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The fUlowing interesting accoun
of the life work of Edgar J. Hollistei
is sketched by Mrs. Grannis, who ha,
had the opportunity of personally ob
serving some of the results of hi
vonderful activity. Except for Dear
Hollister's retiring modesty regardinr
his own performances, Mrs. Grannh
says that it would be possible to pre
sent many more stimulating ncidents
of difficulties overcome. All in all
his life work is doing much not only
for American agriculture, per se; bul
for the advancement of the idea thai
brainwork-farming pays, and thai
there is as promising a field in this
line of endeavor as in any of the mer.
cantile or industrial occupations.
Through Toil to Traimph.
' By Anna C. Grann's.
It is. a far cry from a Canadian
farmer boy in the sixties to the Dean
of Agriculture to-day in a rising insti
tution in the West. yet, by the applica
tion of science to practical farming,
such a change has been wrought by
Edgar J. Hollister, a soil expert of
No agricultural college opened Its
friendly doors to this young pioneer,
nor was the Canadian government so
deeply interested at that time as now,
in its farming population. Books on
the subject were few and fell woefully
short of the mark, yet he knew neither
discouragement nor dismay.
A call from western Ontario, his
birth place. came in 1873 and in re
sponse, some time was spent in set
ting out peach orchards, the work los
ing its irksomeness because of the
study which accompanied it. More
over, at this point a company was en
gaged in reclaiming some twenty-five
thousand acres of land by the drainage
of an inland lake. The young man as
sisted in some of the surveys and was
in touch with the chief engineer of
the work. His enthusiasm was
aroused by the anticipation of the re
sults which would come from the ad
dition of such a large acreage, which
hitherto worthless. was now, by re
ducing it to cultivation, to be made
After some further years of study
and preparation Mr. Hollister became
interested in the organization of a com
pany for the development of a
large tract of swamp. The land was
cleared of brush and reclaimed to
cultivation, buildings erected, ma
chinery installed and a system of
farming, very nearly perfect, was
established. Fields of six acres were
made to produce an income of $3,
000.00 each, while others of four acres
produced $1,800.00. Of the latter $1,
200.00 was net; while thirty-five acres
iwas made to yield $14,000.00 gross at
-an expense of $8,000.00. Of course,
these were special crops such as cel
ery. onions and other vegetables
SLOW PROCESS' OF NATURE.
In some instances five years is the
period allowed for the reclamation of
land by the slow process of nature
after the drainage has been obtained.
Even then these lands may fail to
produce paying crops, becaruse of their
deficiency in essential elements such
as lime, potash, phosphoric acid and
magnesia. These are some of the
forces which'go to make stability in
plants. It is true that such lands con
tain a large percentage of nitrogen,
accumulated from the decomposition
of vegetable matter annually produced
in low places. However, this nitrogen.
which would produce growth were it
available, is in an unknown quantity
and available only when sufficiens
moisture is present, yet does not pro
duce the same results upon crops as
nitrogen derived from other sources.
such as bone, dried blood or barn
To make these lands productive im
mediately after drainage, it is neces
sary to correct their acid condition by
the use of lime and by disintegration
of the soil particles, thereby increas
ing their powers to retain water and
absorb oxygen. These forces together,
will act on potash and the three abso
lute essentials to plant growth are ni
trogen, phosphoric acid, potash, ani
phosphoric acid and make then
available as plant food.
Mr. Hollister visited Florida and se
cured a tract of land which for fiv4
years was used experimentally. A]
though he was In one case much handi
capped by inadequate drainage, whic]
!t was not found practical to improve
the results were, however, very satis
In 1895. in Canada. the next field o
operation, a phenominal success re
sited in eighteen uionths. IUere El
Hollister proceeded upon the theory
that, climatic conditions being equal,
certain crops are adapted to certain
soils, and that planting those which
will bring the greatest revenue will
enhance the value of the land, inspire
the people with enthusiasm and en
courage development in all lines of
trade. For example, Kalamazoo,
Michigan, was once surrounded by
bogs and flats worth scarcely $10.00
an acre. After the incoming of the
Hollanders, who began raising celery
on these supposedly worthless la- -,
$00,000.00 was brought annually to
the town by the sale of this vegetable.
In ten years' time the land increased
in value to $900.00 an acre.
In 1899, a trip was made to Colo
rado where the people were farming
under irrigationsand here the growers
DEAN E. J. HOLLISTER.
were taught the economical use of
water and the method of creating a
favorable environment for plants. A
visit was made to Maryland, where
experiments with soil and plant life
added still further to the experiment
er's fund of knowledge, but in 1901,
the most difficult and seemingly im
possible work was to come, i.e.. the
reclaiming of tidal lands on the north
shore of Long Island Sound. The De
partment of Agriculture already had
had a man in the field, who had re
ported the feasibility of reclamation
but by slow processes, and that in
vestigation revealed too many failures.
In spite of this, Mr. Hollister had
sufficient knowledge, gained experi
mentally, to suggest success, added to
which was the further information
gained during a four years' residence
in Washington, D. C., for the express
purpose of consultation and co-opera
tion with the experts of the Depart
ment of Agriculture. An experiment
was first made on a small tract on the
south side of Long Island, where the
salt bog had simply been taken up
and thrown inside of a dike, con
structed of lumber sufficiently strong
to withstand the tide. This bog was
made smooth and even, and chemically
treated in the month of August. By
the - t of October the surface was
covered with a beautiful growth of
tame grass six inches high. This
might certainly be termed, "A Quick
Process Route." Work on a sixty
acre tract on the north side was begun
in June and completed in December of
the same year. On this land, covered
Cae previous autumn with salt water,
nine hundred bushels of turnips were
prdcdon two acres during the
first season. Rye, oats, celery and
vegetables throve on the same tract
The following year tvwenty acres
were seeded to meadow land in April.
By August it was covered by a beauti
fuld trrf, strong enough to hold up
cattle pastured thereon. The remain
ing portion of the sixty acres pro
duced luxuriant crops of vegetables
and corn. A year later the meadow
yielded four tons of hay to the acre
and was considered a great demon
WINONA BOYS SELECT
4) ING WHEAT FOR SEED.
WINONA PARK SCHOOL
stration of the productiveness of these
lands under applied science.
IMAKING SEA LAND PRODU)CE
Another equally successful experi
ment was conducted by this "Wizard
of the Soil" on this same tract, viz.,
-the transforming of a five-acre tract
of sea sand to a loamy condition. The
soil was first treated with chemical
fertilizers and in the fall rye was
sown, which covered the ground in
rwinter and made a full growth the
followinr snring. This "rop was
nlowed nder in Jne and followed BE
a crop of corn sown broadcast. The
corn was plowed down in the fall and
the sand lot planted in rye. It will be
seen that in this process nature was
being assisted by moisture and sun
light to change sand into rye and corn
stalks. Then the sand, by the natural
process of decomposition of these
grains, brought about a complete
change in the physical condition of
The work of this interesting man
attracted the attention of many people
pursuing scientific agriculture, among
whom was H. J. Heinz, the pickle
manufacturer-57 kinds-who is in.
terested not only in the culture of the
vegetable kingdom but in the -tell t
ual growth of boys, and through his
activity Mr. Hollister was elected
Dean of Agriculture at the Agricul
tural Institute of Winona Lake, In
diana. Here he was seen last sum
ner, handling his crops of embryo
farmers who seemed imbued with his
enthusiasm and whose first harvest
received encomiums from five thou
sand visiting farmers, who unani
mously adopted resolutions endorsing
EDUCATING FOR SMALL 2ARMS.
A plan is now taking tangible form,
which will lead to the establishment
of small farms comprising five to
twenty acres each. On these farms
young men will be taught combined I
scientific and practical agriculture. I
They will also demonstrate the pos
sibility of getting an income and genu
ine happiness from their investments
which may well be envied by the t
salaried man or the man of moderate S
capital in the city. It is believed too,
that this work will have a wholesome
effect upon the farmers throughout t
the country. An increase of even r
$100.00 in the revenue of each farmer
when multiplied by five million, would g
establish the prosperity of the Ameri- t
can Nation, the bulwarks of which c
are its farming population. s
Mr. Hollister is also directing a t
work of reclamation of a large tract s
of salt meadow on the Connecticut a
coast which, when reclaimed, will be
used for the purpose of intensive r
farming, thereby firmly establishing e
the fact that these lands may be used t
to furnish employment and bring f
wealth and happiness to the people. I
Thus each day reveals some new
progress, and farming, that once I
seemed a hopeless, hapless drudgery, p
is being shown a golden highway to f
an ever increasing success.
Value of Alfalfa to Farm Animals. t
The Bureau of Animal Industry of s
the Department of Agriculture has re- t
cently published a study by I. D. 9
Graham of the use of alfalfa for the P
growing and fattening of animals in b
the Great Plains region. The results g
attained by experiments, while of in- 1:
estimable value to live stock growers I
in the region mentioned, may well be t
- STUDENTS CLEANING OUT
onsidered by stockma~i in other sec
Some of the questions considered in
he experiments were the composition 4
and digestibility of alfalfa, the calcu
ated cost of nutrients supplied by al
falfa and other feeding stuffs, the
value of alfalfa hay cut at different
periods of growth, alfalfa as a pastur
age, soiling, and hay crop, alfalfa meal,
and the value of alfalfa, fresh andi
ured, for different kinds of farm ani
mals and for poultry. The importance
of this crop as a honey-producing
plant was also considered.
Finely ground, kiln-dried alfalfa
hay, called alfalfa meal, has given sat
isfactory results as feeding stuff. The1
commercial article is made from se
lected alfalfa and mixed with sugar
beet molasses in the proportion of 751
per cent. alfalfa and 25 per cent. mo
Horses and mules, it is stated, thrive1
on alfalfa pasture, and while alfalfa is
too rich a food for mature horses un
less used in combination with some
other roughness, it is an excellent feed
for young ones, as It seems to contain
just the elements necessary to develop
bone, muscle, and consequent size.
Caution should be used, however, in
feeding alfalfa to horses, particularly
if they have not been accustomed to
it. Like other concentrated feeds, it
seems to stimulate all the physical
processes to such an extent that vari
ous disorders of the digestive system
may appear. This is particularly no
ticeable in the urinary and perspira
When alfalfa is fed to horses in con
siderable quantity the grain ration
must be proportionately reduced and
an abundance of other roughness fur
nished. When horses have attained a
mature age and it is desirable to
change from other hay to alfalfa, this
change must be very gradual, and the
alfalfa selected for this purpose should
be more advanced "in growth at the
time of cutting than that which is to
be fed to cattle or sheep. As a general
statement, very ripe alfalfa hay is the
best to use for woriang and driving
horses, while that prepared in the
usual way-that is, cut when the field
is about one-tenth in bloom-is better
for the colts. In any event, horses that
are fed alfalfa hay must be given
For dairy and beef cattle and for
sheep, alfalfa has given very good re
sults P ~1.'grds the use of alfalfaI
hay for pigs, it is considered better to
cut it early, so that a larger proportion
of leaves may be saved and conse
quently a larger proportion of protein
conserved. While late cutting, after
the leaves have fallen somewhat and
the stem hardened, is better for
horses; for pigs, .specially growing
pigs, the crop should be so harvested
as to save the la.rgest number of
leaves. Experience teaches also that
the third or fourth crop is better for
pigs because it is sc;fter and more pal
atable. It is always wise to provide
some sort of a trough or rack with a
floor in it for feediag alfalfa to hogs.
Alfalfa in its green state, or when
used as hay or ensilage, is a first-class
poultry food. Poultry will pasture on
it during the summE r and thrive. It is
best for poultry to use the last cutting
of alfalfa, as it is softer in texture,
has a larger proportion of leaves, less
woody matter, and is more succulent
than any other cutting. While poultry
of all classes will cat alfalfaT-hay, or
at least the leaves f:-om it, and thrive,
it is undoubtedly a better practice to
,hop or grind it and mix it with a
grain ration. A gcod practice is to
teep the alfalfa hay in hot water and
let it stand for several hours before
The Irish Potato.
A rich, sandy loam is best suited to
:he production of Irish potatoes, and
he fertilizers employed should contain
lgh percentage of potash. The main
:rop of Irish potatoes for family use
hould be grown elsevhere, but a small
Lrea of early ones properly belongs in
he garden. The preparation of the
:oil should be the sarme as for general
In a recent bulletia on farm vege
ables, the department of Agriculture
ecommends that for late potatoes, the
ows should be 2% to 3 feet apart,
.nd the hills 14 to 1i inches apart in
he rows. Lay off -he rows with a
,ne-horse plow or lis-er, and drop the
eed, one or two pieces in a place, in
he bottom of the fu-row. Cover the
eed to a depth of about 4 inches, using
. hoe or a one-horse plow for the pur
>ose. One to three weeks will be
equired for the potatoes to come up,
lepending entirely upon the tempera
uro of the soil. The ground may even
reeze slightly after the planting has
)een done, but so long as the frost
oes not reach the seed potatoes no
tarm will result, and growth will be
:in as soon as the soil becomes suf
As soon as the plaints appear above
he ground and the rows can be fol
owed, the surface sodl should be well
tirred by means of one of the harrow
oothed cultivators. Good cultivation
hould be maintained throughout the
rowing season. with occasional hand
oeing, if necessary, to keep the
round free from wo-eds. Much de
ends upon cultivati.n. Toward the
ist the soil may be worked up around
he plants to hold theu erect and pro
A DRAIN AT WINONA.
ect the tubers from the sun after the
ines begin to die. Vihen the tubers
ire fully ripe the vine~s will be quite
lead, but digging should not be de
ayed too long, as the potatoes will
nake a second grow'.h in case wet
eather should set in, and weeds will
tart seriously interfering with har
~esting the crop. On a small scale,
ig with a spading fork, and on a
arge scale, use either one of the spe
lal digging machines. or a turning
low, which latter a ill cover up a
rood many potatoes. AX late crop may
e planted during Mauy or early in
[une in the North, and harvested late
n autumn, when the frost has killed
After digging the potatoes, they
hould never be allowed to lie exposed
: the suti, or to any light while in
torage, as they soon become green
and unfit for table use. Early pota
:oes especially should not be stored in
damp place during :he heated part
:f the summer, keeping best if coy
n d over in a cool, shady shed until
the autumn weather sets in, after
which they can be placed In a dry
r-ellar or buried in the open ground.
The ideal temperature for keeping
Irish potatoes would be between 360
and 400 F., but they w~d not with
stand any freezing.
A thousand bushels of potatoes
have been raised on (one acre. How
many farmers, who chance to read
this have raised 200 bushels on an
equal plot? And there are some
who can not grow 100 bushels on their
Mary was Diseased.
Mary had a swarm o' bees,
And they, to save their lives,
Must go wherever Mary went
'Cause Mary had th e "hives."
There were about one million deaths
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Japanese jinrikishas are being estab
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Seeking as we always do. to
give our readers the best of every
thing, we are about to offer you in
serial form, the unusual and ab
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" THE WHITE COMPANY."
by no less great an author than
Sir A. Conan Doyle, wlio-for the
past twenty years has been de of
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Adventures of-Sherlock Holmes,"
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In fact, no writer of late years
has received more popular at
tention or merited more praise
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We have secured from Sir
Conan Doyle's American publish
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is with great pleasure that we are
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Be sure to get the initial chapters.
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FOR YOUNG EN
Investigate t h-e grand -
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Winena Lake ladiana.
Can Lot o Money
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