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The depletion of the timber lot and
the gradual decrease in the supply of
lumber, with the consequent increase
in the cost of wood, make the erection
of fences on the farm a matter of con
cern, for the landholder heretofore has
looked upon wood as a proper material
for the construction of an effective
fence. Metal-that is, fL? ce wire-has
almost entirely replaced the rails which
at one time were considered necessary
to make a fence stock-proof. We still
find, however, that timber is, in most
localities, the cheapest material for
fence posts, though the supply avail
able is becoming scarcer each year,
and it 'c possible that in the future
It may be necessary in every section
of the country to use posts made of
Iron or concrete, even as is now done
in many places.
An essential feature of a rail fence
is a comparatively short panel, but
now that wire is, in the majority of
cases, taking the place of the rail, it
is questionable whether as many posts
are necessary as was the case when
rail were used. Recent tests were made
at an English experiment station to de
termine upon the best method of con
structing.a fence. One point considered
was whether a fence constructed with
a dropper is as efficient and 'durable
as one constructed entirely with posts.
A second point under consideration was
the minimum number of posts required
In the construction of an efficient and
durable fence when droppers are used
and the character of the dropper re
quired for best results. The dropper is
a thin vertical brace used to strengthen
the stretch of wire between posts. As
metal is admittedly more durable than
wood, an endeavor was made to obtain
a suitable rigid metal dropper, but with
NOTCH THE CORNER POSTS LOW.
An error that farmers sometimes
make in erecting a fence is that they
place the corner supports or struts too
neag the top of the post, and conse
quently at too great an angle with the
line of the fence, so that when the wires
are strctched tightly the post is pulled
out of the ground, notwithstanding
that huge bowlders are piled against
the post or hung on it, in an endeavor
to keep it in the ground. One fence
which has been found to prove very
satisfactory consists of square posts
and top rail, with three or four rows
of plain wire fastened on the outside
edges of the post, instead of through
holes bored in the uprights. To these
wires is fastened ordinary poultry net
ting with, say, an inch and a-half or
two-inch mesh. This netting may be
strained very tight and will lie as flat
as a board, the appearance of the fer-ce
being thereby greatly improved.
While the use of barb-wire in the
construction of fences is regretted, ow
ing to the injury which it sometimes
Infiicts upon the live stock, there is no
doubt that its employment under cer
'gin conditions prolongs the life of a
..s.nee, deterring stock from rubbing
against it and unduly straining the
plain wires. It has been argued that
stock soon get to understand how dan
A PLEASING FENCE OF TD
gerous barb-wire is, and when in a
quiet condition are rarely injured by
it; but once excited by panic or play
they forget its danger and often suffer
in consequence. While there may be
some styles of woven fence which will
enable the farmer to discontinue barb
wire, the new material must have suf
ficient elasticity to recover from occa
sional ury severe and unusual strains
and also sufficient to respond to our
varied conditions of heat and cold, and
so require no straining after its erec
tion. The American fence manufactur
ers seem to be ahead of the Europeans
an ?a production of wire fences. for it
- - *. --j (I
&-7 E. I /
CES AND GATE PO
GUY ELLIOTT MITCHELL.
is possible to obtain from them fence!
constructed entirely of metal at smal
While the unprogressive farmer i,
content to have a few bars to let dowr
in order to admit of the passage o:
teams or wagons, no fence is complett
without an entrance, and therefor
without a gate, for at best bars art
only makeshifts and a loss of boti
time and temper. It is surprising hov
common they are when excellent anc
serviceable light gates can now be pur
chased very cheaply and even wher
the lack of money is an obstacle to thiE
a handy man can, with the aid of ar
axe, a hammer and some nails build
and hang a strong useful gate with nc
AL ROAD GATE.
other outlay than the expenditure of a
few hours' labor and certainly in less
time than is required in the continual
putting down and up of the bars.
Experiment has shown that it is ad
visable to have the openings of the
farm gates 16 feet wide or thereabouts
in order to admit of the transfer of the
Placed Corner *
farm implements from one field to an
other. Where some fields are plantec
with small green crops from wh ch thE
farmer desires to keep his poult::y it is
thought best that the bottom rail 01
this gate should be, within an inch of
the ground so that the poultry cannoi
crawl under. The gate posts should bi
EBER AND POULTRY WIRE.
quite separate and distinct from an:
posts used in the construction of th<
fence, as a better effect is obtainet
without additional trouble if they art
slightly higher than the uprights it
the gate and higher than the fenc<
posts adjoining the gateway. Thi
main entrance to the farm and also th.
gateways around the dwelling may bh
still further improved if a lile addi.
tional trouble is taken to square thi
gate posts and round off the tops.
No gate can be said to be finishe'
until it is painted, for not only doet
painting aid in giving a tidy appear
ance bu proong thelif of he oo.
It will be better and a saving of time
1 if the timber after being cut up for
the gates is given a couple of coats of
; paint before being put together. After
the gate is completed and hung, it can
be given a final coat. The first or
priming coat should be very thin; i:2
fact, may be nearly all raw linseed oi.
The second and last coats will, of
course, be a little thicker, and in order
to dry hard, and with a little gloss,
I should contain a small quantity of tur
pentine and boiled oil. While tastes
may differ as to color, results have
shown that white seems to give the
most satisfaction, while the iron work
painted black will make a slight con
trast, adding to the improved appear
ance of the gateway.
STILL USE DASHE R CHURNS.
Even in this Day of Creameries, But
ter Is Made in the Good Old
The chances are ten to one or better
that the butter you buy at the grocery
store now was made in a creamery, for
the great bulk of the butter consumed
in this country is made in milk estab
lishments. But there is still some but
ter made by hand, and "we still sell
churns right along."
The greater number of the individ
ual churns now sold, said a churn
manufacturer in Chicago recently, in
speaking of the growth of the cream
ery business, are of the cylinder type.
operated by a crank, turning withir.
the churn a wheel with paddles, some
times like the paddlewheel of a steam
)oat; but we still sell as well, churns
of the old-fashioned type, such as our
grandmothers used, and such as their
grandmothers used before them. I
might add that the old-fashioned
dasher churn is still, as it has always
been, painted blue.
Who still buys these old styles hand
churns in the day of machine-made
butter? Why, so to speak, the oldest
people, and the most modern, too.
They are bought by small farmers
keeping only one or a few cows, who
naturally continue to make their own
Wren the Por
S from Pulling
butter, and who make it, of course,
with a hand churn. Some of these
farmers might make more butter than
they would require for their own use;
and the surplus they would sell, as
they would their surplus eggs, to the
And you find larger farmers, too,
farmers perhaps keeping many cows
and selling the bulk of their milk to
a creamery, still continuing to make
the butter that they need for them
selves and making it. as they have al
ways done, in a hand churn.
Such churns are sold to people liv
ing in suburban or country homes and
keeping cows, who make their own
butter because they prefer to, anyway,
and they are bought by various people
everywhere who want sweet or un
salted butter and who make it for
themselves in hand churns.
America exports churns to the West
Indies and South America and to New
Zealand and Australia and to dairying
countries in various other parts of the
world; but we still supply our own
people with the 01(-fashioned dasher
as we did twenty years ago.
TO TACKLE HAZ~ERS;
The hazing trials at Annapolis, fol
lowed by the long discussion of the
subject in and out of Congress, have
served to widely advertise the Acad
emy, and, as a result, there has leen
an unusual rush of applications f::om
ambitious young men who aspire to be
come admirals. Many of the applicants
breathe defiance to all hazers and re
Icite instances of their physical low
ers to demonstrate their fitness for ap
pointment. One of the letters recently
received at the Navy Department ran
"I play football. have been captain of
the basketball team these last two
- years. I am also an expert with box
Sing gloves, and would like to have
some of the Annapolis fellows try their
ihazing tricks on me. I imagine they
Swould have to get real busy if they
- tried to stand me on my head and
.make me at soap."
Assistant Secretary Hays Points C
Necessity for More Thorough Fal
Education. Is in Effect a Count
The consolidated school question
a feature of the country school edui
tion problem which is rapidly comi
to the fore, especially in the northwe
and it promises much for better fa
education. The proposition is that ,
or seven or ten of the cross-roa
schools in any rural district shall
combined into one larger school a
were it not for the question of trai
portation of the sc'olars to and frc
the central school, it would undoubt
ly meet with universal favor. Frc
an educational point of view the 2
vantages of the consolidated schc
plan are very great. Assistant S(
retary of Agriculture Hays is an E
thusiastic advocate of the plan al
states that where the plan has be'
put into operation the beneficial i
sults have been manifold. The qu(
tion has been agitated to a conside
ab::e extent in his own State of Min
esota, due largely to his own effor1
Professor Hays is thoroughly alive
the fact that a better scheme of ed
cation is needed for the farm boy
he is to keep his foremost positic
among the world's agriculturists.
FOR BETTER FARM EDUCATIOli
The time, Professor Hays says, h
gone by when an "ordinary" scho
education will serve for the farm bc
The three R's are not sufficient
enable him to succeed in life. He mu
have special education for farming ju
as the young man or woman who Is
enter professional life has special i
struction along the lines he expects
follow. And so the consolidat
school comes in, with its better edu<
Canada has taken an advanced stal
on this question and is consolidatii
her country schools. In a word tl
farmer's children are being given tl
advantages of a high school educatic
As President Creelman, of the C
tario Agricultural College has point<
out, the system undoubtedly is, fro
a standpoint of dollars and cents, mo
expensive, for the first few years
least; but the rural ratepayer has it
decide for himself whether he wou
rather pay five dollars more per ye
and secure for his boy or girl su<
increased benefits as the consolidati
school can give or leave them in t]
hands of an inexperienced girl teach
who perhaps does her best in a litt
one-roomed school, without faciliti
of demonstration of any kind.
PRACTICAL FARM SCIENCE.
One of the most important featuri
of these schools is the school garde
where practical farm science is taug'
in a practical way. Such gardens a
not, however, confined to the co
solidated schools, bat are now beir
kept in connection with a number
the more progressive district schoc
in various parts of the country. Th4
are usually from two to three acres
area, divided into experimental ai
individual plots for each of the pupil
ranging in size from six feet squa
to six by ten or even twenty.
The general plan of laying out eat
garden involves (1) a belt of nati
trees and shrubs surrounding tl
grounds; (2) a half-acre playfield f
the boys; (3) a lawn bordered wi
shade trees for the girls; (4) a shad
walk each for boys and girls, about
hundred yards long; (5) an attracti'
approach to the school, consistih
chiefly of a piece of open lawn, wi
shrubs and flowers on either side; (
a suitable reservation for individua
and class plots; (7) an orchard p1
or border; (8) a forest plot in wh<
the chief native trees are grown fro
PLANTS GROWN BY PUPILS.
The ordinary range of vegetable
and a selection of flowering plants a:
grown in these gardens, the pupi
themselves furnishing the necessal
work. In the large schools two hou
each week are found sufficient fl
the garden work, and one hour
the smaller, in both cases under ti
supervision of the teacher or a spec!
Instructor. The school garden serv<
a double purpose, since it not on
provides the most practical form
nature study but acts as a valuable I
centive in the general school work.
is no uncommon sight during the sul
mer season to see a public school
session out of doors, not with sla
and pencil but with hoe and shov<
The pupils thoroughly enjioy it. Th<
are allowed the proceeds of their plc
as their own property and in ad<
tion may take -home the plants 1h
over from thinning out. The cla
plots are reserved as a source of re
enue for the school and as a suppl
In some cases, for the school luncht
Former Iron Master Andrew Ce
negie has indorsed the idea of phonet
spelling-making the words sound
they read, or read as they sound
Ut Grow Hair
r Free $ 1.**
t, No Longer Any Excuse For Dandruff,
m Falling Hair or Baldness.
n- 1 -
s. Before and After Using This
to Magic Compound.
if Foso actually grows hair, stops hair falling out,
removes dandruff and quickly restores luxuriant
)n growth to shining scalps, eyebrows and eyelashes,
and quickly restores gray or faded hair to its natural
color. I don't ask you to take my word for it; let me
send you a full $z.oo package free. Write to-day.
61 FREE $1.00 PACKAGE COUPON
. F out the blank lines below. eut out the con
toand mail to J. F. Stokes. 3lgr-, 66r# Fotio BldgT.. m
cinnatt Ohio. Enclose ten cents in stamps or silver
St as an evidence or good faith and to help cover pack
StIng, potage, etc. and the S.oo package will be sent
StYOU at ncea by mail free Of crgLe.
id --------- . . -... -----------
Give full address-write plainly.
a. JOE, THE INDIAN DOG.
n- From Sunset.
Id "Did he ever make friends with the
M battery boys?"
qt "No," said Sergeant Wright, "he nev
to er did. I understand dogs, and I knoW
Id that our dog Joe died of a broken heart
ir at Fort Stevens, at the moutn of the
:h Columbia, and we gave him a sort of
d informal military funeral and buried
ie him where the moaning of the bar is
er always heard.
le There had been a battle near the
's Yellowstone, and the Nez Perces had
gradually had to give way and retreat
as the dusk drew down to hide the
dama'ge of the day. But all the war
's riors did not go. Among the rocks up
EL, the calon, nine of them lay In one
it heap, seven in another, at rest at last.
,e Four dogs were there doing the Casa
a- bianca act, and a soldier lassoed one
g of them in form and color like a fox,
)f and brought him into camp.
1s Joe was the name given him, and
ky day after day he was led by some mem
in ber of the company until the long fif
td teen-hundred-mile march was ended.
s, He tolerated the portion of the. rations
re handed him, but never smiled in re
turn, and merely ate to live. He con
~h formed to constituted authority as a
re matter of common sense, and on the
e long steamboat trip down the Missouri
rto Omaha, across by rail to the Pacific
hand up the coast to Oregon, he was the
dsame dignified dog, always with an ear
a askance, anticipating the footstep of
his Indian comrade.
SBut it never came.
No soldier had learned to love him,
but all respected him for fidelity to his
:h IMMIGRATION LEGISLA
The Committee on Immigration of
the House of Representatives has re
as ported a bill raising the head tax on
'e aliens from $2 to $5. requiring each
ls male adult to possess not less than $25
-y and each female $15, providing that
rs every immigrant over 16 years shall
>r be able to read and write in some lan
in guage. and placing in the excluded
ie class imbeciles, the weak-minded and
al manual laborers of poor physique. The
as Department of Commerce and Labor
Ly is given discretion to admit or exclude
af immigrants under 16 years of age
n. coming to this country alone. The
It proposed law, it is stated, would sift
n- out a good many undesirable persons.
i Don't Die
33 Millions Die Every Year
s- i Askyourself the question:"
And the answer will be: " It d
ic Then why not have good healt
because some simple, natural 1:
- Nature is a Stern and
Grants .ho Pardons W/he.
You can't lear
You can't lear
Begin right r
Learn a little
,Send a dime ot five two-cent stamps to
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Read it every month-year in and year
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te ans-w. waented
boLa. Others imitate
our 1M4 styi - we
1884 a d r e
.O r's r Iateyo
"'Oco501 LaTESU" oerso
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OLD WAY you how to get onefree. Give shortage.
E. L. O'Connor Mfg. Co., 1271 B'way, N. Y.
PAINT WITHOUT OIL.
Remarkable Discoverv That CutsDownz
the Cost of Pain. seventy-five Per cent.
Free Trial Package and Big Book Telling
All About Paints and Pain--... aking Are
M1aiied Free Lo Everyoue %% ho % l it es
A. L. Rice. a prominent manufacturer, of
Adams, N. I., has dibcovered a process of
making a new kind of paint without the use of
il. He calls it Powdrpaint. It comes to you a
dry powder, and all that is required is cold.
water to make a paint weather-proof, fire-proof
and as durable as oil paint. For many pur
poses it is much better than oil paint, and is.
indispensable to every property owner. It
adheres to any surface, wood, stone or brick.
spreads and looks like oil paint, yet costs only
one-fourth as much.
Write to Mr. A. L. Rice, Manufacturer, 36&
North St., Adams, N. Y., and he will send
you a free trial package, together with color
card and his valuable book on painting, all
free. This book is necessary to all who use
paint. It lets you into the secret of paint
making, exposes fake paints, tells you how to
get the best results from paint for different
purposes, and shows you how you can save
and make a good many dollars. Write to-day,
and the book, free trial of paint, etc., will be
sent you without any cost by return mail.
YOUR EXACT SIZE
q EIRT. handsome gray
fianuel.with broad shoul
ders, full at arms, very Ion~
three button front- dougfO
sewed, shapely and durable. . ,
PAN-%TS. Padded or upad
ded (as you wish) double and
triple sewedvery strong. Pad
ded pants thoroughil te
on hipsad h bet
CA--Co egeSty1e. Eight
piece top, long visor.
BELT. New style, bright
colored, strong, has patent
BOYS, Se yow
address for onlysa packages of
cents a pacage. Return our
SZ40 received from the sale
and we will immediately senJ
you this splendid baseball out
fit,guaranteedtogit andto give
complete satisfaction. Eveg
sifOibtf E PREPAID.
EXTRA PREMIUM. y threelettersyouwant
made large, of felt, foryour shirt front, sentfree,
with the suitif you return ourmoney withinloday
BLUIT E MFG. CO 2U1 Old BelA4l Firm
143 M St., concord Juneton, Mass.
"Modern Furnace Heating" tells how to
select and run a good furnace-how to set
it up yourself and how you can buy
No. 45 steel Furnace for 49. It hestsa*
chrchburns any fel; has a bt'cr~
fire box and is strong and durable. I~
(Other sizes for other work). Write
to-day for our book-it will pay you.-~"~
Hess Warming & Ventilati opany,
744 Tacoma Buildina,)bag
.Canjiaw.-aLot of Ueo
If you are interested in those things
we'd lke to send you ournew book about
Str hna mimilon and a quarter of them are
inuoand several hundred thousand farmers say
thtthey are the best investment they ever made.
Te'lsave you more money, more work, give bet.
ter service and greater satisfaction than any other
metal wheel made-because They%'e Made Better.
By every test they are the best. Spokes united to
the hub. If they work loose, your money bace.
Don't buy wheels nor wagon until you read our
book. It may save you many dollars and it's free.
ELECTRIC WHEEL C0.,
Box 263 Quinoy, I1s.
from Mere IgnoranCe of
s of Health
Is Life Worth Living ?"
epends on your health."
? If you are sick it is
iw of heailthi has been violated.
Inexorable Judge, and
Her Laws are Broken
n them too soon.
a them all at once.
140 Fisher Building, Chicago, for one whole
lapazine, and read the Department "Health
"outandIean al aoutNature's Laws of
and you will enjoy, many years of Life and
been dead and buried-or maybe cremated.
so much matter. It's the dyn part that
ful bodyguard to kick old nGrm Death,"
l of time. Get your "pointers on trainmng"
on Out of your paper, you can send in your
rate piece of pap~er.
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