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A TALK WITH SE(
Secretary Wilson,~ as. the official
head of the great family of American
farmers, views with some consider
able satisfaction the abundant crops
which have bioseod almost every see
tion of the country.
"The harve-s li:n-e been heavy.' he
said, -'and the farmers will make
more moner than in an average year.
The prices 'on farm products will be
lower, but the crops will bring the
farmers, nevertheless, more money.
Liv::: shou:.1 be cheaper, too. The
hay and grain crops have bvii enor
mous-probabiy re ord lrealers-and:
meat as a result should be more plen
tiful and cheaper. I say it should be.
The producer and consumer are so far
apart, and so much goes on in between
these two prinipai l that it is ileult
to say just to what extent production
affects the cost of actual consumption.
A great deal goes to the middleman;
too much, I believe. It is a long and
devious pathway from the farmer to
the man who eats the things which he
has grown. I gave out a statement
here the other day intimating that the
local Washington dealers were charg
ing in certain instances too much, and
a dealer caine at ne with a wrathy
assertion to the effect that I did not
know what I- was talking about and
t!at he made a protit of only forty
Co-Operation in the South.
"I have ben watching the South
with a .reat deal of interest," con
tinued the Secretary. "The:- have ac
complished more in effecting an or
ganization down there to bring the cot
ton producer and eonisumier toget her
than has been attempted with any
other of our great agricultural produc
tions. The cotton crop is a big one
this year ,though not by any means a
recor'd breaker. The grass and hay
crop is probably the biggest we have
ever had; our corn crop is probably a
rceord crop and our wheat crop is one
of the very largest."
"That is the order of importance of
"No, I should put cotton third in im
portance-grass, corn, cotton, wheat;
though of course, our meat animals,
taken as a whole, are more important
than any one. Why, the poultry pro
duction alone is worth 400 million dol
lars a year-as great or greater than
the value of the wheat crop. We will
undoulbtedly export some very fine
hogs this year-choice corn fed hogs.
Pork is our greatest meat export. A
quarter of a bil:n dollars would
hardly cover our animals exported this
yr a r. I fancy, probably amounting to
whet ro o the coutry
No Longer Big Hog Eaters.
"The American people are no longer
such great pork eaters, you know. We
send our hogs abroad and are eating
more mutton, veal and beef."
"The present condition and the fu
ture outkook for t he .inwrican farmer
is a good one then, Mr. Secretary?"
'Yes. things certainly look well.
generally; yet I believe we are very
I Tiear to a sort of agricultural risis
hardly a crisis perhaps,. but an import-.
ant and radical change. The farm
nands everywhere are leaving the
firm for the factories. Wherever
there-is any manufacturing you will
iind this to be the e:.
The farmer has pretty nearly reach
ed his limit. le is doing al)out all
),e ('1n do with his hands nad with the
most improved labor-saving farm ma
worked by good horses. This
li~l condition on the farm Is going to
tveet production and prices, and that
ery shortly. It is impossible to say just
what the effect will be, but a change
is coming. The farmer must have la
bor, but with the prices of farm pro
ducts as they are now, he can not meet
the wanes offered by the factories;
therefore the farm hands are gradually
shifting toward the centers-the towns
and the cities."
Mr. Wilson Not a Theorist.
"I would like, Mr. Secretary, to have
a message from yon to the American
farmer for the coming year."
"Oh, I can never discuss things in
an academic way," remarked Mr. Wil
son, with a smile. "You will have to
refer to some of our bulletins."
"Well, I mean a few words of per
sonal advice to the farmer, to an indi
vidual American farmer regarding his
work for next year."
E IN DIXIE LAND.
"No, I can not do anything with these
hothetical cases of hi.;her farm edu
"Weli. then, what should a an do
with the manure which accumulates
on his farm?'
"Ie should put it on his land." re
plied the Secretatry. nowv thoroughly at
home: he shoul tae it out on the
land at once andl not let it accumulate:
haul it out and spread it on as fast as
it is made. The ground will get the
good of it."
"Won't the ammonia evaporate and
the fertility be lost to the soil?"
"No. it has bee1n demonstrated by
careful experiments that the haulinz
out of manure is t> best method. It
will go down inte the grass roots. It
will not lose the ammonia because am
monia is produced by bacteria and
these bacteria flourish only under three
conditions, moisture. heat and oxygen.,
There are three classes of bacteria
which must operate upon manure be
fore it is available for plant food. The
ammonia bacteria attacks it first; it Is
then converted by other bacteria into
nitrites, and, lastly, by still other bac
teria, into nitrate, when the roots ofI
THE KITCHEX GARDEX.
More Than Two Thirds of the Living
of a Family Can Be RaiseJ.
If the farners wife could induce
her liege lord to contribute t.e same
catic. patience and labor next spring
to the kitchen garden which his
grandfather did during his day, there
would be perhaps a consideraole gain
in the household's economy as well as
much satisfaction developed for the
housewife. The old folks insist that
even with the greatly increased vart
ety and excellhnce in fruits and Vee
tables, due to many plant generationS
SECRETARY 'WILSON AND GROUP OF Cl
GROUNDS AT TIME OF C011MENCEN
cf selection and breeding by the seeds
mna andt scientists, the kitchen
garden on an average is not so well
planted or tended, has less variety.
and on the whole is much inferie
to the same institution in the "good
old days" when grandfather was a
It is an oft repeated argument. in
every fnr jcurnial that more atten
tion should be given to the garden;
that fully two-thirds of the living for
the farmer's family, however large,
caa be produced from a good garden,
T Aes Ar
go ee. a elpne roaino
of hard w re- godwhe oe l
anduce that lat expensea ry sil,
area will producea very large amount.
Not only should the table be sup
plied from spring to late fall, but
large stocks of staples should be
saved for winter use. Of courre,
every farmer stores in his cellar po
tatoes, turnips, pumpkIns and other
coarse crops, but there are many
others equally good and almost as
esily cured and kept which no
longer contribute to the winter's table
and have been supplanted by cheap
eanned goods, in the long :un expen
sive and usually very inferior.
Limas for Dr-ying :Pick Them Creen.
Take, for instance, lima beans. If
these are picked and shelled when
gren-the same as though for imme-'
dia tabl useantendredinth
su.teI ilcnttt hog h
dstape itaber proaduhen als esily
w~anina enncou hun 'hon ome dish
the boiled 0ob at "roasting car" stage.
And, among others, okra or gumbo
makes equally as :ood soup in win
ter as when fresh in summer.
When it comes to canning and pre
serving,. there is little real comparison
between the home canned prorCuct
and heu::ht goods. It time is con
sidered as money. cannel fomatoes
can be bought probably cheaper thani
they can be ;.rroUw and canned at
home. But how about the results?
If the farmer's wife should -,o
through the ordinary canning estab
lishient she would probably conclude
to do every speek of her own can
IEF. )EPAtMENT OF AGRICULTURE
:ENT OF WC11lA ON NEW BUILDING.
ning hereafter and avoid setting on
her mTh11le sour green fruit, artifieiall
colored and sweetened with coal tar
With the supposed degeneration of
the irdividual farm garden. it is in
teresting to note that the professional
miarke-t garden. as an industry, has
The farm gairdens, "market gar
dens" and truck gardens" of today
are the producers of a multitude of
"miscellaneous vegetables" almost un
ikfnown ifty years ago. In the census
.. . . . . . .. .
of 1890 the large increase in garden
products was recognized, and a sys
tematic count of their bulk and value
was madle. It is possible, therefore,
to ma~ke a ten-year comparison of the
increase of such prodlucts, and this re
cords the remarkable increases from
10 per cent to 400 per cent in the tive
several divisions of the country. The
North Atlantie States hadl a well de
veloped indlustry in "garden products"
before 189V. which accounts for the
relatively low increase. However, 190
per cent in 10 years. while the popu
lation increased only a trifle over 20
per cent., is amazing.
When To'matoes Were Believed
Could our grent-granddaddies. who
thought toma~ttoes poisonous, and our
great-grandmothers, who grew them
as ornaimental plants in window pots,
S and Cattle
nder the attrnetive name of "love
apples" Come back and realize that
over thirty million bushels of the
pretty poisonous vegetables, accord
ing to a statement in Harper's Week
ly, are eaten as a common and health
ful food. they would surely realize
that time works o-nderful chnges.
NO OTHER WAG
8 .; tin Perfect Adaptability I
8'LARGEST PRODUCERS OF PAI
I& irk k's
SO A P,
Iis a green soap, consistencyv of paste. a Perfect
cleanser .for automnorle machinery and all
vehicles; will not injure the most highly
polished surface. Made from pure vegetable
oils. If your dealer does not carry A merican
Crownx Soa p in stock, sen d us his name andj
Iaddress and, Ve will see that your wants are
supplied. Put up in 12Y 25 and 50 11c pails.
James S. Kirk& Company
CHICA GO, HUL.
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We have published somre good ones spec
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Write for our catalogue.
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St. Paul Minn.
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i-a-ee op cositn c k pse pefc t
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Weveblihe sm ods spec
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Every akemrety of hfr
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ofhippck ned-exprels Cao
sill. WihMenile ordeorsae pwrs
WILA. RS. taa NisoLA Y
ONS APPROACH *
Inder all Conditions to)I
Old Hickory 8
,IM WAGONS IN THE WORL.D 8
of unfailing service
WTfCKOFF, SEAMANS & BE
37 DsADaway. s SWoAX
SaYd PR S
The alerfocrsped BCes 12to1
Sel.ed Ctaentu' reya
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