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IMAKING A START IN SCIENCE
'Burned Thread lyiay Be Prepared to
Hold Up Some Light Weight
Explanation of Trick.
When . wo npcak of matter wo usual
ly rteanomothlng that can bo aeon or
felt, anything that haB form or weight
or color. Wo say that matter has cer
tain properties. It Is a property of
glass to bo brlttlo and of rubber to bo
Tho properties of somo kinds of mat
tor can bo changed by Iho application
of fire or water or both. We can
change iron into steel, wo can make
brnss with a spring to it or without.
There aro somo things that will re
sist the action of flro or water to a
certain extent. You can hold up a
pretty good weight at one end of a
slice of bread If It is dry or stale, but
if you soak the bread In water it will
hardly hold itself up.
You can hang a good sized weight
at the end of a vcy slender piece of
thread, but the moment you set flro
to tho thread tho weight will fall to
tho ground. Every oho knows that,
you will lay, but with a little prepara
tion you can convince them that this
will not always hold true. It is pos
slblo to make a thread hold up a
light weight even after tho thread has
been sot on flro and Is apparently all
If you will take a piece of stout
thread about a foot long and twist it
Burned Thread Holding Weight.
as much as you can and then double
it It will twist upon itself and you will
have a double thread, twisted through
Its entire length. If you tie ono end
of this thread around a lead pencil
and hang somo light weight, such as a
paper fastener, to tho other end so
that it shall swing freely ubovo a
small dish you may try the experi
ment of putting a match to It and seo
how long It will hold up tho weight.
But If you stand two books on the
table to support tho pencil steadily It
la possible to burn the thread com
pletely from end to end and still
have It hold up tho weight provided
ypu have in the thread some substance
that is not changed in its properties
so much as tho thread itself when you
This substance is common salt, with
which so many Interesting experi
ments may be mado. Prepare a satu
rated solution of salt and water, which
wo call brine, and soak your twisted
thread In It. Then hang it up to dry.
When it Is dry soak it again and let It
dry again. After you havo done this
two or threo times tho thread will not
look any different trom ordinary twist
ed thread, but when you hang your pa
per fastener or somo very light weight
to it with tho pencil to hold it up it
will astonish your friends when you
set flro to it.
By applying the match to tho bot
tom you will see a small flamo run
slowly from there to tho top of the
thread, whero It Is tlod round the pen
cil, and at that point it will go out.
There will bo nothing left but a black
cinder which looks very much like a
very thin burnt match, but it will be
quite strong enough to hold up your
Httlo paper fastener.
PIECE OF ICE MAKES FIRE
Illustration Shows How Lens May Be
Formed With Hands and Then
Applied to Papsr.
It may sound queer to some, but Ico
can bo used to start a fire, and tills
trick may bo accomplished by follow
ing tho directions glvon herewith:
Take a pleco of very clear lco and
molt It down In tho hollow of ynur
Making Fire With Ice.
hands so as to form a large lens. The
Illustration shows how this Is done.
With tho lens shaped lco used in the
samo manner as a reading glass to
direct the sun's rays on paper or shav
ings you can start a fire.
A Cork Dancer.
Take ono of tho largest corks you
can ilnd, tho kind used in the long
necked green bottles, and In ono end
dig out a hole. Into this put a leaden
bullet, or several largo shot, and stop
up tho holo with putty. Round off the
edges of tho cork at this end, and your
dancer is ready to danco.
Around tho top of tho other end
of tho cork pasto on a llttlo bluo hood
of tlBsua paper; mako a dress of tho
samo and (la on a sjvsh of ribbon.
On tho cork mako with iuk tho
prettiest faco you can, and then sot
tho young lody a-danclng.
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HOW SP00NER QUIT SMOKING
Son of Former Senator From Wiscon
sin Makes Agreement With Father
When Leaving Home.
Ex-Senator John C. Spooncr of Wis
consin, who Is now a prominent law
yer In Now York, is fond of tolling
how he canio to quit smoking. The
story has n moral In it which other
parents might tuko to heart and apply
in .dealing with tho faults of their
"For thirty year3 I was an inceB
sant smoker," snid tho senator, "and
had a cigar In my mouth nearly all
tho time. Cigars soothed my nerves
when I worked hard. At least that
was my belief. I know tho habit was
filling mo with nicotlno, but it did not
seem to. affect my health much.
"My son Charles had been graduated
from a law school and was preparing
to go west and put out his shlnglo In
a new country. Ho and I sat together
ono night hoforo tho time of his de
parture, and as wo conversed I thought
that before ho left it would bo a good
idea to havo tho boy promiso not to
" 'Do you drink, Charlie?' I said to
him. and ho responded, 'Once in a
while. Why?' 'I would liko you to
ptomlso mo, I said, 'that you will not
touch Intoxicating liquors. You aro
going far away to begin your career
in a rough country, and - would feel
hotter If you will not drink. Wo prob.
ably won't seo much of each other
again for a good many years, and It
would give mo consolation to know
that wherever you aro you nro In no
danger of being ruined by drink.'
"Coolly looking mo over, Charllo
said: 'Father, you smoke too much.
You aro filled with nicotine. I am go
ing away and wo will probably not
seo each other for Bomo time. This
smoking Is ruining your health. I
would like to feel while I am away
that your health is not being ruined
by this dangerous nicotine habit. I'll
toll you what I will do. You quit
smoking and I will quit drinking.'
" 'My son,' said I, 'you havo touched
me In a very weak spot. I take great
delight in smoking a good cigar, but if
you aro gamo so am I. Wo will both
quit our bad habits.' "
The senator says ho and his son
shook hands on tho compact and that
both of them havo kopt their pledges.
GAME WITH DASEBALL IDEAS
New Amusement Device Arranged on
Billiard Table Just Placed on Mar
ket How Played.
A now amusement device, which
adapts some baseball Ideas to a spe
cially arranged billiard table has just
been placed on tho market, says tho
Popular Mechanics. On top of the ta
ble, In tho relative positions ordinarily
occupied by baseball players on a reg
ular diamond, there aro miniature fig
ures of players over a series of pockJ
ets. Tho faco and sides of these pock
ets aro cushioned and are so designed
that the balls enter tho pockets .quick-
New Baseball Game.
ly and quietly. On either sldo of tho
table and In tho rear, thero are pock
ets Indicating "singles," "triplets,"
"homo runs," and "fouls." The bat
ter's box Is near tho front of tho ta
bio where an average-size blllard ball
Is placed and then caromed off a tri
angular rubber homo plate which Is
mounted on a spindlo. This plata re
volves when hit by the baJJ, giving tho
player a constantly changing shot
which makes the gamo very scientific.
ADVICE EASY TO GIVE.
"Seek peace and pursuo It."
Bo cheerful. "A light heart lives
Never despair. "Lost hope Is a fatal
"Work like a man, but don't bo
worked to death."
Don't hurry. "Too swift arrives as
tardy as too slow."
Sleep and rest abundantly. Sleep
la nature's benediction.
Avoid passion and excitement A
moment's passion may bo fatal.
Associate with healthy people
Hoalth Is contagious as well as dis
ease. Don't ovoreat. Don't starve. "Let
your moderation bo known to all
The Retort Filial.
"Don't call mo a kid, pa."
"Well, aren't you a kid?"
"But, pa, a kid Is a goat's llttlo
J 1 -Bgi
William Pitt fkl
Keep tho garden clean.
Raiso tho best dairy calvos.
Tho best cows are never cheap.
Got the cowb started right for win
ter. A bushel of seed corn will plant
six to eight acres of land.
A hog cannot Bleep comfortably In
o draft or wind; ho catches cold very
In proportion to his size, a hog
needs twico tho nlr spaco that a cow
or horso does.
Frozen alfalfa will kill a hog a3
quickly as it does a cqw or a horse.
It la usually Indigestible.
A bunch of ripe grapes will hang in
a hlvo of bees until It dries up and
the bees will not touch It. '
Corn meal, meat and potatoes aro
thrco of tho most valuablo IngrcdlentB
of tho fattening bill of fare.
Thoro Is only ono way of positively
diagnosing hog cholera, and that Is by
a post-mortem examination.
After pigs aro weaned, ono of tho
most common causes of runts is tho
feeding of a straight corn diet
Thero are many troubles of swlno
that aro called hog cholera and yet
they havo very llttlo resemblanco to
The capons when mature will aver
ago to weigh between 5 and 12 pounds,
depending, of courso, on tho variety of
If a hog misses a feed, watch him:
If ho misses tho second feed, removo
him from tho herd and thoroughly dis
infect whore ho has been.
Prepare warm, dry, but ventilated
quarters for tho brood sows, and do
It now. Cold Btorms will bo hero bo
fore wo are ready for them.
Breeding stock should never bo
Baved from the litter of a vicious old
brood sow, which Is alwnys restless
md chasing about tho pasture.
Composted or well-decayed ma
nures servo their best purposo vrhon
applied to tho surface of tho garden
and thoroughly disked into tho soil.
Fowls In confinement must havo
light feed and plenty of grit, oyster
shell, and a llttlo bono cut green. A
llttlo chopped onion is flno nbout
once a day.
Corn silage Is an excellent feed
for steers on account of its succti
lonco and palatabillty, and because
3f Its comparative richness In carbo
hydrates and fat.
Baby beef Is a term applied to
steers or heifers from fifteon to twenty-two
montliB of ago that show eulll
:lcnt thickness of flesh and quality to
be used as block beef.
Eastern farmers owning rough pas
turo lands valued at $15 to $20 per
acre, aro Btocklng them with Bhoep
and the mutton Industry In that sec
tion is being rapidly rovlvcd.
Hogs that aro allowed considerable
amount of room for exorcise, given
plenty of water and good sleeping
quarters In a well-drained area aro
not very liablo to dovelop disease.
Besides keeping more and better
animals, more attention should bo
paid by farmers to such crops as
restoro tho fertility of tho soil. Tho
chief among these are clover and
Ltco aro froquont causes of nn
thriftiness with fall pigs. Whenovor
nltB or Hco aro seen tho pigs should
bo dipped at ten-day intervals or hIho
given ono coating of crudo oil applied
with a broom.
Outs Is ono of tho best dairy feedB
which wo havo. Bran is also a cry
good dairy feet. CottonBeod meal Is
also high in protein. Clover hay,
which wo can raiso directly on our
farm, Is very good.
No tlmo should be lost in fattening
tho light shearers and disposing of
them to tho best advantage. The
longer a Bheop is kopt that will not
clip n quantity of clean bright wool
abovo tho avorago tho poorer the
owner will be.
Somo fanners seom to Imagine that
Just becauso a sheep has a fleece to
protect it that shelter from cold ond
Btorms is not necessary, but they
should know that sheep aro moro sus
ceptible to rold and dampness than
any other animal on the farm.
Fall plowing Is cheapest.
A dairy thermometer pays.
No troo cxcols tho Bartlett pear.
Sanitary milk strainers aro boat.-
Neglected fruit trees nro worthloss.
Dryness Is tho main requirement in
a sheep shed.
Thoro Is llttlo likelihood of saving
too much seed corn.
You cannot keop tho milk pall full
unless you food tho cow.
It Is often n good plan to turn
weanling lambs Into tho cornflold.
All tender shrubbery In tho fruit
garden should bo given wlntor protoc
Water cisterns and tanks should be
covered and banked beforo froezlna
Tho milch cows and young stock
should be put Into their slablcs every
All root crops should bo harvested
and put into wlntor storngo beforo
Seed corn of high productivo qual
ities should not bo allowed to frcczo
at any time.
Keep the salt In a sheltered box !n
overy sheep pasture. Spasmodic salt
ing Is very dangorouB.
Roots am used to qulto an extent
In parts of Canada and In England In
the fattening of steers.
Begin now to nssuro next year's
harvest plow deep, savo tho mois
ture, scatter tho manure
Tho capacity of tho silo must be
Judged according to tho number of
animals which wo havo In our herd.
Corn, even in tho soft dough atnje
of maturity, when carefully cured,
makes excellent strong growing seed.
Tho big trco is a doubtful shelter
fortho farm Implements, ovon if tho
implement dealer says it Is all
Do not desplso well-bred poultry.
No territory has ever been noted for
Its poultry products unless well-bred
fowls woro tho rule.
About tho' best remedy for "scaly
legs." which Is tho work of mlnlaturo
parasites, is an application of sulphur
and melted lard onco a week.
A close study of tho breol Is not
only Interesting but profltublo. Got
acquainted with your fowls and let
them got acquainted with you.
Tho loss Incurred from plant dis
eases Is often underestimated by tho
farmer, passes unrecognized or Is re
garded as natural and lnovltnblo.
Always keop tho very best owes In
tho flock for breeding. If you persist
In soiling tho beBt you will Boon sell
tho flock right out from under you.
Oil meal Is laxative and helps to
prevent tho feverish condition which
ofton appears at farrowing tlmo and
which Is occasionally responslblo far
In ordor to got tho groatost profit
from tho pigs on tho farm, It Is nec
essary to encourago them to consume
nB much of tho cheap feeds as posslblo
early in llfo.
Provide a good open shed for tho
young turkeys to roost In nnd don't
allow thorn to wander off. Their val-,
uo 1b too great to allow them to tako
up with tho neighbor's flock.
Variety of feed always brings tho
best results, and If tho hens aro not
doing what thoy should toward fill
ing tho egg basket a change of food
will romind them of their duty.
Ono of tho common mistakes begin
ners mako in feeding brood sows Is
fooding too much corn. Corn Ib a
splendid food for hogs, but It must
not bo fed in too largo quantities to
brood 80W3 or pigs.
A good muzzln for a self sucking
cow may bo made of an old boot top.
Silt tho top opon, rivet it onto tho
noso pleco of a halter and, put It on
tho cow. The leathor will not pre
vent her eating or drinking.
At tho high price of grain tho man
who haB to buy nil of his feed must
figure very closely and mako tho most
of ovory pound of It In feeding his
poultry else ho will como out at tho
llttlo ond of tho horn in tho spring.
It Is not stretching tho truth to
Bay that If farmers marketed their
poultry in tho very best poBsIblo con
dition their rcclpts would bo lncrcas'
ed one-third. Neither Is It stretching
tho truth to say that less than 10
por cent of all tho poultry murkotod
is In perfoct condition when It roach
eB tho consumer.
A Missouri furmer recently Bold n
two-year and a throo-yuar-old mulo
for $480. Their ilnin was a largo but
rather smooth boned maro nino year?
old, who had been Incapacitated for
hard work by an accident in. a barbed
wire fence. Sho will probably con
tinue to bo a good breeder for eovor
al years. Somo fnrmorn may Bee a
way to a good profit Jn thia ctory.
MOST PROFITABLE SHEEP FOR AVERAGE
MAN TO RAISE IS DUAL PURPOSE ANIMAL
Wool Should Not Bo Too Coarse or Excessively Fine, but Should
Possess Something of Medium Quality Superior of
Mutton and Wool Most Desirable.
(By U C. nKTNt)LD3.)
Tho best tlmo to study tho wool pro
ducing quality of ono's flock Is when
tbo animals aro Bhoarod. As wool is
being romovod from tho sheep tlmo
should bo taken to romovo a fow fi
bers of tho tlceco and noto Its quality.
In every flock thoro Is wldo varia
tion in tho quality of tho wool from
different Individuals, dcsplto tho fact
that thoy woro slrod by tho same ram
and glvon practically tho sama caro
and feed. Tho avorago wool produc
ing Bheop of tho double-deck typo
Bhould shear at least twclvo pounds
of wool of good length and density.
Tho wool should not bo excessively flno
nor, on tho othor hand, too coarse, but
should possess something of medium
quality. I havo a numbor of Indi
viduals in my flock that annually
Bhear from twolvo to thirteon pounds
of wool of tho qunllty that alwayB de
mands tho highest market prlco.
Theso owob aro on tho ordor of tho
mutton breed, although thoy havo
boon bred for a numbor of years for
both wool nnd mutton production.
I am firmly of the opinion that tho
most profitable, sheep for tho avorago
farmer to raiso in tho futuro Is tho
animal that will piudueo a high qual
ity of both wool and mutton. In vlow
Prize Mutton and Wool Sheep.
of tho fact that many of our Hocks at
tho present tlmo havo been bred along
mutton linos exclusively, I bollovo
flock owners can well afford to glvo
moro attention to the wool producing
sldo of their flocks.
For tho past fow years wool has.
bean commanding a vory high nnd uni
form prlco. Tho mutton market 1b well
established. To insure tho greatest
prollt from tho growing of Bheop, olth
or on tho farm or Range, a superior
grado of both wool and mutton must
Thoro has boon a decided improve
ment In tho sheep producing Industry
In tho past fow years along tho lino
nbovo considered, but I am fully aware,
thoro Is plonty of room for consider
nblo moro along tho lino of combln-
FOR WINTER PIGS
To Raise Two Litters Annually
One Must Not Allow Over
stocking. (By a. W. BROWN.)
Thoro Is a decided difference in car
ing for tho pigs of autumn farrowing
and thoso of tho spring Uttors. On the
avorago farm tho latter havo tho ad
vantago over tho formor of coming
in previous to tho advent of tho spring
grasses, and havo a moro gonorous
supply of milk and other laxativo food
stuffs to koop them growing and in
It baa boon my pradtlco for a num
ber of years to raiso two litters of pigs
a year. To do this successfully I find
that ono muBt not allow overstocking,
but rather should sell off a portion of
tho pigs soon after woanlng tlmo,
keoplng only so many aB ho knows
ho can nccommodato with good quar
ters and generous foodlng. Ono must
not slight pigs during cold weather
cither In housing or feeding.
Besides dry nesting quurtors tho
pigs Bhould havo a good-sized lot in
which thoy may got plenty of oxerclso.
Growing pigs should not bo crowded
Into closo, lllthy quarters, expo3od to
vermin and dlsoaso.
Our wlntor pigs aro very profitably
fed upon wholo corn In tho fodder, as
thoy delight In getting tholr food from
this matorlal. I And that thoy eat
vory much of this foddor, which forms
a flno diet. Tho cobs and tho coarso
Btalks aro rakod up nnd burned fre
quently, affording tho pigB a goncrous
supply of chnrcoal.
I aim to keop a cow for ovory Utter
of wlntor pigs, and with tho milk and
mllkBtuffB I can grow a bunch of pigs
equal to tho spring Utters.
Floors for Hon, Houses.
Our oxperlenco is that woodon
floors in tho hog houses will produco
rheumatism in tho animals Just as
quickly as cement floors If former aro
aliowed to romaln damp and tho bed
ding holds molBturo, says r. writer in
If tho cement floors aro kopt clean
and well littered with dry straw cr
othor matorlal frequently, rhoumatlotn
7111 not rosult.
Bottor havo a bolo two foot wldo at
tho top of tho pen and a crack two
Inches wldo at tho bottom. It Is tho
cold nlr blowing under tho doors and
around tho pon that couhob tho great
gram m ZZ. "H Et "vS c
ing both tho wool and mutton quali
ties. An impression provnils in tho north
of England, says John Wrlghtson In
London Llvo Stock Journal, that shoop
nover drink, and tn thlB faith I was
brought up. Wator was always con
sldcred to bo nn Important nccosaory
In cattla pastures, but its abflenco was
nover looked upon as an objection to
shcop runs. Thoro is a breed known
as "crag" shcop in Lancashire, which
rnngo over tho cxtonslvo upland of tho
mountain llmcstono, that nro said to
roquiro no water; but this doos not
strlko n Northumbrian as very re
markable as It fits in with his procon
Mr. Prlmroso McConnoll supports
this vlow when ho writes that "In his
boyhood ho had horded sheep and
cows togathor In hot summer weathor,
and boon struck by tho cows constantly
repairing to tho water, whllo tho Bhoop
novor went near It, and worovnovor
soon to drink at all, although thoy had
accoas to a running stream closo at
hand." Ho nddB that a northern shep
herd would rldlculo tho ldoa of a
shoop over drinking unloss It was In
bad hoalth. This opinion I can en
dorse with slight modification, as my
Idea In tho north of England was that
shoop wcro practically independent of
That this Is nlno true to a certain
oxtont in tho south is shown by tho
prnctlco of many good shepherds, who
do not allow their owes wator during
tho period of gestation. Thoro aro
circumstances in which this rulo is
not adhered to, but thoy constltuto ex
ceptions which may bo said to provo
To spoak generally, It 1b a bad sign
when a owo drinks frequently, nnd
indicates unsoundness in somo formi
Tho truth Bccmn io bo that as long as
horbago is succuinnt, or is moistened
with dow, or from rain from tlmo to
tlmo, shoop do not requlro water.
When owcb axo fed on hay they
should havo wator; and whon thoy rc
colvo cako nnd hay togothor, and aro
not nllowcd rootB, It is ovldcnt that
tho molsturo of tho body must bo kopt
on. On tho othor hand, If thoy havo
access to roots thoy do not roquiro wa
tor, and this Is ono of tho best rea
sons for growing roots on high and
Again, tho need of owes which havo
to support lambB at foot aro dlfferont
to either dry shoop or prognant owes.
Thoy aro called upon to supply a
larger quantity of wator in tholr milk,
and thoy muBt bo supplied either di
rectly or through succulent food In or
dor to do BO.
PROPER FEEDS AND
CARE FOR THE CALF
Young Animal Must Have Exer
cise and Freedom of Yard
(By J. C. TRY.)
Feeding and raising tho calf on
sklm-mllk 1b not always an oaBy prop
osition, but I havo had vory good
buccobb. Tho calf stays with tho
mothor until tho milk is good to use;
thon It Ib glvon wholo milk for threo
weeks; thon it Is gradually changed
to skim-milk. Tho calf will soon loarn
to eat alfalfa hay. By putting a llttlo
corn chop in tho bucket whon tho
calf is through drinking It will soon
learn to oat It. Corn will supply thf
fat that Ib taken out of tho milk. The
calf must havo oxerclso and is al
lowed tho frcodora of yard and farm.
Wo havo tho best success with tho fall
nnd wlntor calves. Hay Ib bottor for
tho calf than grass.
ROOTS ARE FINE FOR
PRODUCTION OF MILK
Make Valuable Addition to Ra
tions During the Cold Win
No matter what some people toll
you, turnips and othor roots mako
flno mllk-produclng feed. Turnips
will nut affect tho flavor of milk if
fed at tho right tlmo.
It turnips aro fed in largo quanti
ties, and two or threo hours boforo
milking, thoy aro llkoly to glvo tho
milk an unpleasant tasto, but If- fed
directly after milking no flavor what
ovor will bo notlcod.
A peck of turnips to each animal
por day is sufficient in most coaos. A
good plan Is to food directly after haj
in tho oarly morniug, and once u day
Is ofton enough.
Roots mnko a very valuablo addition
to tho wlntor rations because they
add to tho variety of tho feed and no
animal on tho farm appreciates va
riety moro than tho idalry cow.
Cleanliness and Ventilation.
Clean pons, stalls, bedding, etc., and
plenty of ventilation are Important
und without thoBQ things hogs aro In
such weak condition thoy aro llkoly
to tako anything.