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FALLIN BIRTH RATE
State of Affairs That Presents Some
ONLY ALIEN AND NEGRO NORMAL
Cointry Now Largely Dependent Up
on the Foreign-Born Woman For
Its Increase of Population Except
in the South, Where Progressive
.Decrease in Rate Since 1860 Has
Been Much Less Marked.
Washington, Special.-That there
has been a persistent decline of the
birth rate in the United States since
1860 is the conclusion reached in a
bulletin issued by the Census Bu
reau. The bulletin is by Prof. Walter
P. Wilcox, of Cornell University, and
It is explained that "although the
analysis made offers many suggestions
as to probable tendencies in the birth
rate of the United States, it is, pri
marily, not a study in birth rates, but
Indicates a study in the proportion of
children to the total population or to
the number of women of child-bear
"The re.t. ' .he study shows that
at the bem I:, of the nineteenth cen
tury the children under 10 years of
age constituted one-third and at the
end less than one-fourth of the total
population. The decrease in this pro
portion began as early as the decade
of 1810 to 1820, and continued uninter
ruptedly, though at varying rates, in
each successive decade. Between IS50
and 1860 the proportion of children to
women between 15 and 49 years, the
child-bearing age, increased, but since
1860 it has constantly decreased. It is
stated that the decrease has been
very unequal, but that if the compu
tation is made upon the basis of 20
year periods it has been regular. In
1860 the number of children under 5
years of age to 1,000 women 15 to 49
years of age was 634; in 1900. it was
only 474. The proportion of children to
potential mothers in 1900 was only
three-fourths as large as in 1860. No
attempt is made by the author of the
bulletin to determine the probable
causes of this decline. An extended ar
gument by Gen. Francis A. Walker is
given, suggesting that it is largely due
to the influx of foreigners and the re
sultant shock to the population in
stinct of the natives.
In the general decrease between
1890 and 1900 not a sngle State of the
North Atlantic division took part. In
seven other States, also, there was no
decrease. In only six States, Maryland,
Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky and
Indiana, did the proportion decrease
in each of the five decades; and in
only Delaware, District of Columbia,
Wisconsin. Minnesota, Iowa, Oregon
and Colorado did it follow the tenden
cy for the cbuntry as a whole, that is,
increase from 1850 to 1860, and de
crease in the four succeeding decades.
In 1900, for the United States as a
whole, the proportion of children was
only two-thirds as great in cities as in
the country districts. In the North At
lantic division, however, it was al
most as great in the cities as in the
country. In the Southern djivision it is
' hardly more than half as large in the
cities as in the country; while in the
far West the difference is interme
diate in amount. This, it is explained,
is probably due, in large measure, to
the fact that the immigrant population
who have been swarming into the
Northern cities of recent years, espe
cially into the cities of the North At
lantic States, havt been multiplying
lantic States, have been multiplying
by numerous births with much rapid
ity, while the corresponding laboring
class which has immigrated to South
ern cities from the surrounding coun
try aistricts has not been thus increas
A comparison is made between the
proportion of children born of native
mothers to 1,fl00 native women of
child-bearing age and the proportion of
children born of foreign-born mothers
to 1,000 foreign-born women of child
bearing age. In 1900 the former pro
portion was 4C2, the latter '710, the
difference indicating the greater fecun-I
dity of foreign-born women. The bulle
"The comparison also indicates that
the total decrease in fecundity .,f
white women between 1890 and 1900
was the result of a decrease for native
white women, partly offset by an in
crease for foreign-born white women.
"In the Atlantic divisions, how
ever, there was a slight increase in the
proportion of children born to native
white mothers, and in the South cen
tral division there was but a slight de
crease- The decrease for the whole
country, therefore, was the result very
largely of the great decrease in the
North central and Weestern divisions.
Was Offered to Mr. Cleveland.
Norfolk, Va., Special.-In connec
tion with the selection of Harry
St. George Tucker for the presidency
of the Jamestown Exposition, which
was announced recently, it has devel
oped that the presidency was offered
to former President Cleveland sev
eral months ago and that he consider
ed the offer for some time before final
ly making up his mind that it would be
out of the question for him to accept.
Mr. Cleveland will probably be chair
man of the -advisory board of one hun
.dred dislin-guidhed Americans who will
be asked to serve the exposition.
President Not to Visit Tennessee City
R. Price president of the chamber of
commerre. through which body an in
vitation was extended to President
Roosevelt to visit Knoxville on his
Souther'n tour', is in receipt of a let
ter statlng that the President's South
ern trip has been planned with a view
to visitu. the principal cities of only
those States not :ncludedi in previous
tours. The President will have no time
to visit Tennessee cities.
Georgia Legislature Adjourns.
Atlanta, Ga., Special. - Georgia's
Legislature adjourned at 9:45 o'clock
Fridany night, closing its session, con
stitutionally limited to 50 days. Until
almost the last moment the fight last
ing for several days between the two
branches of the Legislature continued
over a bill fixing the general State li
quor licease. the Senate contending for
$300 and the House for $500. The for
mer figurce was a greed upon. Other fea
iures ci the sessions have been the
- creatien of eight new counties, mnak
ing the total 145. also the disbanding
of the five negro companies in the State
SOUTH CAROLINA CROP BULLKIN:
Weather Conditions Given Out by the
Department Obse ver.
The South Carolina section! of the
climate and crop service of the De
partment of Agriculture issues the
following official bulletin of weatger
and crop conditions for the past
The mean temperature for the
week ending 'Moaday, August 14th,
was slightly above normal over the
eastern half and slightly below over
the western. The extremes were a
maximum of 103 degrees at Blackville
on the Sth and a minimum of 64 de
grees at Greenville on the 9th. There
was less than the usual amount of
sunshine. High winds damaging to
corn and cotton, prevailed during the
middle of the week in the western
counties. Bottom lands were flooded
along the upper portions of the Sa
luda, Broad. Wateree' and Great Pee
Dee rivers and their tributaries and
considerable corn destroyed.
The long drought was broken over
the entire State. The rainfall was
heaviest in the central counties where
it amounted in places, to over six
inches, and was least in Beaufort and
Georgetown counties where it was
generally less than half an inch.
Tlere was rain nearly every day and
the ground is now thoroughly satu
rated. The rain was needed and in
places was very beneficial, but in
others it caused deterioration in crops
especially cotton and interfered with
farm work especially haying and pull
ing fodder. Nearly all crops have
been laid by. and further cultivation
is now impraiteicable.
With very few eceptions the re
oorts on cotton indicate rapid de
terioration due to excessive sheddin.,
rust and the plants turning yellow.
These conditions prevail over practi
cally the entire State, but are most
marked on sandy lands. In many
places growth has stopped, vhile in a
few the plants are making new
growth. Boils are opening rapidly
in the south and central counties and
considerable has b'een picked. The
exessive heat of t he 5th, 6th, 7th and
6th was very damaging to cotton.
There is a general improvement in
the condition of late corn due to the
ample moisture which came oppor
tunelv. Tobacco curing is nearly fin
ished. Peas. sweet potatoes and all
varieties of cane are doing well. The
frequent rains interfered with prepa
rations for full truck crops. Rice
made fine progress. Pastures im
proved rapidly and again afford fine
rzing. Turnips were sown exten
sively. Late friuits, especially apples
and peaches are rtting badly.
J. W. BAUER,
Very Nar-ow I'scape.
Blacksburg, Special.-A party con
sisting of Messrs. R. C. Wright~ and
A. M.' Deal, Mrs. S. M. Deal, her
mother, Mrs. 1bagis, all of Columbia,
and Mrs. Jno. Scott of Atlanta, were
returning from Cherokee Falls on
Broad river. In crossing a small
stream, wvhich was swollen out of its
banks. the horses balked when near
the opposite side from which they en
tered. breaking the harness, and leav
ing the carriage and its occupants
to the mercy of the swiftly flowing
and rapidly. rising stream. By the
eroic efforts of the gentlemen. and
by wading a short distance the ladies
ere rescued, and throtigh the kindly
>ffices of a passing countryman and
his mules the carriage was brought
mt of the stream and the now happy
party enabled to proceed on their wa
reocicng. and insteadl of a watery
trv they had only suffered a Milit
immersion. They are all on a visit
to Mrs. M. E. Deal of this place and
Dr. S. M. D~al of Columbia has ar
rived to join the family reunion.
Conductor Bull Injured.
Gnvi.1 Sp.ecial.-Charles E
Bull. a well knownt freight conductor
of the Southern railway. who re.ide1s
in this city, was thrown from the
frnt door 'of his caboose at Juneau.
a flag stop five mles south of Char:!
lotte on the main line of the South
e'n and dangerously injured by being
rmt over by the car fromt which hie
Gored by a Bull.
Anderson Special.-Mr. Eugene
Snipes, a former living some distaniee
below the city, was painfully goredI
by an infutriated bull Wednesday
afternoon. HeI had gone to the cow~
lot to milk his cows when the bull
iexpectedly attacked him. He was
oredi several times and severelv\
~ruised about the bodiy, and( it is eer
tai that lie would have been killed1
had not others come to his rescue and
Wjjih the aid of pitchforks driven off
the maddened animal. .Just as soon
as Mr. Snilnes was rcecued lhe cuered
a pistol and killed The bull.
Probably a Peddler.
Rock Hill. Special.-The body of a
white mlan, aged abo'ut (it years. was
found lying beside the railway track
near the Manchester mas The hadi
vas restin on01 a erossJte ThereC wer~e
no marks to show fo1'l ')'Jv or lhat
he had be en stiruck hv a trin. Thle
night before the body was found :a
man answerii:- the d.escr~iinf the
one found dead' applied for sh'elter
at a house in the mill village
Senator Tillman Challenged.
Spartanburg, Special.-Mr. C. P.
Sims, the attorney of this city, has
challenged Senator Tillman to a joint
debate on the dispensary. Mr. Sims
bs recently been prominently before
the public as attorney' for certain of
the Spartanburg dispensory oficeials
during the recent invest igation here.
One letter sent Senator Tillman not
having been answered, another chal
PLUNGED TO DEATH,
Loaded Excursion Train Goes into
Open Draw Bridge
CARELESSNESS OF THE ENGINEER
Excursion Train Ran Into an Open
Draw Bridge, the Engine and Two
Cars Loaded With Negroes Going,
Into Deep Water.
Norfolk, Va., Special.-Owing to the
nability of Engineer D. L. Reig to
,ontrol his air breaks, an excursion
'rain from Kinston, N. C., bound to
this city, plunged through an open
raw in a bridge over the western
branch of the Elizabeth river at Bruce
station, eight miles from Norfolk,
rhursday afternoon, and a half hun
Ired persons, mostly negroes, were
drowned. Up to a late hour Thursday
aight only seven bodies had been re
:overed from the wreckage. The list
:f injured, so far as can be ascertain
ad, numbers nearly one hundred,
:hough most of these are slightly hurt.
A large number of physicians from
:his and nearby cities have gone to the
Only Two White Victims.
Among the victims, the only white
ynes were Edward Joliffe, manager of
he -excursion, and Edward Forbes,
who assisted him, both of Greenville,
The Merritt wrecking organigation
lispatched an expedition tc the scene
'or the purpose of raising the sunken
:ars, which lie in about 35 !eet of wa
:er. Until the cars are raised, no accu
ate estimate of the number of dead
:an be given.
The train was composed of an en
,ine and six passenger cars. The en
,ine and two cars went through the
iraw, leaving the four rear cars on
:he track. One car was completely sub
nerged and the other partly submerg
ad. Nothing is visible of the locomo
ive, not even the smoke stack. It is
believed every occupant of the first
ar perished. The dead can be gotten
)ut only by diving under the car.
Struggle Terrible to See.
The scene following the wreck was
yne of indescribable horror, with the
hrieking of men, women and child
en, who were drowning, struggling
>ut of the partly submerged coach and
loating in the river.
The passengers who were uninjured
mmediately started to rescue those
mprsoned in the cars. Norfolk and
Portsmouth were communicated
with and the physicians were sent out
>n a wrecking train. Many people in
:he neighborhood went to the scene
)f the wreck and helped in the rescue.
rhe injured were taken to the track
)mbankment and were attended there
)y the physicians.
Collins Ferguson, the colored bridge
:ender of the Atlantic Coast Line, was
knocked from the bridge by the im
pact, and killed. Engineer Reig and
Bireman Alfred Cooper, colored, es
:aped by jumping.
Trains before and Behind.
The wrecked train left Kinston, N.
., at 7 o'clock Thursday morning
ith 165 colored excursionists for
Torfolk. It was due to arrive at Nor
olk at 1 o'clock the same day. Fol
owing this train was another excur
ion. over the same road bringing 300
3xcursionists from Rocky Mount, N. C.
Preceding the wrecked train was still
mnother excursion train carrying some
00 merchants and others from Augus
:a, Ga., Charleston, S. C. and Jackson
rille, Fla., bound to Baltimore, Phila
elphia and New York for the pur
:hase of fall goods.
The first train arrived at 8:30
3eloc]g Thursday morning without ac-.
3ident and the Augusta, Jacksonville
m~d Charleston merchants all left for
:he North Thursday night by water.
rhe Rocky Mount excursionists and
:he survivors of the wreck were
>rought here over the Norfolk & West
Ennineer Couldn't Explain.
The Atlantic Coast Line officials are.
it a loss to know why Engineer Reigs
'ailed to stop his train before coming
:o the draw, as required by the rules
>f the road. An investigation of the
ause of the. wreck will be made at
>nce, and the responsibility placed
where it belongs.
Reigs, himself, could make no ex
planation. He was brought to Nor
~olk. He was taken from the barge on
~he shoulders of three men. He enter
ad the hospital ambulance on his
:nees, crawled to a pillow in the front
nd buried his head in it. He could
>nly tell that his name was S. B.
Reigs and that hais home was in East
Radford, Va. He could not give the
ause of the disaster, and the ambu
ance was hurried at once to the hos
By Wire and Cable.
Capt. Ruser, of the steamship
Mfoltke, reports unusual activity on
the part of the Gulf Stream in the path
Chicago advices indicate that the
sugar rate war between Eastern rail.
roads and the Gulf lines hr s been ter
A negro entered the home of an
Episcopal edergyman in New York and
struck down the minister and his wife.
He was himself killed by a policeman
in trying to escape.
The Japanese papers are divided in
their views as to the outcome of the
The yellow fever situation in New
)rleans was not materially changed.
The Hongkon~g authorities forbade
hinese to hold a meeting to agitate
urther the American boycott.
A cordial welcome was given the Taft
arty at Iiolio, Philippines.
In the Norwegian referendum only
61 votes were cast in favor of contin
ing the union with Swenden.
Because it was not apporvedl by
uecn Wilhekin.~ the Dutch Cabinet
~ecently named has len recast.
Nursery Association Meets.
Norfolk, Special-The Southern Nur
ery Association, which embraces the
principal fruit interests south of Bal
~imore met here. J. Van Lindly, of
Pomona. N. C., is president of the as
ociation. There are about 75 delegates
n attendance at the cenvention. The
ime of the boiy was taken up princi
ally. with the reading of reports and
paprs on special subjects of interest
Occurrences of Interest in Various
Parts of the State.
Ccneral Cction MV-arket.
(Jz'uriam, steady....., ..
Now: rl:ms. quiet..
Nibile. nominl ..........
I I i:m <pzuiet....
A sta, firm .. .. .. .. .. .....10%
s ,firm.... .. ... ....10 >
Charlotte Cotton Market.
These figuires represent piies paid
to w qe. .0
Strict l ia le.a........10/5
GIto. tead.. . . .. . ..30%
.Strict idlin... .... ....10
Miino......... .. ....10%
Stauis ....... ..... .. ....to 9
Spartanburg. Special.-The 20th
annual report of Sparanburg grad
ed schiools, ionpiled by Superinten
dent Frank Evans, a..d printed in
attractive book form, -will be issued
within a few days. This report co
tainis a great deal of itnerestino mat
ter pertaining to tbe educational af
fair of the city. The following is a
summary of general statistis: Pop
elation of city in 1900, 11,39; pop
lation in 1905 (estimated) 15,000;
atmeration 16 to 20 (estimated),
ta0ns: number of pupils in ubli
sehools, 2,44 average daily atten
dance 1,76 per cet. of white, 90;
per cent. of colored, SS; number of
wile t0achers, 28; number of col
ored teachers, 10; number pupils per
teaeber, 47; number school buildings,
4: value school buildings, $44.000;
value school lots, $23,000: school fur
niture and aparatus. $6.500; value of
libraries. $350. The receipts for the
school year 1904-05 amounted to
$21.405.71, and the expenditures to
Clemson College Report.
The report on Clemson College has
been issued. It shows that the farm
ers' college established for the poor
boys. has become one of the richest
and most expensive institutions in
the South. The attendance is about
000, and, in many particulars, the
school is doing a splendid work in
turning out boys with occupations by
which they can earn a good living.
The report shows that $155.212 was
spent for the last scholastic year.
Much of this came in from what is
known as the fertilizer privilege tag
tax. a tax of 25 erts a ton on comn
mrial fertilizers from the manu
facturers. This tax last year amount
ed to $11S,000 and will be about the
same this year. A fight was made
in the last Legislature to have this
tax dividedI with Winthrop, but the
scheme, after a vigorous fight, was
killed in the Senate.
Two Anderson Oficers Wounded by
Anderson, Special.-Sheriff Nelson
R. Green and his deputy, W. N. Scott,
received slight wounds at the far
mers' barbecue last week in arresting
four young men of the county for dis
orderly conduct. The men are A. L.
Whitten and three brothers named
Richev. It seems that these men
ere cursing and talking loudly at the
table and when they were ordered
by the sheriff to keel) quiet one of
themi resisted the officer, who was cut
across the abdomen. His deputy was
also slightly wounded. The men were
taken into custody and are now in
the county jail.
South Car:>Iina Items.
The election held in Union county
to v~ote out the dispensary resulted
in a large majority for "the dry tick
Captain Tillman H. Clark, one of
tle tonders of tl:e town of Trenton,
died Wednesday night. lie was a
popular and useful citizen.
Senator Tillman spoke at Anderson
last week. In his speech he outlined a
lan to lput the dispensary into the
ands of the governor, the attorney
general and the comptroller general;
that these purchase the supplies for a
var at a time from tihe lowest re
sponsible bidder, the bids to be ac
comphanied by bond for faithful per
formance of contract.
Robert Havnsworth was killed by
a live elee1nie wive at Dar lington
Thursay. He had gone out to re
nar soo ehc rie \ight wires that
were broken by a sto!rm. and caught
hldG of a live' wire, resulting in in
Thec South Caroliua Industrial and
Comriereial associati on was organized
last week. the membexrsihip being comn
posed of progres-ivo young :uen rep
enta'" tlue bord of trade and
sh buisiness uu:a~ nzains in the
~ites of tile State.
Stemers no'?:piy regularly be
wen Georgetown and Columbie. It
is saidi that freigiht rates will be
Member of Saluda Bar Passes Away.
Sauda. Specia.-A 'phone message
re(eivd here annutunces the sudden
de~lh of MIr. .Jolhn Gr'egorv. an at
tornerQ of this bar, near Oldtown, in
NMbrrv county, aboutt noon1 Thurs
day. Mir. Gregory resided here and
pratied at this bar. He left Saluda
1'hursay moning, saying he was go
ing 1)apeli. Qn arriving at a
uous. w-r Olown he complained
o feeli:: badlyv andl died soon af
tr;ards. He leaves a wife and one
PRIVATE CAR LINES
Man!y Complaints From Mary Sec.
lions !ave Been Lodged
INTER-STATE COMMISSION ACTS
Southern, Seaboard, Atlantic Coast
Line and Other Railroads. Along
With the Armour Car Line tnd
Other Such Concerns Are Made Re
spondents in Proceedings.
Wasbington, Special.-The inter
State commerce commission, on its own
initiative and as a result of complaints
against private car lines, unexpectedly
began an investigation of the relations
between railroads and refrigerator
lines, by which it is charged that the
act to regulate inter-State commerce is
being violated in several specified par
ticulars. The complaint set forth by
the commission is directed against the
Armour Car Line, the American Refrig
erator Transportation Company, the
Santa Fe Refrigerator Dispatch, and
the following railroads:
St. Louis & San Francisco, Atchison,
Topeka & Santa Fe, St. Louis, Iron
ountain & Southern, Central of Geor
gia, Southern Atlantic Coast Line, Sea
board Air Line, Pennsylvania, South
ern Pacific, and Kan,:as City South
The railroads and refrigerator lines
are made respondents in proceedings
which require that specific answer to
all allegations be made to the inter
State commerce commission by Septem
It is charged that by way of rebates
r other devices the refrigerator lines
are acting for the railroads as author
ized agents, and the railroads, acting
through the refrigerator lines, are col
lecting and receiving for the refrigera
tion of fruit and vegetables lower rates
from some shippers than they are con
temporaneously receiving for similar
service rendered to other shippers. This
is held to be in violation of section 2
and 3 of the act to regulate inter-State
Another charge is that failure and
neglect to publish at shipping stations
and file with the inter-State commerce
ommission the rates and charges im
posed for the refrigeration of fruits and
vegetables, constitutes a violation of
section 6 of the inter-Stace commerce
The commission alleges further that
the charges published jointly by the re
frigerator lines and the railroads for
the refrigeration of fruits in certain
specified territories are unreasonable,
unjust and in violation of section 1.
The territories described are Missouri,
Adkansas, Indian Territory, Texas,
California to Eastern points, Louisiana
and Kansas, and Georgia, South Caro
lina and North Carolina, to New
Complaints against the private car
lines extend over the entire life of the
first act to regulate inter-State com
merce and all acts amendatory thereto.
Hearings have been had in various sec
tions of the country, and not infre
quently have changes in the schedules
been made for the announced purpose
of remedying alleged abuses. Combi
nations of railroads and .private car
lines have prevented any wholesale
regulation of these rates. Charges of
discriminations against small shippers
have poured in on the commission for a
number of years. The matter has been
made the subject of investigation by
ongressional committees. and several
laws have been passed giving increased
powers to the commission in an effort
to reach alleged combinations said to
be prohibitive of the small shipper en
tering into competition with shippers
leasing by the year large numbers of
The action taken by the inter-State
ommerce commission now indicates a
belief that certain cases set forth in the
proceedings can be reached under the
present laws. In any event, the pro
eedings are looked upon as a test. and
it is declared they will prove of inesti
mable value in informing Congress
what new laws are needed for national
ontrol of private car lines where com
binations are made with railroads
which affect the freight and refrigera
For National Assembly.
st. Petersburg, by Cable.-A com
mission has been appointed to draw
up a manifesto which will be issued by
the Czar announcing the convocation
of a proposed national assembly. This
ommission will be composed of Ba
ron Inskoul Von Dildebrandt, M. Ma
noukhen and Stiestunsky and Prose
cutor Gene'ral Pobiedonostzef.
Killed by N. & W. Agent.
Roanoke, Va., Special.-A Roanoke
Times special from Wytheville, Va.,
says that Frederic. Borchers, a pros
pector from Philadelphia, who has
been prospecting on Cripple Creek,
this county, for several months, was
shot and killed while returning from
Wytheville by Charles W. Gose, Nor
folk & Western Railway agent at
Cripple Creek station. Borchers and
Gose had some misunderstanding
aout some money. Borchers came to
Wtheville at a late hour last night.
and after attending to some business
hre left for Cripple Creek. He was
met by Gose on the mountain, where
h was killed.
Pays Big Dividend.
New York, Special.-The Standard
Oil Company has declared a quarterly
dviderd of S6 per share, payable
September 15th to stock of record of
August 18th. This makes $30 per share
dclared so far this year against $20
per share for the same time last year.
By Wire and Cable.
By a practically unanimous vote,
Norway declared in favor of the disso
ltion of the union with Sweden.
The 'contemplated session of the
pace envoys Monday afternoon was
omitted in deference to the wishes of
the Russians, who desired to observe
the Sabbath, both Russians and Jap
anese going to church.
M. Witte still wants the sessions of
the envoys public. but the Japanese
say Count Cassini insisted upon secre
cy some time ago..
President Roosevelt is authority for
the statement that Congress will prob.
ably not be called together in extra
The mayor of Richmond signed the
ToPICS OF iNTEREST TO THE PLAt
1'reparing Land For Alfalfa.
I. .T. C., Franklin, writes: "I hav
about three acres of land 'which I de
sire to seed in alfalfa. For the pas
four years I have been seeding thi:
down to crimson clover in the- fall
turning this under in the spring an
planting corn. The land is mediun
stiff with clay subsoil. I would liki
your advice how to proceed to get thi
land in alfalfa. I have another pieco
of land that has only been in cultiva
tion since last year. Last year it was
seeded to cowpeas and in the fall ti
crimson clover. wheat, rye and oats
Would you advise seeding this land t<
Answer-It would be well for you t(
turn under the crimson clover on th4
land intended for alfalfa, plow it dowi
deeply. work carefully, and seed t(
eowpeas as soon as possible.. Plow un
der these about the first of September
and subsoil at the same time. goin,
down as deeply as possible behind th<
turning plow. You can not get to(
much vegetable matter and nitrogei
in the soil for alfalfa nor make thi
land too rich. When you sow the cow
peas you might make an applicatior
f 200 pounds of sixteen per cent. aci
phosphate and fifty pounds of muriat(
of potash, and repeat this- applicatioi
when you seed the alfalfa. Sow at the
rate of twenty pounds of seed, and in,
oculate either by soil or artificial cul.
tures as you see fit. After the alfalfM
is up a light application of nitrate 0l
oda, say, fifty pounds per acre,.-wil
be beneficial. Do not clip or pasturE
the alfalfa during the fall. If a good
tand is obtained it may be cut for hay
the next year when just coming intc
bloom. If it seems sickly and is yel
owish in appearance, clip frequently
throughout the summer.
The other piece of land which you
ntend to put in alfalfa should be
treated somewhat the same. If it iE
poor it is hardly worth while to sow
alfalfa on it until it has been mad(
ich and freed of weeds. for weeds con
stitute one of the most serious draw
backs to alfalfa culture. If you dc
eed to alfalfa sow the cowpeas al
nce and plow them under and treat at
ilready outlined. If conditions are un
Eavorable for seeding in the fall ii
would be better to again sow the land
to crimson clover, or some other win
ter growing legume and break up ,early
in the spring and seed the alfalfa ai
that time. If the ground is dry and
the season backward the alfalfa wil:
aot germinate and make a good stand
before cold weather comes on, and it it
ardly worth while to seed it, as it wil:
be almost certain to result in failure.7
Inoculating Lard For Cowpeas.
E. A. S.. Richmond, Va-., writes:
vould like some suggestions as to whla1
would be the best way to inoculat(
300 acres for cowpeas.
Answer: Peas often do fairly wel
without inoculation, as the seed il
large and very often covered witil
the bacteria which produce the nodulet
or this particular c'rop. When growi
an poor land the first year, however
they are likely to show a large numbei
>f nodules, and therefore- inoculatioI
is a matter of some considerable con
cern. We would be glad to- send yot
the inoculating material from the- sta
tion if it were possible for- so large at
area, but it would cost you consider
able, and it is likely that you- could ar
range to get a few loads of earth fron
a field which grew the peas success
fully last year. but you should be, cer
tai that the peas formed a large num
ber of nodules. Get about 200 poundt
>f earth for each acre you intend- t<
sow in peas and mix with the seed ani
lrill together, or you could broadc'as1
the earth over the land and then g<
ahead and seed the peas. One hun
:red pounds of earth are often consid
red sufficient. but it is better- anc
safer, as a rule. to use 200 pounds
You could probably get the earth at
Lower cost than we could f'urnish yoi
the material, and It is doubtful if w<
eould undertake to furnish enough fo:
300 acres. as tihe demand on us foi
sall amounts is very great. and W4
are having- great difficulty in getting
ut enough bacteria for the principa:
leguminous crops to supply the need!
>f tile small farmer. Soil inoculatiol
s safe and is recognized as- effectiv<
nd under the circumstances I fee
justified in advising strongly the im
portance~ of inoculating your land fo.i
black peas.-Andrew M. Soate.
Destroying sassafras Sprouts.
W. I. C., Stewartsville, writes: "3i
would like to know how to kill sassa
fras sprouts. I used lime and havE
succeeded in getting red clover or
part of it. but the sassafras seems- t<
get thicker eac'h year. I have heart
that common salt would kill the stuff
nd I fear if I put it on thick enougi
to kill the sassafras 'it would kill th<
Answer-The most effective methoi
of destroying sassafras sprouts tha
has come to my attention is througl
Sacrifice always looks most attiac
ive when it is too late to give it.
Better is it to be able to makt
riends than to build up finances.
The greatest place of honor is thE
ml that duty gives.
Repencftanlce does not unto the pow
3r of evil example.
You cannot increase short weigh
v'ithi heav'y words.
All great work accomplished is bu
m outlook for larger work.
The word of salvation is always i:
The fear of the Lord secures thi
light of the dcvii.
The lowering brow doez not provr
the heavy brain.
Walking worthily means more thai
Sueprstition is what you do not be
lieve science is what you do.
Prosperity is not synonymous wit]
!TER. STOCKMAN AND TRUCK GROWER.
the use of a very heavy strong plow;
that can be run at a depth of ten or
. twelve inches in the soil so as to ef
fectually get under the roots and tear
them out and bring them to the sur
face. If necessary put on four mules,
and run the plow so as to cut and tear
the roots loose in the soil. Then. if
you will run a heavy harrow over the
land, or, better still, some form of cul
tivator that has curved teeth on the
same principle used in many corn cul
tivators, you will be able to gather the
roots together in bunches on top of the
ground, and after allowing them to
dry awhile you can burn and destroy.
them effectually. Of all the methods
I have ever seen and tried this has
proven to be the most satisfactory,
and I am sure it will work wel under
proper conditions, for I have seen a!
number of fields literally infested with
sassafras cleaned up as suggested.
Lime and salt will not destroy sassa
fras roots from what I know of this
pest, and I agree with you in believing
that if enough lime were used to be of
service that it would be more or less
likely to- injure the trees- growing o
the land.-A.. M. Soule.
Improving Corn by Selection of Seed.
H.. C.. R..,. Claxton, writes" I would
like to- know what you think of the
.value of seed selection for corn.
Answer:: There is no doubt but that
the yield of corn can be increased
through judicious selection so- as to ob
tain a strain that will be more prolific
than many varieties now grown. In
experiments r have made IC have noted
that where SOO stalks were planted to'
the acre not more than 6000' ears were
sometimes harvested; whereas, im
other plats with'an equal number of
stalks as many as 9500 ears: were har
vested. It is easy to see, therefore,
that some varieties are more- prolifie
than others, and as a matter of fact,
there are quite a number of stalks in
practically all corn fields which are
barren. These stalks are large enough
to 'produce a heavy ear and would of
ten do if the variety were selected so
as to avoid any sterile stalks. Corn
breeding may be compared in impor
tance to animal breeding; just as strik
ing and valuable results can be ob
tained by giving care to selecting de
sirable strains of corn as have resulted
in the systematic effort to- develop a
trotter of phenomenal speed in Amer
ica.. The analogy in the two instances
is complete and would answer your
question as fully as pages of facts of
similar importance.-Professor Soule.
Low Headed Trees.
The old style orchard was often high
headed,. with- the limbs well up out of
the way. - The idea was to- train the
tree so- high- that teams could be driv-,. -
en- under and to keep the limbs above
the reach of' cattle. Now that these
items are- of' less importance to most
orchardists the tendency is in the op
posite direction, until .T. H. Hale asks
pertinently:: "What's the use of a trunk
anyway?"' It may be said in favor of'
the low d'own tree that the frult may
be picked at considerably less cost and
is not so likely to be blown off by the
wind. Spraying is. alsos less difficult.
It i's in many ways the better tree for
those who- do not cultivate directly,
under large trees and who keep cattle
away from the orchard.. In a row of
the summer apples the trees were cut
back much shorter than in many or
chards,. consequently the limbs are
sturdy enough to hold the fruit with
out bending. These trees averaged
about four cases to the tree. The trees
branch out about eight or ten- inches
from the ground.
Keep Dnckling Dry.
It is. claimed that the Pekin d'uck
will thrive well without ponds. It is.
true that the ducklings can be more
easily raised away from ponds- or
streams than when allowed to have ac
cess thereto, but this is due to the- fact
that most of the ducklings are hatched
with incubators during the winter sea
son, when the cold. waters of the pond
would chill them and cause loss.
Young ducks will thrive better if they
are kept away from the ponds untils
they are well feathered. but despite all
claims in favor of the Pekin ducks as
being adapted to. dry locations,. my ex
perience is that the adult ducks are
more contented when they have a
pond. Like ail aquatie birds, they en
joy the water;, and they will thrive on
an open field away from water (ex
cept for drinking), yet they give the
best results when they have the privl
eges .of a pond.
Remedy For Potato Bugs.
Here is a: true and tried remedy to
use for potato bugs: Take the boughs
of the cedar tree, limbs and all, cut
them up and put into- a pot and boil
for two hours. When: cool apply 'with
a broom on the potato vines. The
writer' has tried the above receipt, and
it killed or made the bugs move from
his pateh.-Polk County NewsL
Shot Husband For Burglar.
Royston, Ga., Special.--Ex-Senator
and County School Commissioner W.
H. Cobb, of this place, was fatally shot
by his wife for a burglar. He was
unconscious until his death at 1:30
o'clock in the morning, Mr. Cobb was
shot twice, one shot taking effect in
the head,- ahe other taking effect ini
No Fever in Missippi.
tJackson, Miss., Special.--There is
no yellow fever cases in Mississippi,
according to the official announcement
made by the State Health Board.
The suspicious cases reported at Holly
Springs and Yazoo City were diagnos
ted by experts and~ both pronounced
ordinary types of malaria. The board
has inaugurated a policy of sending
yeilow fever experts out on special
trains wherever' a suspicious case 16