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M IE III
A. WENDELL JACKSON'S MIGHTY COUP
C5Cr HE question of ox- jM?K:JivilPnKflnllHp -
tsvspaa to&v-ca s j&z&vx$2ar&
much was Baved from it by its inhabitant, or
dug out and dlsperBod by Pliny's contemporaries
and by the barbarians who followed them oven
Ju clvlllzod tiincB. On tho contrary. Horculanoum
wa sealed in ita tomb ltl u few houra by tho
mixture of mud, aahoa nnd acorlno, and no ono
Imn ovon boon nblo to roach it,' bo high ia the
nnmttaln of debris and hardenod atone by which
1t was covorod. "Tho ontombmont of Horcu
lanoum' anya Mr, Waldateln, was sudden, com
plete and secure, nnd this waa not tho caBo with
tho other Cninpanlan citioa, nor with Pompeii."
From tho excavations under Reslna treasures
havo already boon obtalnod. "All Europo," wrote
a correspondent of tho Mercuro do Prance in 1751,
"Impatiently supports tho suspense in which it
l held over tho discoveries In auclont Horcu
lanoum, or Horaclea, as it Is now tormod in Na
tdos." But only at presont has tho Italian gov
ernment boon nblo to think of accomplishing tho
gigantic tank of unearthing tho ontiro city, nnd it
Ih most probable that tho now tone glvon to tho
national spirit by tho war may make tho chargo
appoar light which must bo lmposod upon the
budget lu order to obtain a comploto result.
In Roman oftlclal .spheres thoro is absolutely no
knowledge of tho cxlatunco of nnd project of Mr.
J. Plerpont Morgan for oxcavatlons at Horcu
lanoum. Mr. Morgan's namo has boon mixed up
with this question owing to tho fact that Mr.
Charles Waldstoln, tho author of an International
rojoot for unearthing tho burled city, delivered
a looturo on January 3, 1905, in his hoUso in Now
York with tho objoct of collecting tho money
uocoasary for tho work, which waB then estimated
at 1,000,000 llro annually, at least.
Before lecturing In Now York Mr. Wnldatoln
liud visited Itomo nnd spoken on tho mattor with
tho king, aignor Qtollttl nnd Slgnor Orlando, tbon
minister of public Instruction. Ho hnd oven ob
talnod from Slgnor Orlando a lottor warmly com
mending tho projoct, but In no way engaging his
ronpouBlblllty. Ab booii as tho Idea bocamo
known In Italy tho press rnlsod violent protoats
and Slgnor Orlando waa obliged to withdraw hla
moral support from Mr. Waldstoln.
t'wo yonra lator an under secretary of stato
for oduoatlon declared In tho chamber of doputlos
that tho Italian government rosorvod to Kaelf
tho fuoulty of mnklng tho nycoBsary excavations,
and that a commission had boon appointed with
UJiIb object and funds supplied to tho gonurnl dl
Tcctlon of flno arts and antiquities, tho direction
of which hnd Just boon placed undor Slgnor Cor
rndo niccl, a world renowned writer on art.
Mr. Waldstoln later published an account of
his 111 luck in Italy and America in a book upon
Horculanoum which was much appreciated ("Hop
cutnuoum, Past, Present and Future," by Charles
Waldstoln; London; Macmlllan & Co,. 190S).
I saw Slgnor Olacoiuo 13onl this morning at
tho excavations an Mount Pnlatlno, whoro ha has
Just mado some lucky finds, which led him to ask
liumhlyt "Am I worthy of it?" Ho declared to
mo that ho know nothing of any projoct of Mr.
J. Plorpont Morgan in regard to tho question of
oxcav.attoiiB at Horculanoum n question, more
over, that baa boon settled.
Rlgnor Corrado Rlccl, general director of flno
arts und antiquities, repoatod tho samo thing to
mo. Ho added, "Tho Italian govornmont will
nevor I repeat novor glvo permission to any
quo whatovor to sonrch tho soil of tho fatherland.
Wo nro not Turkoyl Even though foreign gov
ernments should express tho desire to oxcavato in
certain places to comploto their studios, we should
haaton to undertake tho work ourselves, at our
own oxpenso, nnd to place tho material unearthed
at tho disposal of whoever wishes to study thorn.
"This lu what wo havo Just dono for tho Grand
Duchy of Daden, which desired to know what waq
fctdden ruder tho soil of Locrla, In Crotona, la
sponds from two to three
millions yearly in digging.
Tho excavations at Pom
peii alono cost 200,000 llro
a year. Tho government
will also search tho soil
of Herculatieum, but that
is not so simple an under
taking as tho uncovering
of Pompoll, over which
vineyards and olive groves
havo spread. Abovo Hor
Magna Graecla. Wo ex
pended 30,000 lire to satis
fy tho wlBh. That is what
wo did also for tho Brit
ish Archaeological school
in Romo, which desired to
comploto spoclal re
searches in tho Forum of
"Tho Italian govern
ment," Slgnor Corrado
Rlccl continued, "already
culaneum tho city of Itoslim Is built and tho ex
propriation of tho land thoro is not so onsy as in
tho case of Pompeii. Wo havo undor considera
tion a bill dealing with tho proprietorship of
nrchneologlcal subsoils, which will probably al
low us to oxcavato Horculanoum by a series of
underground galleries without demolishing the
pretty little town which stands smilingly nbovo
it. A commission has been appointed with this
objoct. There 1b no Iramedlato call for tho under
taking oxcopt that duo to our pralsoworthy curios
ity. Tho world of Bclenco can wait; it haB yet to
Btudy at least throo-quartorB of tho objects found
at Pompeii and In tho vicinity, nnd tho Jowels
of art which aro hidden undor tho lava are not
porlBhlng. On tho contrary, tho froscoea uncov
ered at Pompoll somo fifty yenrs ago aro spoil
ing and falling Into ruin under tho action of the
air and damp."
It Is llttlo wonder that tho entire world has
boon so dooply Interested in tho oxcavatlons at
Herculaneum and that archaeologists and his
torians havo treasured Buch an ardor for tho
completion of tho unearthing of tho ancient city
for bo many years, for the conditions of its
traglo ongulfmeut wore such that It is gonornlly
belloved thoso ruins more than any others will
present u comploto picture of tho llfo of tho
tlmos boforo tho sepulture of tho city. Tho more
suddenly tho forces of nature did their work of
doBtructlon tho more perfect havo boon found to
bo all tho details of tho buildings and their fur
nishings when tho work of excavation has been
completed. In tho othor cities whoro groat exca
vations havo boon modo tho destruction was more
gradual and groat havoc was wrought before
tho final sepulture took placo. Thus, although
somo of tho othor points at which excavations
havo been mado wore of greater Importanco in
tho ancient world than wns Horculanoum, It of
fors tho most perfoct opportunities for beholding
an ancient sottlomont aa it existed, with fow
Important dotalla dostroyod or disturbed.
Anothor point which contributes to the greater
Importanco of Horculanoum as a Hold for archaeo
logical Investigation Is that tho suddonness of tho
disnstor from which It suffered mado It impos
Biblo for tho Inhabitants to mako an effort to
savo any of tho valuablo artlclos of tholr homos
by attempting to romovo thorn to somo dlstnut
placo. In Pompoll, for Instance thoro was ample
tlmo to romovo many of tho most precious bo
longings of tho Inhabitants. But In Horculnnoum
this scorns to havo boon Impossible and tho val
uablo objoota of tho rich households wore burled
bononth tho mass of liquid mud which lnundntod
tho city ns surely aB If they had boon lockod
In Impregnnblo vnults. This mud wns an extra
ordinarily successful preserving fluid, to Judge
from tho finds which havo boon mado, for Instead
of the aurfneo of objects having boon burned nnd
charred by hot ashes, as was tho caso at Pompoll,
at Herculanuum tho objocts discovorod by tho
oxcavntors wore many of them In wonderfully
porfuct condition. Bronzo, mnrblo and glass ob
jects were nono of thorn Bovoroly damaged, and
manuscripts wore sufficiently proBorvod to mane
posslblo tholr restoration to a dogroo which Is high
ly aatlBfactory to archaeologists and hlatoriana.
That tho modern world will bo ahlo to obtain
a bettor UluBtratlon of Hellenic culture as it waB
represented in a Qraeco-Roman town from tho
oxcavntlonB nt Horculanoum than from thoBo at
Pompoll Is tho bollof of many who havo mado a
comparative Btudy of tho ruined cities. They ad
duco this bollof from tho fact that Horculanoum
Is believed to havo boon less of a commercial
Bottlemont thnu was Pompoll, nnd that Its In
habitants wore greatly more Interested In tho
flno nrts and In all that pertained to tho most
advancod thought and culture of the times. Tho
Moved to have been an
aggregation of morchanU
very largely, and ns Buch
they were not partlculnrly
representative of tho life
and "thought of tho most
highly culthated people
of tho tlmos. One of tho
reasons for this belief In
the different chnracter of
tho two cities la the dis
covery of such a largo
number of manuscripts at
Horculanoum. whereas at
Pompeii no manuscript
havo been discovered.
Some students of tho ex
cavations attribute this
fact to the greater de
struction that took place
at Pompeii or to tho fact
that so many of tho valu
ables were removed, but
this point of view is dis
puted by many persona,
who nre of tho belief that
no manuscripts existed In this city of merchants.
Horculanoum In the tlmo of ita proaperlty oc
cupied to Romo somewhat the position which a
suburban town of wealth In the vicinity of a
great city fills today. Well-to-do citizens of
Rome resorted thither for the benefit of their
health, as its air was believed to bo particularly
exhilarating. Rest and quiet from the disturbing
Inlluonccs of tho great center were found"ln tho
luxurious villas whlca were situated in and
around Herculaneum. There seems to havo been
no Industry In tho town oxcopt fishing, and tho
character of the ruins suggests that, like such a
prosperous Buburban retreat of today, tho settle
ment rejoiced In all that wealth and care could
afford of beauty and convenience.
Agrlppina tho elder, according to Seneca, was
the owner of one of tho most gorgeous of the
villas In Horculanoum, which, it is believed, was
destroyed by tho Emperor Caligula becauso his
mother 'had once been imprisoned therein. An
othor splendid villa was tho Casa del Paplri. Tho
Nonii of Nucerla were also among tho aristocrats
of the tlmo who had villas in tho charming llttlo
According to Profesor Hughes, "Herculaneum
Is burled not undor lava, rarely under natural
cemont, but gonorally undor locally consolidated
tuff (tuff Is tho word most commonly used when
the ash Is so far consolidated as to break into
lumps). Seeing that wo havo reason to believe
that at least o much ash has fallen since the
first century A. D. as fell In 79 A. D., tho first
thing to do 1b to endeavor to distinguish between
the successive eruptions. If we could find at tho
bottom of a layer of ash Just enough pottery or
other relics to enablo us to identify them aa be
longing to tho seventeenth century or earlier,
that lino should be tracod with tho greatest care.
In this way wo might ten our way back into tho
romoto past and perhaps somewhere mako out
upon satisfactory ovldence how deep some part
of Herculaneum was burled in tho oruption of
79 A. D.
SMALL STORES BOOMING.
Certain Retailers Have Not Been Injured by Great
"When, a while ago. tho great stores had so
Increased in size and In tho multiplicity of things
thoy doalt in that they could supply about every
human requirement," said a city dweller, "some
pooplo thought that tho day of tho small store
keeper was over, that tho little storekeeper
couldn't compete with tho big one, but tho small
Btore ia still doing business. I seo now aa many
of thorn if not more than over before; and at
thla, at flrat, I wondered; but I don't wonder so
much now, since our baby camo.
"Of course I don't refer here to grocery stores
and butcher shops and various smaller stores fur
nishing food supplies, which must always re
main everywhere; I am speaking of thoso other
many smallor stores, supplying dry goods and
fancy goodB and hardware and housefurnlshlngs.
Thcso aro tho llttlo Btoros that wore to be put
out of business, but which do not soom to havo
gono. And what has tho baby to do with all
this? I'll tell you.
"Tho mothor with a young child, whether sho
Is with or without servants, sticks pretty close
to homo, the Tottor to look nftcr tho baby's wel
faro. For her minor shopping, nnyway, she
doosn t go far. Sho finds that In hor neighbor
hood thoro nro many llttlo shops whore they sell
many things, nnd If she HndB thoso places to bo
nlco llttlo shops, where they keop nlco things bo
octod with tasto nnd Judgment, sho keops' on
buying thoro steadily
"Thoro aro thousands of such shoppers scat
torod everywhere about tho city, making business
for tho neighborhood shopkeeper. Tho groat
stores do a groat business, whoso vnst volume an
nually Increases, but there appears still to bo
room for tho llttlo storekeeper, too. If ho will
make his store and his goods attractive and do
business in n really buslnossllko way."
TrlVcorId aU that expr08alon of ,f
"That depends. His enemies call it a Chess
cat grin, but his friends speak of It aa an in
Doing Her Best.
"Do you try to be all things to all mon?"
"I do what I can to cater to a proforonce "
inhabitants of Pompeii, on tho othor hand, aro bo-
Bwored tb summer girl. "I'vo beon both r
blondo and a brunotto this past month."
A lot of bankers havo boon asking
this question during tho paBt fow
Jackson? Why, ho's tho same por
son who financed China to hor recent
$50,000,000 loan whon tho BO-cnllod
six-powers group of bankors repre
senting Great Britain, Franco, Gor
many, Russia, Japan and tho Unltod
States wouldn't lend tho budding re
public all this real money.
This new factor in world finance Is
a Massachusetts Yankeo. Ills fathor
was n seafaring man no wonder tho
Bon's rovings around tho world. Jnck
son was born in Chelsea, Mass., but ho
was only a boy of six when Jackson,
Sr., decided to pioneer It to Califor
nia. Tho family took ship to tho
Isthmus and tho train across, and so
mado tholr way to California. The
boy went to public school In San Fran
cisco and then to high school colloffe
was not in his thoughts. This In
1870. Ho later graduated from tho University of California.
The story of how this adventurer In tho higher realms of finance tok
the wind out of tho sails of tho proudest monoy magnates of tho world is
delicious. These gentlcmon of the omlnont six-power syndicate were busy
telling Chlnu that tho money sho so badly needed could only bo had by
allowing them a say-so on how It was to bo spont. China demurred. As
long as Bho had to pay 5 per cent. Interest, why not havo somo control over
tho way tho loan might bo used? t
Tho trouble waa at Its height, tho bankers backing and filling, the
diplomats in despair, when Jackson reached London. Here was big gamo.
He promptly cabled to Peking that ho could get tho money on any terras suit
able to China and added that theBe particularly uppish financiers of the
six powers were not tho only bankors In tlio world.
China accepted, and Jackson, visionary, promoter, shoestring financier,
a Col. Sellers-up-to-date, got tho money!
MRS. LUND BOOMS "LITTLE FARM" PLAN.
Mrs. Hnvlland H. Lund of Los An
gelos, Cal., ono of tho leading advoi
cates of tho "llttlo farm" Idea, Ib now
in the oast organizing local branches
of the National Forward to the Land
Ono of tho objocts of the league Is
to purchaso tracts of land on tho out
skirts of the big cities throughout tho
United States and subdlvldcsthem In
to ono aero farms, to be equipped and
turned over to tho Industrious poor.
Mrs. Lund has succeeded in In
teresting many prominent people,
who havo pledged their moral and fi
"I am of tho opinion." said Mrs.
Lund, "that our idea is ono of tho fow
logical solutions for tho living prob
lem of many of the big cities' poor.
Tho plan has boon In operation for
several years near San Diego, Cal.,
and has proved successful In every
way. Tho hearty interest your lead
ing mon and women seem to hn tnir.
Ing in tho cause certainly gives mo great pleasure and encouragomont.
There ia plenty of land in the vicinity of all large cities which will find
ita Kreatest productiveness under the efforts of tho small tract farmer."
The plan is impbrtant to tho whole community. Many of tho dependents
and tho aged who' may seem to be useless as productlvo units in tho
o!,ninUri h, c,tycan earn a Sd ving and happiness on a properly
cultivated ono-ncre farm." .
KING FERDINAND NOW TAKEN SERIOUSLY
A calm observation of tho effectB
of the Balkan war on tho rostloss,
suspicious "concort of Europo" loads
to ono illuminating conclusion. Tho
map makers, national carpenters of
tho embassies, and tho foreign minis
tries havo at last decided to take seri
ously tho man of the hour, Ferdi
nand, the tsar of tho Bulgarlas. No
longer do you hear references to the
"TBnrvenu" tho titlo which Sir Fred
erick Burnand and London Punch
gavo Fordlnand of Sofia In 1908.
His pictures are seen everywhere
now tho bright "alglon" eye; tho
sharp, Napoleonic noso; tho firm
mouth; thin lips and board trimmed
to a point. Ferdinand is tho grand
son of Louis Philippe of Franco, who
was driven into oxlle by a quip and
a partiality for curiosities In um
brellas which shocked the aenslblll.
ties of tho fastidious Parisians.
Necessarily a Bourbon, ho is unlike
thn AtlHra Timtrhnn linn lnlm..m..
tho Btorn, buslnessllko qualities of hla maternal ancestors. Many stories
have been told of his growing power among tho crowned heads. Most of
thorn nre untrue and unjust.
SIR EDWARD CARSON CALLED DICTATOR. '
A remarkable pen-plcturo of Sir
Edward Carson, tho leader of tho
unionist "revolt" ngalnst homo rule
In UUter, who In a short timo has bo
come ono of the most talkod of and
powerful men in tho United King
dom, is contributed to tho London
Graphic by Philip Gibbs.
'Mr. Glbbs, who aB a descriptive
Journalist has mado for himself a
place something like that of the late
O. W. Stevens, BayB In part:
"Sir Edward Carson Is tho dictator
.of UlBter. Tho pooplo of
Ulster, -apart from that Catholic
minority who on half-holidays may
hang him Jn effigy on streot lamp
posts, are puppetB who dance whon
ho pulls the strings. At the word
"Go" fro. hm they would advance
at quick atop to any kind of dangor,
folly, and death. Ho can play upon
tholr emotions as upon a fiddle- with
more than fivo strings, with fifty or a
hundred thousand strings plucked
from their hands, and rendy to quiver at the sound of that deep persuaslvo
volco of his. Ho holda tholr hearts In the hollow of his hand.
"Ho has put a Bpell upon them. Thoy havo a kind of wbrship for him
is n demigod, a supormnn, mnster of their fato, champion of their rights'
For a weok tholr clamorous onthuBlasm has rolled up to him In waves of
boarso shoutB and cheers, as ho has gone like a conquering hero (antlclpatlnic
victory and accepting hla laurela in advanco) on a triumphal progress"