaller fraction if ?J; total
expense If the product commands a
KOI.MNO AM) IlHYIVO IIOOM.
higher price. Other things being equal,
the quality of any ten depends on the
'fineness" of the leaf plucked. If only
the tiny, lender, youngest leaf be pick
ed, Ihe quantity of the crop must be
comparatively small; but Its ipiality
will be decidedly superior to that ob
tained by coarse" plucking, which nlso
embraces the older, larger and nei-cs-sarlly
Problem of Cheap I.almr.
Leaf plucking demands the careful
attention of the tea grower. It Is a
light employment, suitable for women
nud children, but they must be taught
patiently ami (heir work must be scru
tinized strictly. At Piuchurst colored
children do the picking, and very satis
factorily. A free school Is maintained
for litem; every pupil of suitable age
and size Is required to pick: o;hcrs are
excluded from the gardens. Regular
alteudanceand N Herd's ipliucnre thus
secured. P.ut. i.lberw Ise. there would
be no diilli-uity in sei I'.rina tin ample
f.ilcc, lis tiie wiges earned prove 111
themselves a u'hcleiit attraction. The
older children earn from H.i to ,u cents
a day; the younger one in proportion.
The tea gnrdcu are picked twenty
times a season, or mice every tell d.iys.
and it lakes three da.is for the average
force of twenty children to make Ihe
round of the gardens. The more In
dustrious and sUllful pick from ten to
twenty pounds (if fresh leaf a day. It
tal.es four nud a fifth pounds of fresh
leaf to make one of dry leaf. - New
A Nation ol' Cooks.
There I scarcely an Individual lu
China who Is uot competent to cook
V-S't. tH-V .'Trw'.!-?-- rhv&iZ
i- V : I fci.'aki.-iijs Vc: J?
TKA N I iisK IIY l.V .11 I.T.
himself a respectable meal. The penv
nut Rlts down to dinner cooked by the
hand of his wife or daughter In-law.
In large establishments the cooks are
Invnrlably men. Kilf n dozen coolies
will squat round a bucket of steaming
rice and from four to six small savory
dishes of slewed cabbage, onions,
scraps of fat pork, cheap fish, etc. They
fill their bowls, at discretion from the
bucket. They help themselves discreet
ly with their chop-sticks from the va
rious relishes provided. On ordinary
occasions even a wealthy Chinaman
will sit down to some such simple, fare,
served Indeed on a table Instead of on
the ground, but in almost equally sim
ple style.. It Is only when a banquet Is
substituted for the usual meal that cat
lug Is treated seriously ns a tine art.
In a manner worthy Its Importance to
the human race. Then the guests will
assemble between 2 nnd 4 In the after
noon and will remain steadily nt the
table until any hour from lo to mid
night. A HUMAN HIVE.
A Place Where Most of Our Jewelry
I'rovidciice, K. I., has the largest sil
verware factory in the world, Ihe larg
est screw factory, the largest manu
factory for small tools and the largest
tile works. Perhaps It is especially
unique In producing more Jewelry than
any oilier city In the United States,
says the Nashville American, nnd near
ly ns much n3 all the rest of the coun
try combined. There Is no city which
possesses so many separate nud dis
tinct shops for the manufacture of a
single commodity ns Providence does
for the manufacture of jewelry. There
are at least L'."iO separate factories de
voted to the making of gold, sliver,
rolled-plated, electroplated and brass
jewelry nnd novelties, lu nddltion. tho
auxiliary Industries for furnishing sup
plies of special lalKir to the jewelry fac
tories number more thnu seventy-live.
Many of the jewelry shops are small,
employing only ten or a dozen hands,
while some employ 3 high as 300, und
in one ense 1.4(H). Hy the State census
of IH'Xt the capital Invested in this In
dustry In Providence is $1.000,000;
average number of hans employed.
7,000; annual wages paid, $.",,.100,000;
value of material used, $r,500,000;
value of nnnual products. $14,000,000.
Had these figures been taken In 180S
they would have been nt least 33 per
cent. more. In almost every case the
shops have lieen started by poor men
with small capital, and ns a result of
success there hns arisen a large class
of well-to-do people, neither rich nor
poor, but prosperous and contented.
MALADIES OF TfcLEUriAPHEHS.
Subject to TubcrculoHlx, Heart Trouble
uml llruill Conuexttun.
'Telegraph operators are kept In a
coustaut state of ccrebial tension,"
says Mr. liuil, President of the Hallway
und Telegraph Workers' Union. "They
are exposed to a great number of mala
dies, and it can well be said that their
work is dangerous. A telegraph oper
ator reads belter with his ears tnau
with his eyes, lie carries out an es
sentially mental epeiation by using
t lie nerves of healing. This faculty is
consequently highly oVvcluptd lu h.a
case. In the ordinary work of reading
twenty words a minute the telegraph
operator must distinguish 1,10 alternate
strokes or Intervals, nud when theie
Is a rush of work this figure can go as
high as 4.KI. There is also the Uuns
forming the sounds into visible sym
bols, or writing, which implies another
mental process. And whereas the nor
mal amount of varied setisatory Im
pulses per minute Is l'J.I. the telegraph
operator has m aicomp'bli 100 lo 4-10.
Without taking extreme cases Into
consideration, It may be said that the
sense of hearing in a telegraph oper
ator is two and a half times more pow
erful than lu an ordinary Individual.
Again, in telegraphy the continuity of
the nervous stimulation, the iiiouotouy
of sounds and the fixity of attention
are further causes of exhaustion. It
Is found also that dining forced work
Ihe telegraph operator's breathll? Is
affected, his heart's action precipitated
nud lis brain congested. As a result
of these phei:on;c:.a it Is notice. ll le
lhat a general decline of the organism
follows, ending lu tuberculosis."
According lo Mr. Hull, the ordinal y
death rule for tuberculosis Is i:t..N;
that of telegraph operators Is l.i.i'.. And
what is true of tuberculosis applies to
oilier affections of the respiratory or
gans. The general death rate for the
latter is ;t.,1, but It risen lo U.-l auiolig
telegraph operators between 1.1 and ".1
cars of age. to U...1 between IM and IM
ears of ace. Instead of I P, and to 1.',
instead i f '..'.': between the aucs of IM
and 1.1. I'roui 4.1 ycats upward ll de
clines, being 4 ". liisiea l of 5 it. but
this diminution Is very delusive, seeing
lhat it Is due to the eliiniua'.lou of the
weak members who have diud off in the
preceding years. It becomes more
marked with lnereaing ago. I'.etweeii
.1,1 und 00 it stands nt 0.1, instead of
.1.4. and above " nt o.l. instead of S.'..
P.ut these are not the only affections to
which telegraph operators are liable.
The nervous tension which they endure
often gives rise to n state requiring
Immediate withdrawal from their
COINS TJI AT ARE It A RE
SOME OLD ONES ARE VALUABLE,
OTHERS ARE COMMON.
One Pillion of Cents Now in Ue-Philadelphia
7)1 In t Torim Out Altout
-4,(SS1,(SS) nf Them n Month to Sup
ply the Great Demand.
The demand for 1-ceiit pieces is so
great that the Philadelphia mint is
compelled to turn out nearly 4,hhi,ooo
a month to keep up the supply. There
are ut. present something like 1,000,
boo.ooo cents In circulation.
If you want to exchange a hundred
dollar bill for cents you would get ten
good, large bags full of coppers. Nickel
ami copper coins have no mint marks,
neither have coins Issued at the Phila
delphia mint. Collectors often pay high
prices for coins bearing certain mint
murks which otherwise would not have
been worth more than their face value.
The first United States cents struck
for circulation bear the date 1703. They
an1 of six varieties, and arc valued nt
Very rnre lire the New York doub
loon, coined lu 177, of which only five
ire known to exist. On one side of this
rare and curious coin Is a picture of the
sun rising over a mountain, surround-
d by the legend. "Nova Kboraca Co
lumbia Uxcelslor." Helow Is the name
of the designer, "Hraslier." The other
ide has the original form of the na
tional motto, "Unum K liuribus."
There Is a heraldic eagle, on one wing
of which are the letters "K. H.," the de
signer's initials. These coins nre wortli
ibout ?.l0O. The Inst one sold brought
iti.17. It had belonged to nu old Alary
land family ever.sluee It was coined.
The five-dollar gold piece of Is
a rare coin. At one time only two were
said to be in existence, one in the Phila
delphia mint, the other in Boston, but a
third was picked up in a New York
money changer's shop a few years ago.
"I was afrnld nt first thnt it might
be a counterfeit," said the collector of
coins who happened to spy It. The
man wns so delighted to secure it that
before leaving the shop he brought sev
eral other coins which lie didn't wast.
He paid only $(' for It. The same day
he received an offer of $'J.10; later $4.10
was offered by another gentleman; IftioO
by a nut her one, but the gentleman, nt
hist necounts, was holding It for $1,000.
One of the most sought after colonial
coins is the Highly copper. It was
struck In 1737 by Samuel Highly, who
was a physician nnd a blacksmith at
(iranby, Conn. He got the copper from
a mine near by and shaped the coin at
About nine years ago a silver shekel
was found in Texas which dates back
lo 142 1!. C. Its intrinsic value Is about
.10 cents; its value to colli ( tors $.1,00(1.
One of the orliost known coins Is a
drachm of undent Aegina, coined
about 700 H. C. Its intrinsic value is
30 cents; its markit value ?7.
STRANGE LAKES IN PERU.
IiisU-nil of Wuiface Outlets They Have
Maelstroms that Swallow limits.
From Crucero Alto, the hlghi .',t town
in the world, the Southern Uailrond of
Peru drops down into the I.iiguiillas,
or lake region of the Cordilleras, where,
14,2.10 feet above the sea, Is a group
of large lakes of very cold, pure water,
without inlet or outlet. They receive
the drainage of the surrounding hills
and conceal it somewhere, but there
Is no visible means of its escape. A
fringe of ice forms around the edges of
the lakes every night the year round,
yet they contain an excellent variety of
fish, culled the IK-Jerrny, which Is
caught near the shore, and sold ut Puna
and in other neighboring towns. The
two largest lakes, Saracocha and
Cachlpascnua, with several smaller
ones In the same neiglilsirhood, are
owned by the family of Air. Uomuua of
Arequipa, who hns Jusf? been elected
President of Peru. He owns Immense
tracts of laud in this locality, with
thousands of sheep, cattle, llamas,
alpacas and vicunas, which are herd
ed upon It.
A curious phenomenon nlsnit the
lakes is that they keep at the same
level nil the time, regardless of the dry
nud rainy seasons. No amount of ruin
will make any difference with their
depth, which, however, in the center Is
unknown. And this adds to the awe
nud mystery wiih which they are re
garded by the Indians. There lire no
boats upon the lakes, except a few
small balsas, or rafts, made of bundles
of straw, which keep very close to the
shore, for fear of being drawn into
whirlpools that are said to exist in the
center. There is some foundation for
this fear, for only two or three yeurs
ago a balsa containing five men disap
peared In the darkness, and was never
heard of again. Of course, It may
have tipped over and its occupants
have been paralyzed by the cold water
lu un ordinary way. Hu'. their bodies
never were discovered, nor did the
balsa ever float to shore. Therefore the
people think the whole'party was lured
Into a maelstrom and swallowed up
by the mysterious waters.
The whirlpool near the center of
Lake Pojki which receives the waters
of Lake Tlticacu, is well known, and
hundreds of men have lost their lives
by venturing too near It. , Hon is thnt
are drawn Into the current are whirled
swiftly around a few times nud then
disappear, l'or the protection of navi
gators the government of liollvia has
nuchored a lot of buoys lu Lake Popo,
and boatmen who observe Iheni are in
no danger. There Is supposed to be an
underground oi'tilovv from all of these
lakes. It is claimed that articles which
have been thrown into their waters
have afterward been picked up on the
lea.'.Rivr !."i a r "Africa, mid c ireful oh
vrvcrs say that on the beach iu that
'leality are frequently louud corn
talks, reeds and other debris which do
t glow on tiie coast., but are found lu
-at abundance among ihe interior
IV RIDER HAGiiARU S lihCTHER.
iril Tule of Ihe Halite of an liable
und u l.oltnler.
ietiteiiant t ololiel Andrew C. P.
L'gurd. nu elder biutler ol Ulder
gard, the novelist, recently return-
rom a trip to Newfoundland, und
of il remarkable sight he saw
e sitting on the seashore with u
with whom he had been nsiiinj;
aliuon In the Terra Nova river,
had bceu wa tchiii;; for some lime
the evolutions of white headed cngl
rolled by the Newfoundlanders a.
grip." After soaring round In several
circles above and In front of them the
engle suddenly dashed down Into a pool
of water near them on the bench, nnd
reappeared holding nn enormous lob
ster In his talons.
It was an old lobster, with a hugo
claw, white with barnacles. The eagle
hud him clutched firmly n round the
buck, and at first the huge claw hung
helplessly down, Ihe barnacles shining
white In the sunlight. This was only
for a second, though. The ripples on
the recently disturbed pool had not yet
died away when the captive lobster
suddenly awoke to the seriousness of
tho situation, and to think was to net.
Up moved the grent white barnacled
claw until it seized the eagle round the
neck. There wns n furious fluttering
nnd beating of the eagle's wings, a mel
oncholy squawk from his choking
throat, and then, tumbling and rolling
head over heels In the air In a con
fused mass, down came eagle and lob
ster ngaln splash back Into the p ml.
The two spectators of the scene rush
ed forward, thinking Hint they could
perhaps in some way secure both com
batants, for the splashing of the con
flict continued In the shallow water..
Hut t'.iey had hardly time to pick up a
stone apiece to throw at the caale be
fore the lobster, feeling himself nr.
home again, let go his hold. With his
neck nil torn and devoid of feathers,
away flew the bedraggled eagle, in
most melancholy guise, to a neighbor
ing eliir, while the lobster, to give Col
onel Haggards ow n words, "still brand
ishing his enormous claw in defiance,
remained smiling nt tin? bottom of the
America has 20S female lawyers.
The use of the fan originated in
Persia first grew the cherry, the peach,
nml the plum.
Our clocks and suu diala were invent
ed In the Orient.
One-fourth of the Inhabitants of the
Argentine Ilepublic nre Italian:).
Sixteen ounces of gold are sulliiient
to gild a wire that would encircle the
Denver,- Colo., has more bicycles In
proportion than any other city iu tho
Although her husband is wortli $2.1,
000,000, Airs. Paul Krttger docs the fam
Itussia is making a vigorous cTort to
supplaur the United States as the butch
er for Kngland.
One thousand vessels cross the At
lantic Ocean regularly each month and
some of them twice a mouth.
The value of hogs is si;;;.272.770,
more than the total amount deposited
In all the saving banks in the country.
The Haltiinore and Ohio Southwest
ern Kailway Company will try a plan
of a co-operative grocery for its em
ployes. M.l. . . . 4 . t .
i ue uveraire l ie oi u car u iieoi is
years. It requires l,200,oot new whee-
each year to replace those worn f
The woman who Invented satclnH,
toiu paper bags wns offered !f20,0oi)
the patent before she could get awav
Kegs as an article of diet were first
useu ov t ie .via accaus. ami wueu we
DituuL (if Ul, i ,vl, ,, I . .1 , 1 1 .1-,,, u urn l.tif
"JKin j . .if, , . in. iv. u.i i.v liii.
mention un Asiatic name.
Japan has to rely entirely upon for
eign countries for her supplies of leath
er, there being only two tanneries
worthy of the name lu the country.
In America the ministry is being
more used as a profession by women
than the law. There are about .10
women ministers lu the I'nited States.
Six hundred and fifty thousand
pouuds of tea nre consumed In Hiitalu
every day, which gives .1,201) gallons a
minute, night und day, throughout the
Sprinkling railroad tracks v, ith crude
petroleum to keep down the dust has
been abandoned. Live sparks from lo
comotives set lire to the oil and caused
Inning the exposition In Paris next
year there will be ninety-two omnibus
lilies and 1..100 vehicles, performing 2.1,
ooo journeys a day and capable or
transporting l,02S,ooti passengers.
Tueoina proposes to use sail water
for sprinkling the streets. Sea water
does not dry so quickly ns fresh water,
with the result that one load of it is
equal to three loads of fresh water.
Investigations made ollielally lu Illi
nois show that a pound includes 2.1.S.1,
OOO seeds of blue grass, 1,I21,(.IMI of
timothy, xca.ooo of w hite clover, l.";i,
ooo of red clover and 2:!,ooo of uialfu.
Austrian women can be seen in tho
best restuurants with a hug,, glass of
beer standing a foot high on tiie ti.bl
iu front of them, and they consume ilnt
liquor with ease and evident enjoy
ment. over 70.000,000 pounds of poultry
and nearly ,".(i,0(iO,ooo dozen of eggs,
produced lu Missouri, were handled by
transportation companies last year, tin
aggregate cash returns for wh'ch were
Loudon capitalists are Interested In
the proposal to lay a cable from Van
couver, H. ('.. to Skaguay. Alaska, t(
connect wiih the telegraph line to l)aw
sou City. 0
The area of the Transvn'' e, as m
.numrt.".ll-. "i' artasii tV" 1ilt uce and
Hie combined areas of tie'' Uy
IVmisvlv.-iiiia. New Yer';, Al.' V
setts. New Jeisey, Collt.ei ' ie.lt ' V
'ri.. hi. I'-wsl.-i W one of the , A
world, considerable quaii'Mies
wood, such as eabiue'
rosewood, mahogany, c.
e cry year.
, are i;iiior'c
The output of sardines on the Mtiimi
const is likely to be illiTiUsod from 'joo,.
(k:ii cans lu iv.s to 2.i".,ik cans this
year. In consequence of tile introduc
tion of a new canning machine.
Oue of the real pleasant disappoil'
incuts in life Is to have cue's klu tiuJ
amount to something.
wax toM. Pa
i t he (
I t the cU. 1
I. err J .
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