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Z . . iii . i i i i i r
GOOD HOUSES FOR CHICKENS
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interest to tho Bportsmnn-nntural- MBftpr t &' .rlP I
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Ulf Ifm . f5BiWMt23sr Mfiaro&sos
Ifc3w:.fc4 known sportsmen of today miiBt $$&r f)iWvvSr n Wr
l AT( M ,,iend guilty, wo, havo to dlvo Into Jfr$f( WMJr
f... H...--J tho not nlwnyB limpid dopths of RaA JP y
maimtfftjictir&jiziRaH5, igzwz& :sr
.HE (llffercntlatlon between these
two anlninlR Is a subjoct of unusunl
IntoroBt to the BportBinnn-nntural-1st.
To trnco tho origin of the
popular misconception that tho two
names nro Bynonymoua, a mistake
to which oven Bomo of our beat
known Bportsmcn of today miiBt
plead guilty, wo, havo to dlvo Into
tho not nlwnyB limpid dopths of
oarly medlaoval history. For tho
ovont which has probably more to
do than any other with tho promulgation of this
error waft tho famous hunt glvon by t'harlomagno
to tho ambassadors of Huroun-al-Rnahld In the
dank No icy I an woods that Burrounded his hunt
ing lodge, HerlHtallum. According to tho original
account by tho monk Eglnhnrd of St. Gall,. tho
auiochs woro of such terror-lnstllllng nppearanco
to tho men from tho east that they could not
cvoii boar thn night of thorn, and lied from tho
cmperor'H aldo. Tho latter, attacked by tho llorc
est of IhoBO tnonntors, missed tho vital spot,
with tho rcBult that before brave Isambart could
elay it tho omporor was slightly wounded In tho
thigh and had hla nothcr garment torn into
shreds. Hushing to his sldo, tho assembled cour
tiers offered to dlvort themselves of their own
tiOBO, but tho omporor laughingly rejected their
offers, declaring that ho Intended to hIiow him
fiolf In hip uorry plight to tho fair Hildegarde,
who waH a great huntress horBolf NcedloBB to
ay, this adventure proved a mediaeval "ucoop"
of tho gaudiest kind, but In tho courso of tin
numborod retellings tho aurochs became n wi
scut. n was called tho European bison, nnd slnco
that tlmo a perplexing confusion has reigned bo
tween thcRo two nnlmalH. That tho truo nurocliB.
which bocamo extinct three hundred years ago,
wna an entirely different animal from tho bison,
whoso name, nlaat la alBO on tho Hat or anlmnls
nbout to aharo tho auroch'B fate, Is now a fact
known to all Hclontlflc men. To tho writer tho
poor old blson'fl pathotlo fnto nppeala moro par
ticularly, for when shooting In the RoukloB In
tho Bovoutloa of last century ho Btlll aaw thoni In
hoids of ton thousand. Hut ns tho men who can
claim to havo bouu tho samo marvellous night
will boforo loflg follow these lordly inhabitants
of tho wlldo to tho happy hunting grounds, the
study of tho past history of theso two species
has for aomo people unuBunl attractions. And
not tho leant Interesting phaao of It Is tho col
lecting of iilcturos umdo at n tlmo when both
beaBtH'woro Btlll roaming ovor tho "vsaBtca of
tho earth," or had but recently disappeared
Of tho earliest of all pictures of what was prob
ably meant to bo tho blbon, nu interesting nrtl
clo which rccontly nppoarod In an Illustrated week
ly, In which thn roof pictures in tho Altnmlrn
Cavo woro reproduced, gavo ono a capital Idea.
After a gap of untold centuries wo roach tho
"various pictorial recorda left to us by tho chls--oIb,
gruvern or bruahoa of tho classic nges.
Among thoao who havo mado Important dlscov
erleB respecting tho dlatrlbutlon of the nurocha,
ProfcHsor Conrad Keller, tho woll-known Zurich
rooIoglBt, occupies n prominent place Hla dla
covorloa In tho ruins of 1,1)0 undent palace of
King Mlnoa In Croto of no fewer than ulxteou
liotn-coroa and ono skull of what unquestionably
was tho ortgtunl wild ox of Kuropo. or nurocha.
Hhow that It llvod thcro at ono poriod, and that
tho fnmoiiH legend of tliu mlnotnur has n sub
Btratum of truth. From his pages wo borrow nn
Illustration of an Important fresco In Kuosaoa de
pleting an aurochs In tho act of Impaling a help-loss-looking
victim, while a hold bull-lighter is
actually turning n nnmersault over tho back' of
tho boaBt, n third, possibly female, looker-on at
tempting to Rolzo tho huU'B tall, thn ucono lining
probably onactod In nn arena. It Is possible that
tho TheaouH "story camo from tho slaughter of
captives In buoIi exhibitions Several other pic
tures havo boon recently discovered whloh he
long to tho .Vinos period, I. o., betwoon 2000 nnd
1500 II. O. I'rofosaor Kollor'B highly Instructive
writings contain many other Illustrations of Dos
Skipping tens of conturlos, wo reach tho lies
dalles, tho moBt ancient of which originated In
tho poriod wo touched nt tho outset when Bponk
lag of Charlomngnn's aurochs-hunt. Thoao ex
ceedingly primitive pictorial recorda do not ndd
much to our Information; "the choice hurts ono,"
jia OormauH describe that state of uncertainty in
.regntd to what tho monastic artlata meant to
.represent by their crudo attempts. Skipping a
few more conturlos, wo at last reach, In tho bo
tinning of the fifteenth century, fairly Intelligent
accounts of tho animal's habitat, and are fur
nished with drawings presenting fentureu Bulll
clently distinct to Indicate, oven to eyes nccus
tomed to photographic accuracy, tho Identity of
tho animal tho picture moana to reprcsout.
Very curious Is tho circumstance to which,
by the- wny, nobody has so far drawn attention,
that nono of tho French sporting books of tho
fourteenth nnd fifteenth conturles, such na "Hoy
Modus." "Cln8ton PhoobtiB," "Qaco do la llulgno"
and 'Foutulnoa-Guorlu," mentions either tho
'J7j?zv"(rjirjzfj& CZJ&KZ& '&Kn& c3$&ur."iz&
runs: "Some great lords are looking on at a spec
taclo In tho arena. A furious lion with rovenlng
fang and claws tears some wild beasts. He laya
the wolves low and dofeata the 'Taurus' in a strug
gle, while the bear cowera away In terror." Wheth
er the artist ever wltneaad such a struggle In an
nrenn cannot be ascertained; but It Is quite possi
ble, considering their great popularity during tho
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Tho blasts
were caught In pitfalls and
transported great distances.
Tho likeness Is not a bad
one, nnd In tho nbovo col
lection of prints there nre
three other pictures of
aurochs, and a fifth depict
ing tho lassoing of tho bu
balus on tho Island of Sar
dinia. A contemporary and
countryman of Stradanus,
ono Hans Hoi. produced
also an Interesting engrav
ing of an nurocha hunt
which forma tho second
print of his attractive little
set entitled, "Venntloiris,
PlBcatlonls, et AucupU
typl," published In 15S2 bj
tho Bamo enterprising Ant
werp publishers that gavo
tho world tho last-named
collection. Ueneath the au
roclm picture wo read, In
Latin elegiac couplets'
"Thus with darts, swords
and light arrows men every
where drive tho horned
aurochs Into pits." A rath
er Blmllar print was produced fourtoen years
after bmy tho Nutnborg engraver, .Tohann Sib
mncher, who etched nine other sporting plates.
Then follow, In rnpid succession, half a dozen
"portraits" by Tompe.sta, the pupil of Stradanus,
one of which prints wo reproduce It shows In
whnt nwo tho gigantic wild bull was held, for It
depicts a formldablo-looklng machine wherowltb
tho bull could be nttacked and brought down
Tempesta's pictures ned not bb taken seriously
for IiIb Roman "studio" was nothing but a work
Bhpp where apprentlco hands turned out a vast
mass of prints of Ilttlo or no valuo In an enqulrj
of this sort. His English contemporary of tho
pen, Edwnrd Topsoll, In his Illustrated natural
history hodgo-podge called tho "Historic of Foure
Footed neastes" (1G07) only added to tho exist
ing confusion. "A HIson," ho says, "Is a beaBt
very strango as may appear by hla figure pro
fixed which by many authors la taken for Urus,
eomo for a lluglo or wild oxe, others, for n
Ranglfor, and many for tho beast Tarantus oi
Ruffe." And, to show that ho really meant what
ho said, ho affixes a plcturo of what Is unmistak
ably a relndoor! Fortunately, howovor, ho adda,
as plcturea of tho bison nnd of tho aurochs, ro
pllcns of tho two prints by Htrschvogol out of
Ilerberbteln's "Rernm Moscovltlcarum Common
tnrll," which, as wo havo already mentioned, are
among tho most correct representations pub
Hshed nt a period when thn nurocha still existed
In Euglnnd, tho bollf that th aurochs was a
blnon-llko creature continued throughout the
eighteenth century. Tho plcturo tnken from Sam
uol Clarke'B "Julius Caesar," published In 1712,
shows what oxtrnoidlnary Ignorance Btlll pre
vailed, tho animal with antlors llko nn lnvortcd
umbrella being n bison, or Ilos germanus, nnd
tho beast In tho contor an "nurocha, Tho graver
nurocha or tho blaon by ao much na a word. Aa
tho nuthorB pf thoBo claaalca woro great sporte
mon and closo observers, this would support the
theory that both these animals nnd already then
bocomo quite oxtlnct In western Europe.
Iu tho sixteenth century, when Europo, bo fnr
aa art wns concerned, hnd at laat been aroused
from Its mediaeval stupor by tho Invention of
printing, nnd an extraordinary domnnd had
sprung up for pictorial matter Illustrating re
cent exploration of new worlds and tho various
forms of tho chnso, there wore produced quite a
number of pictures of tho aurochs by artists,
very few of whom hnd ovor sot eyes upon a Hvo
wild specimen, though thoy may havo scon cap
tive ones. Tho ono nrtlBt of whom wo posltlvoly
know that ho had beforo him nt least a stuffed
specimen wnB tho Viennese engraver AugUBtln
Illrschvogel (born In Nurnborg nbout 1503), who
Illustrated the famous travel book of Baron Her
berstoln. tho nuthorlty most frequently quoted In
connection with tho aurochs, for ho wns absolute
ly tho last Intelligent observer who saw tho beast
In ita wild atnto, and loft pictorial records of his
ImpreBBlonn. Herberateln was gifted with pres
cient oyoa, for ho forosnw that tho aurochs was
doomed to spoody extinction. Henco on IiIb sev
eral expeditions to tho unknown interior of Rub
aln no tho nmbassador, first of Emperor Maxi
milian In 151G-18, then on many different occa
sions ns Charles V'b nnd Ferdinand's emissary,
he mndo notes about It, and, what was much moro
Important, actually brought bnck with him eomo
skins and skulls, which he had mounted In hla
house In Vlonnn. nnd from which Illrschvogel
probnbly drew hla colobrated picture of tho
nurocha To differentiate ho drew noxt to It n
picture of n blBon As theso two "portraits."
which havo been published xcores of tlinos, will
bo familiar to all Interested In this matter, wo . of Holzab of Zurich, continues tho mlsconcop
Leghorns Stand Cold Weather, Pro
vided They Are Free From Damp
ness and Draughts.
Wo havo ono building 18x70 foet
nnd ono 18x128 feet mndo of matched
pine, not doubled or lined, a pitch
roof covered with two-ply roofing and
dirt floors. Doth buildings faco the
south and each has tho south aldo
covered with an equal amount of glass
and muslin half-way from tho oaves,
tho latter 15'alf enclosed with matched
Single-Comb Brown Leghorn.
plno. Theso windows havo been
opened wide dnlly regardless oi zero
weather. Single Comb Brown Leg
horns otnnd cold weather, provided
they nro free from drafts and damp
ness, says a writer In an exchange.
Our buildings have dirt floors cov
ered with ono foot of wheat Btraw.
The dropping boards and roosts are
cleaned and disinfected with a hot
spray from u forco pump every two
weeks. The broken straw from tho
floor 1b placed upon tho dropping
boarda and the floor covered anew
with wheat straw. Tho cost of tho
building, exclusive of land, was $3.88
per lineal foot, 70 plua 128 feet, thus
houalng 1,250 layers at 62 cents per
hen. The usual estimate is $1 per
HINTS OF DUCKS AND GEESE
will merely quoto tho Inscriptions placed by Her
beratohr over the two pictures, for It Is a per
fectly corroct differentiation. Tho plcturo of tho
blaon hns tho following: "I am a HIson. am
ended by tho Polos a Subor, by tho Germans a
nibont or Dnmthlor, nnd by tho Ignorant nn
nurochs." Over the woodcut of tho nurochs: "I
nm an UruB which Is called by tho Poles a Tur,
by tho Germans nn AurocliB nnd until now by
tho Ignorant a Rlson." Tho Inscriptions In tho
vnrlous editions -Hoi borsteln's volume nppenred
In aovornl languages vary triningly. but tho
tlon; Indeed, goes ono bettor, for tho bison Is
horo turned Into nn "American aurochs" Of
numerous othor Illustrations of our two beasts,
wo havo not tho Bpaco to speak at length. One
of tho most chnracterUtlo of the latter typo Is
tho so-called Hamilton Smith plcturo of tho nu
rochs. This la n painting, dating, It Is believed,
from tho first quarter of tho sixteenth century,
discovered In Augsburg not qulto a hundred
years ago. This painting Vaa mysteriously dis
appeared, but an nccurato copy wna mado. For
tho first "modern ' plcturo of tho blaon that np-
Duckling Should Be Marketed Before
Twelve Weeks Old Same Is
Said of Goslings.
A Pekln duckling weighs about two
iluncea when hatched, and should
take on weight as follows: Three to'
four weeks, ono pound; six to eight
weeks, four to four and one-half
pounds; nnd at ten weeks, five and
one-half to six pounds. Ducklings
should bo marketed at from nine to
twelve weeks of nge. After that thoy
tnko on weight slowly, nnd It Is not
profltnble to keep them longer thnn
twelve weeka. ,
Geese grow nbout ns rapidly as
ducks. Allownnce of courso muat bo
mado for tho orlglnnl difference In
size newly hatched goslings weigh
ing nbout four ounces. Turkeys do
not grow rapidly at tho start, but de
velop much quicker after three
mouths of age.
above, which aro takon from tho edition of lBBfi. geared In England wo havo also to go to Ger-
glvo tho souse In tho boat form.
Shortly nftor Herboratoln tho Flemish painter
Stradanus, who lived nnd workfd for over fifty
years In Floronco (from 1BC3 to 1C0B), produced
n drawing of nn nurochs engnged In n terrific
struggle In nn nrona where ho wbb matched
against a lion, two wolves and a bear. This
original drawing Is not tho least Interesting of
the twenty odd ancient pictures of tho aurochs
In tho writer's collection. In 1B78 tho Antwerp
publisher Philip Gnllo published this and ono
hundred nnd three other sporting drawings by
tho Florentlno mnstor, nnd underneath ench of
tho engravings there Is n Latin Inscription Tho
ono under tho pinto reproducing tho drawing
mnn sources, and, strangely enough, to tho same
city, for It wnB Augsburg's most famous animal
painter, Rldlngor (1097-1767), who drew tho first
llfe-llko picture. A countryman of his. ono J. S.
Muller, who lived many years In London, engrav
ed, In 17B8, a flno set of plates representing wild
animals nftor Rldtnger's drawings from nature.
Among thorn Is ono of tho bison, called by him
tho bufTnlo, and underneath la n lengthy nnd
fairly correct description in English, which ho
also copied from Rldlngor But this and othor
Isolated efforta havo not entirely prevented tho
dlBsemlnatlon of tho old mlBtnko, for living au
thorities still toll ua, qulto aorlnualy, that they
havo grassed aurochs.
Gather eggs dally.
Cull out small eggs.
Tho gooso averages about thirty
Gecso do not thrlvo when yarded;
Tho gooao llko tho duck, has prac
tically no crop.
Tho nvorago weight of tho gooso la
twice that of tho duck.
Geese pair, but drakes will take
oaro of four or moro mates.
A hen left to shift for hersolf may
lay in summer but seldom will In win
ter. Aro you figuring on entering ono
or two pens In a poultry show, If not,
Boforo packing and Bhipplng poul
try should bo thoroughly dry and cold,
but not frozen.
Llmborneck Is caused by tho fowls
eating Bomo dead animal matter that
has bred maggots.
Tho gooso is a grazing bird, while
tho duck thrives with a limited
amount of greon food.
Don't forget to sprlnklo lime on
drop boards, not too much, for it lb
hard on tho chicken's feet.
Meat In aomo form must bo fod
poultry at least twlco a week also
green food If you wnnt results.
A good dry mash for lnyers: Twc
parts bran, 1 part cornmeal, 1 part
alfalfa meal, nnd 1 pnrt beef scrap.
Ducks can be profitably bred for
four years, geese can bo bred foi
many years for a period that seemf
Fifty hens with abundant room,
caro and proper feed will return more'
cash than ono hundred carelessly fed
Dust the hen with insect powder
before Betting, and twlco moro while
hatching, then chicks will not bo ful
of lice to begin with.
After hens havo passed their period
of profltnblo laying (two or three
years), they may be Bold at Ilttlo It
anv loss on their first cost.
Bach day ho tells mo he has done
Some splendid thins In splendid style)
Each day ho tells me ho has won
From Fortune an engaging smile;
Each day ho boasts about his gains,
llut, for somo reason he conceals,
In humblo quarters he remains
And keeps all run down at the heels.
Each day ho tells mo of high pralsa
That ha has gloriously earned;
If what he says Is true his days
To good account must all bo turned;
But frayed cuffs still mischievously
Peep from beneath his shiny sleeves,
And, for some reason, only ho
Recounts tho triumphs ho achieves.
Encouraging a Good Man.
"Come In here and havo lunch with
me," said ono business man to anoth
er as they were walking In a down
town street yesterday, shortly after
tho noon hour.
"What? You don't eat in there,
"Yes, this Is my favorite restaur
ant." "Well, by George, I'm surprised. 1
thought you were n man who would
bo more difficult to satisfy than that
I took one meal there, and then de
clared that I would never go Into tho
place again. Tho service was wretch
ed; the things thoy gave me to eat
were miserably prepared, and taking
!t all together, It was about the worst
thing I ever had in tho lunch line."
"I grant that all you havo said may
be true, yet there Is a vast good rea
son why the place ought to havo our
"What is It?"
"Do you seo the sign in front? It
aays, 'Ladles' and Gentlemen's Res
taurant' Look at tho- other signs.
Thoy all road, 'Ladles' and Gents'
Tho man who runs this placo ought to
bo encouraged, pven If his grub la
bad. Como on."
Miss Mllllcent No, Mr. Simpson.
Cm sorry that I can't Invite you to
:all again, but the fact is that I must
"efuae, for my own safety, to seo you
George Simpson Wh why, I don't
Miss Mllllngton Our family physl
:Inn says that I have heart trouble,
ind I'm afraid that you might somo
tlmo get bold enough to say some
thing and make mo fall dead.
Their engagement wns nnnounced
tho next day.
For tho Napoleon of finnnco a will
ing bondsman; ,
For the heiress who wishes to mar
ry n titlo, a fortune teller.
For tho man who stops drinking
when ho discovers that whisky is bad
for him, a snake charmor;
For tho champion amateur golfer, a
For tho mnn who will not wear an
ovorcoat, a trained nurso.
"You might make a nolso as If you
were kissing mo," she Bald, "Just to
oreato n commotion among tho girls In
tho noxt room."
A moment later she angrily left him
and wont In among the girls whom
iho had w lshed to fill with excitement.
Ho had merely made a nolso as If
ho were kissing her.
"Do you believe a poor man can
succeed in politics?"
"I hardly think I caro to answer
rour queatlon. I will 8ay, howovor.
that it does not seem to bo possible
for a man to succeed In politics nnd
A Marked Man.
"Yes, Hubbleston is a man of
"Why, what has ho ovor done tc
mnko him so?"
"Hnd the smallpox."
"Pn, what's a Chautauqua?"
"A placo where our public moacau
say what they want to say wlthoul
undergoing tho necessity of having
thrlr speeches edited."