Newspaper Page Text
S IPR>LE T -
TE E NEWS AND IIERAJ), WINNSBORO, S. C., TUE JANUARY J4,1902
S.. C. AT m
Text of the Documer
A Comprehensive Reviev
During The Year--R
Gentlemen of the General Assembly:
. The organic law of the State makt
lay before the General Assembly at
ent departments of government, and
gestioas as may seem to him wise a
. The past year has been a remarkal
events have marked the record. Tb
var State have not had the usual ret
them the present year is going to b
hey are looking hopefully to the fu
-ent and progress of the State in mi
torward, I sometimes fear that the.
expense of the rural districts. It ha
tUers o, the soil that the. sinews o
and of troubTi have rested. The str
. ople rest with the home owners.
n to eneourage home owning wil
Imm of our State and to the stabilit
Sinee your last session the Nation
weight of a grevious sorrow, caused I
Us Chie Executive, a blow aimed no
ing citizen of the land, and at the fr
ehosen by the American people as t
society and the victim was only an
to an act like this is one of the dange
at no time has the shability of our for
shown than at this critical period, fo
alted and beloved he may be, is nece
*elfare of the people, and the fair tr(
to show to his associates the efficac:
the preservatidn of that law which I
Within the past year three of you
Fairfield; Hon. G. J. Redfearn, of Chi
well-have been called from their lI
the innumerable hosts on the othe:
There will be many matters of imp<
add In all questions coming before yo
tterests of the people, whose servan1
w. aid and co-operation.
*6 long as fiends in human form c
iomen they may expect swift and s
gency courts or any other remedy w!
hen it is known the right fiend is I
mefit is to stop the crime.
Te following statement furnishe
tion of the Anances of the State i
Cash -Receipts for Fiscal Year E0
ash Balance, Dec. 31, 1900 .. .- ..
Baek Taxes.... .. .. .... .... .
eneral Taxes 1900 .. .. - .......
eneral Taxes 1901 .... .... ...
1airoad Assessments .... .. ..
Fhes, Office Secretary of State.
icorporation Fees .... -. .. .. ..
-innual Insurance i2cense Fees ..
Graduated insurance License Fees ..
vilege Fertilizer Tax .. ...-..--.
ds-bcrrowed on Notes of Govel
isurance Sinking Fund .... ...
Ofat- Permanent School Fund...
State Special School Fund (Dispensai
lemson Bequests (interest on deposi
Mtorrill Fund from U. S. Government
Cmmissioners Sinking Fund:
Loans returned.. ..-..--.--.
Interest on Loans ...--.
Ag ent Commissioners Sink
lag Fund (Sec'y State}).
5un,kig Fund Reduction Brown 4%
Loans returned .. ...-..-..
Interest on loans and deposi
Phosphate Royalty .....
anspensary, S. C..-.--.----.--.
Ra fands-sundry accounts.-..-..-.
-'(ash Payments for Fiscal Year E1
~gsative Expenses .... ..-..--.--.
Ucatinal- Charitable and Penal
Privilege Fertilizer Tax ..
Morrill Fund .... .....-..
Interest Land Scrip and Per
manent Fund. ..--.
Glered Nor. Ind. Agr. and Meeb. CC
Morrill Fund .....-...
Interest Ls~nd Scrip .
Sate Permanent School Fund..
Otate Special School Fund (Dispensar
06mpletionl State House (paid Sin
.lug Fun d Commission) ......
Soth Carolina Inter State and WC
Loans (notes of Governor and Tre:
Maintaining Militia .....----.
Quarantining State .. .....--.
Gommissionlers Sinking Fund.
Stking Fund for the Rteduction
Brown 4% per cents.:
Lcans .. .....--.---.---.
State House Ccntract ....
Investment (S. C. Brown 4
per cents.) .....--.
Imetnlg M.onument c:1 Chiekamaug5
ispens-.ry. S. C.:
Transferred to Gool Fund
iterest on Public Debt.. .....
Miscellancous A ccounts ...-..-..-..
na~lk Balance Dec. 31, 1901.-..-..-.
t Transmitted By Gov.
r of The Work Done By The
s of The State Government
s it the duty of the Chief Executive to
ea-h annual session a review of the differ
to make such recommendations and aug
de one in many respects. Many stirring
e tillers of the soil in many sections of
uras for theic labors, and with many of
e one of sacrifice and self-denial, and yet
ture and not complaining. The develop
mufacturing- enterprises goes steadily
e enterprises are being built up at the
s been largely among the owners and
f strength in our State in times of peril
,ngth of a State and the patriotism of a
Whatever can be done by wise legis
I be so much contributed to the patriot
r of our institutions.
his been bowed down beneath the
)y the dastacdly blow which struck down
t at him but at you and every law abid
se government of which he had been
!e head. It was a blow at organized
naldent. A sentiment which gives rise
rs which threaten our Nation. And yet,
m of government been more clearly
the life of no one man, however ex
sairy to the continued prosperity and
a:ment given the murderer but served
r and the dignity, and the necessty for
LO sought to overthrow.
own members-Hon. E. B. Ragsdale, of
ms:ce-field, and Hon. J. B. Bates, of Barn
,bars here on earth and have gone to join
irtance to command your consideration,
i, you should always bear in mfnd the
s you are. To this end you will have
h ,S uring the bg jZ of
have been prevented -f pogasib
n inue to commit outrages upon our
ummary justice, and I doubt it emer
11 stop the administration of such justice
ound. The only way to stop the punish
by the State Treaseer shows the con
Lt the close of the fiscal year, December
ding December 31, ISO
... .. .... .... 219,213.82
..... .. .. .. .. 780.49
... .. ... -. -40,583.71
. .N 13,543.76
. 4,381.69 3,833.34
. 25,120.5G 34526
dng December 31, 1901.
.. 9,266.36 19960
%k 90.760.28 316,194.65
it beca noeossary in order to meet
the currelineunses of the State gov
ernment, for' Treasurer, by author- i
ity of an Act le General Assembly,
to borro" $70,XThis loan was ne
gotiated at four cent. per annum
for thirty and sixtvs' time and has
all been paid back. .rder, however, f
to meet the interest O. State debt, I
due January first it wAcessary to r
borrow $110,000 additionazis action t
was made necessaiy by the- that a t<
very small proportion of the i had
been paid at the close of the t
In my message of the last tw,.5A
I have upon each occasion called '
attention to the subject of cart
bonds which, by the Treasurer's
port, appear as part of the old debt o
the State, but which are now, unde
the Act of IS96, no longer fundable b;
the Treasurer without the action 0
your honorable L;odies. From you:
.iournals I learn that my message upoi
the subject was referred to a Joln
Committee which reported theron, bu
which report was not adopted by th
Senate and no action taken thereon hi
the House of RepresentatiYes. Th
'raasurer calls attentlon to the bond1
and says: "I find on the books of tilii
department certain bonds as part o
the debt of the State entered as 'Ol1
Bonds Not Fundable (Act of 1896) 3lu
Railroad Bonds $37.000.' These bondi
were issued in 1859, and matured it
1879. By Act of 1896 the Treasurer b
forbidden to pay, consolidate or fun.
any coupon bond of the State after th4
expiration of twenty years from the
date of maturity of such bonds. I an
in doubt as to how longer to report
these bonds. If they are no longer
fundable why carry them longer as z
part of the debt of the State? But
while on the one hand the Treasurei
can neither pay nor fund them, on
the other he has no authority to write
them off the books." This letter was
referred to the Attorney General for
his opinion, and in reply he submits
a full and complete opinion, conclud
Ing as follows: "I am of opinion that
the bonds in question constitute as
existing adjudicated part of the debt
of the State, and as such can only be
disposed of by some Act of the Legis
Thus confirmed in my opinion and
views upon the subject by the legal of
ficers of the State, I cannot do other
wise than repeat my recommendation
of last year, viz., that the claim of the
bank to be permitted to renew and
fund these bonds is valid and just and
should be allowed. it is not den'd
that the State owes the bonds to some
one. ThcJ7 are cairied us Part Oflt
jebtyL I ' ...I-. I I Wd1
Treasurer, as owing to some on-e.. The
Courts have all decreed the bank to
be the owner no one else can now
claim them, as all persons but the
bank are barred under the Act of
1896 from doing so. I repeat, in the
face of these facts, it will be little
short of repudiation if we continue .to
refuse to allow the receiver of the
bank to fund them.
EXTENSION OF TIME FOR PAY,
MENT OF TAXES.
It is best that the tlme for the pay
ment of taxes without penalty should
be fixed, and it should be understood
that there will be no extension. In
view, however, of the stringency of
money with our farmers, and in conse.
quence with almost every other branch
of business, and in view of the fur
ther fact that the time for the pay
ment of taxes has som often been ex
tended that our people have come to
expct It, after consultation with the
Comptroller General, and by virtue of
authority given us by law, the time
for the payment of taxes without pen
alty has been extended to the first day
of March., 1902.
The question of taxation is one of
the most important and difficult prob
lems that will confront you and one
of the most profound in political econ
omy. It has been a difficult problem
ever since government has been organ.
ized and taxes laid, and never yet Aa!
a system been adopted which is en
tirely eoquitable and just and whic~r
has not been open to fraud and eva
sion and inequality. It is easy to lay
down a theory and a principle tha
will be just and equitable, but when it
comes to putting in motion the ma
chinery that will carry out in its pra
tical operations that theory and tha
will apply the principal to property
the question becomes a vexed one anC
difftcult of solution. The Constitutiox
provides that all property shall be as
sessed at its true value and therefor<
bear its share of the burden of taxa
tion. This principle was laid down L3
Adam Smith, the celebrated Scottisi
philosopher and political conomist
in the early part of the Eighteentl
century, and by all writers on politica
econoyb before and since his day
Equal and just taxation, levied on ai
property proportionately and in ,ac
cordance with its value, is the produc
of the highest justice, and when don'
to meet sirmply the demands of govern
mnt, economnicaly administered. i
nvr burdensome. On the other hani
unequal and unjust taxation Is ai
ways burdensome and has been th
cm~sc of Irany of the wars and :rnucl
of the strife all through the histor:
of the azes.
It is ncecsary to raiso a certain
amount of money to meet the expense
of the State government and this mus
he done by taxation. It makes itti
difernre to the taxpayer whether lh
lvy is high or low. The gestion tha
conecrns him i' the assessment or val
n~ation placed upon the property to h
Itaxcd, and weether cr not it is value
at the san-e ratio as other property
When the politician boasts of hav n:
redced the tax levy he is only trytn
to fool the peojle- Tne levy must b
a,.- '-az to realise a sufficien
3um to meet the a
Will be large or s T
he valuation pi 7
tnd the amou In I
nade by the Legis of I
o reduce taxation .
>ropriation. of co 1- thi
I:'ed in the Const re rec
,e more income i an- rep
aised, but that ject
-ge, for scarcely
> an iscrease in e re- As
Under the pre County C
irns .are ma.. w $ship
uditor. There meets tiv
)ard of - Assess Audito!r C.
the Sourt Houz dertakes in
La taken the retu e or two cei
oover all of t ty Board by
IThen' there - meets at PC
0. Ization,- vver the re- ist
turn use nty in one or de
two d done in some
whato anner and c- P11
complis hing in secur
ing an e ment of prop- th
erty. The-re in the state
in which so nd is assesed C
at one-third or 'ts actual val- b
ue, while other essed at its F1
real value. In fac may be two F
adjoining plantatio, one wdorth v
twice as much as eesse'1 for St
under r By r'acre. n V
taxati r ~ l Si
many it is t rule to a ales- i
stock at so much head, e
of the fact that horse ma e 1a
worth two or three. mes what ano t t1
is, even in the same County. And --
this is what To 1p Boards of
sessors and the'. County Board of
Equalizatlcn un da as equaliz'ng
property for * This' eertain y Is
is not the pup for which thesa
Boards are creat And yet it Is im- ce
possIble for a To p Board to meat in
and spend only o 'ay going over the in
returns that have een made, and get l
them equalized. It is also as impracti- In
cab:!e for a Count3 Board of Equaliza- th
tion to meet and in one or two days
equalize the asagents upon all the th
property in the County. Much more dt
could be accomplished If the law were a'
amended so as to require that ths as
County Auditor shall, after notice in in
the public prints, take returns in each Si
Township, and shall not take these re- as
turns except while preent' in the to
Township. In case any taxpayer re- a3i
fuses or fails to. make return while
the Auditor is present I& the Town
ship, -the Audito and the Toa
Board shall be aired to
property, and the owner
ship Board Of , couakting f
three discreet .iders, residents dia
of the Townshl -ho shall meet with th
the Auditor to ve the returns and
assess the pro ..That this Board i
shall be appoint y the County And!
tor and recei mpensatiQn for its ly
service. That af rs shall be made
in public in the ence of the Auditor be
and the Township oard, and that the ct
owner of the pro ty shall be reqnired ra
to answer the qu tions as now pro- st
vided by law, and ake afidavit as to w
the correctness * -Is answer. If the to
Twnshlip Board inks the return Is
too high or too lo It shall be its du- th
ty, in the presence of the owner of the 0:
property and the uditor, to raise or
lower the return I order to reach the cl
true mark et value. f the property. The
Cnairman of thes . Township Boards ti
shall constitute t County Board of t
Equalization, and- this Board shall rc
meet at '- - House and go over al
the retur County -with Uie tU
County d hear complamis o
and ap eeision to be sufl- Vw
Fject to e State Board. The ti
into a shall be appointed fl
by the a provided by law,
so as to nd indcrpeudentL asg
it is pesa .- way I. believe
much will be ga ne toward having all ~
property assessed uitably. The lhon
est taxpayer we~Ad much prefer to re- b
turn hIs property t its true value, if
by doing so he wo Id bear n'o ,nore 13
than his just porti, n of the burden, b
and the man who desires to evade t1
should be made to ear his part of thie ,
burden by having is property return- ri
edatts true valuP
There is no qu ti-on that so much C
demands your e St, your careful,a
'our though , nd yur diligent r
consderaior, . and that much con ti
cens every' citizen of th common- b
wealth as this qu tion of taxation. It
has receivdd the tention -of every b
Legisltor'who has ad the ipiterests of
his people at hear since taxves have o
been levied and go -rnment corganized, F
and yet there is n subject in which c
there is thore room for reform than I
that of equalizing t xation and placing b
upon the bo-oks for ax:ation that prop
erty wilich is now vading the o-fficers
of the law-.'
There has been a gratifying Increare t
in the taxable prop rty during the year 1
- just closed. In fa t, the increase ,ise
greater than for an *one year for sev- t
eral years past. Is, of course, has
made an increase i the amount of
taxes collected, but your- appropia
ions were larger t the last sessionI
1than the year befo e, and but for the
increase in taxable alucs there wouldi
1have been a defi.it nd the appropria
tions could not ha been met out of
t the income for the ear. Instead, how
ever- of having ne hundred n
cighty-nline million dollars of t.aa,>?
property we should have near fourt
- hundred million.
The following co parative figures
i for 1900 and 1901 a e taken from the
- Comptroller GCener 's rcport:
19 0 1901 1
SReal-........$1021 3,427 $103,258,440
roa -, . 2, 830 50,030,424
Iroads .. .o----- -
'ota . $179,514,530 $189,333,107 1
bese fzures show a tOtal increase a
lie taxable valacs for the past y. ear
or further information in regard to
; department your attention is di- 1
ted to the excellent and suggestive t
ort of the Comptroller General.
SINKING FUND. a
n my last Message to the General r
sembly attention was called to Qhe .V
t that at that time $241,030.84 of the
9,202.23 of asssts of the Cunula- t
e Sinking Fund for Reduction of S.
Brown 4% per cent. were on deposit
banks, and although drawing 4 per
it. interest were unsecured, except
the credit of the banks wherein de
31ted. This condition no longer ex
s and there is now of this fund so
posited in banlts only $59,358.-1,
Lich will soon be drawn cut to com
Ate the State House loan. This has
en accomplished during the past
ar by the loan of $123,164.37 under
e Act of 1900 "To provide for the
mpletion of the State House," end
the purchase during the past year
the Commissioners of the Sinkiu
ind of S. C. Brown 4/2 per cent.
ads and stock of the aggregate face
lue of $78,012.00. These bcnds and
ocks have been under the law con
rted Into S. C. Brown 4% per cent.
ock issued In the name of the Com
issioners of the Sinking Fund, and
though purchased at a premium, be
g 4% per cent. bonds, will until ma
irity pay almost, if not quite, 4- per
nt. on the price paid. Under the
rust this is an ideally safe investment,
ng made in the very bonds the fund
reated to retire.
e deposits in banks, unsecured ex
the credit of the banks where
pt ted, pay only four per cent.
dep d this rate of interest is
terest, y time to decrease, should
ible at the demand for money at
terest tres decline.
e money c 1st, 1901, the assets of
On Decembe -nking Fund for Re
e Cumulative own 4% per cent,
Lction of S. C. 5.52 invested Eo
nounted to $420, to five per cent.
to yield from four the ordinary
terest. The assets c 9,397.22. The
king Fund are now king Fund
sets of the Insurance S buildings
r State insurance of publi
iounts to $3311.22.
- GOOD ROADS. been
During tke past year there ha the
general a aken:ag throughou I
on the question
d in every
wys. There is no q hoor
rectly and more ge ted i
e great body of our M12
iuth has possibly been
this matter, and the t
Iting from her negligenc
to be seen.
For the past few years th
en a great influx of 'peopl
ir towns and cities and these
pidly built up at the expenze o
rrounding country. This is an
lich if possible should be remedi
r It is to the people of the country,
td not to the towns and cities, that;
.e State .must principally look for
*e preservation of her institutions.
ae of the prime causes of this great
w of population into the towns and
ties is to be found in the condition
our public highways. In most of
counties in the State during cer
in seasons of the year some of the
lds arc altogether impassable, and
1 communication and traffic with
e cities and railroad points is cut
f. Such a condition of affairs must,
ork great hardships, especially upon!
te rural districts, and the people of
ie rural districts compose thg great
.ajority of our p)opulation.
Leaving out of consideration alto
ettier the evils resulting from the.
mndition of our roads, however, and
ooking at the question from a purely
asiness standpoint, good roads
y, and are one of the
st investmecnts which -cani
a made by a County or State.
der our present metho'ds- of. road
ulding, it is necessary to rebuild
ie roads after every washing rain,
hhle if we built good, permanenlt
mads, the cost of keeping them in re-I
air would be a very small item in
amparison to what our present roads
re costing. in fact, the saving in;
ot having to work the permanent
>ads so often, would in a very short
me pay for their building. This has
een found to be the case wherever
ood, permanent roads have been
From the Seventh Annual Report
t the Commissioners of Public'
ods for the State of New Jersey.
ne of the leading States in the Good
odcs Movement, the following is
iken mcrely to show in what respect
ood roads are held by the people who
ae used them and know of their ad
anages: "The people seem to be so
ronderfully impressed with the idea
hat by good roads the value of land
rill be increased. transportation
hepened, travel and business at
racted. school houses and churches
iiled, and civilization advanced, that
hey are praying as earnestjy for
hem as for great riches. Consequent
thte prcssure for new roads is so
reat It seems almost impossible to
old the people back. They are so
ny'ous that they are not willing to
oniine themselves within the limit
f tate and County appropriationls.
he are constantly insisting upon
uiing ahead of the State appropria
ion in order that. they may enjoy
It as been estimated that in forty
sounties in T'liana where good roads
rave been. built. "the average increase
n th selin'g price of land, due to ex
stiiggIimproved highways, is %.43
10- acre. The estimated average in
'reae per acre that would esult
ro Improving all the public reads
converting the mOsmO
)ads into improved h:.ghways is
[,14G per mile. The estinaated aver
,e annual loss, per 100 sEcres, from
:or roads is $7.2S." Cn th1e basis of
iis calculation the ave-rage annual
>ss from poor roads is seventy-six
nts per acre. It will be seen that
le loss from poor roads would soon
ay for the building of the good roads
nd after replacing the amount paid
Dr their construction, the good roads
ill continue to pay.
Of course, it cannot be expected
hat South Carolina should do as
auch as some of the States have
one, but any action which may be -
aken, looking to the betterment of
>ur roads, will be of great benefit and
n the long run will actually sae
noney. Most of the worl dcne by our
haingangs upon the present roads Is
limply thrown away.
The building of public highways is
Ls much of a science a3 railroad
)uilding, and in order to auild roads
will require money, and in order to
secure money there will ave to be
provision for raising it by taxation.
The Good Roads Convcnt-on, which
was recently held in Greeaville,
passed resolutions requesting the
Legislature that oach county be
given the privilege to determine by
election the right of such county to
levy a tax, not to exceed two and one
half mills on the taxable property of *
such county, if so much be necessary,
in order to build good roads, and that
such counties as des:ce to do so begiven
authority to issue bonds to construct
and maintain their public high was
and be authorized to Issue bod - -
upon so deciding by county election.
A resolution was also passed at this
convention requesting the legislatarr - -
to enact such laws as will encourage
the use of broad tires, and also that
the County Chaingangs shall be put to
work exclusively on building good,
permanent roads. These suggestIons
are practical business propositions
and will work great benefit to the
State If carried out, and I recommend
I that they be followed.
It is most gratifying to note the in
terest which has lately been taken by
the people of South Carolina on this
subject. Most of the counties of the
State are awakening to a reanliztIOU
of the importance of the subjct.aad
much is being accomplished.
In. this connection the work which
has been done and is now being done
by the Southern Railway In this direc
tion deserves commendation. and no
doubt much of the good which has.ra
suted from this awakening Is due
partly to its efforts.
Any action looking to. the bett
ment of our roads which, -la -7Wgr
dom,-iou may see tt a
e ecessitues o a thoroug y -eq
ped volunteer service,- and why
ceved it but right and just that T's.
national gbvernment should maha
ample provision therefor. It Is
pleasure to report that the iner
of appropriation has e'nabled me tha
- current year to supply almost the en
tire service with modern accoutre
ents. And during the coming y-r
d before the expiration of my 1:
term of office I confidently i
ve every company in the SteF
ple4ely and modernly equipDr
-egular army, with the exce?
e 'magazine rifle,' the in
of which will have to be
ccount of the price. IN
s~b ewith I may add that
Ms States that the Krag
and would be issued bn
perity ing the milit14;)
pewiy t generals and
negect yservice in '~he
that will I conm of arm
terests no omagazirp
material gro at the
There is no ranit
small child con o
mills is injuriouse
cally and mentally.
recreation, play, ex
chool, things so nece.
growth and healthy
the child body and chil
lug but labor and toil
sunrise until after dark, Is
by the laws of nature to
child mind and the child
cause It is In direct confiet
laws of nature. and will have
flence and effect upon the el
ship of the future.
Even looking ;t the situation frb
a cold business point of view, It I
etter that we should not have child
labor. In a good many instances the
mill owners themselves have realized
this fact, and have prohibited child lar
br in their mills. Looking to the fu
ture, they know in order to hale skill
ed labor In the grown up man and wo
man, it Is necessary that the child of
te present shall not- only not be
dwarfed physically and mentally, by
lose confinement and labor during
the tender years of youth, but that It
shall have all the advantages offered/
by the schools of the community. In
some cases the parents who work in
the mills are required to Eign a con
tract to force their children between
certain ages to attend the public
scools provided. There are mill towns
in this State which are models in ev
erything that goes to -make an' ideal
community. The mills contribute
l.gely for the education of~ the call
den and in some of these communi
tics you will find as good school buiild
Igs as in any of the larger towns a'nd
ciies. Besides, the mill owners pay
teir part of the school tax, which
gs into the general fund and, the
most pleasant relations exis, between
the mill owners and the operatives.
The fact that the mill owners, who
arc in the best possible position to
juze by experience, recognize by
scch action the importance of edu
cing and caring for these children,
is a strong argument in favor of the
neessity of a law prohibiting child
l many instances, however, these
;uls are not required, and the nill
owners, lindlng child labor chea~et.
andlooking only to the present, sub