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The news and herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1901-1982, July 11, 1906, MAGAZINE SECTION. PAGES 1 TO 4., Image 11

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A A Department D
7 Bettei
"My ideal of civilization is a ver
A New England town of some two
Naan and no poor man in it, all min
t the ame school, no poorhouse, ni
Jod prdud to stand aloof, nobody tot
5agland as it was fifty years ago
leauifully on the hillsides of Neiw
salleys of Vermont, the moment it
sillion men gathered in one place I
e greater centers of modern civil
It is a well-known fact that the ci
I the village communities and t1
Sde and undermining the local
wn deoends upon the checking of
Uon of local interests.
Z The only way this can be accomp
fifavor of the improvement of local
rroundings and the maintenanc
To that end the editor of this
th the active members of Civic a
d every one interested in the imp
ge life.
What iN being done in your to
home ens plo.mt-nt? What is do
ntiand the beautifying of privat1
Are your local merchants receivi
xperience, plans and suggestioi
department and so far as posasi
S asts Question Whether Giant
C alogue Houses are Benefit or
Detriment to the Farmer and the
Country Generally.
Chicago is to have the greatest build
ing the warld ever constructed forcom
merdial purposes. It will have a fiQor
spaceof 50. acres--a good sized farm.
It - to be 10 stories'high, including the
bas ent, and were it to be all
stre ched out on one floor it would
co r 13 of the big city blocks in the
win y city. It will be 900 feet in length
and 70 feet wide and will be built of
st and concrete. The cost will be
$2 ,000,- The present building oc
c by Mongomery Ward and Com
p a huge affair, but is stated to
be ely inadequate to the needs of
t rmous mail order house, and
so 'new pile is to be constructed.
ms to be the time of big com
* m hogses in the great centers of
the try. Another big firm is to
e building on Chicago avenue,
w will contain a million square
f feet by 800 feet; Sears, Roe
bu d Company is a big Chicago
bu suval of the Montgomery Ward
fir has just also been incorpor
at do business in New York, with
a zation of $40,000,000, paying
th incorporation tax of $20,000.
are fine projects, and at first
tho may make one proud of Amer
iean. iness institutions, but what is
the effect of the success of these
gi commerical houses upon the
con ~.s prosperity?- How does their
-busi affect the country merchant,
the try banker, the country towif
itsel -d in fact the country people
who the patrons of the great mail
order ouses. What creates'the village,
The i , (he thriving city? What
keep a live and bustling center ra
ther a dead congregation of a few
hou .with 'one or two miserable
store . It is the patronage and sup
p't It'ntt, of the surrounding coun
try es. Towns are buitt up> only
when ey have support from an agni
cult -territory, if agriculture is the
- surr ding industry, which is the
case nine out of ten instances. But
cony y, the richness of the soil
alone: not make the most valuable
Th must be a good market for the
farm oducV; if the farm is adjacent
to a 11 growing town supporting ac
tive and well-to-do-people, the market
for the farmer's products will be ac
tive e prices good. If the town
be one, he will have to turn
elsU to dispose of his productS,
and s -incur heavy transporta
tic In their shipment. This
last figures which show that in
a sma a of te United States, the
regions Whmere factories abound,-a dis
trict conprising but little over 10 per
cent. ofithe United States-the value
of the frm'r lands is over half that of
all of dkie ar-able 1and in the entire
country-i The farms in :hese regions
are located close to the factories,
which afford a profitable home market
for al agricultural products. So
that th atest factor in land value
is th ,ss to good markets. It
bec therefore, that the bet
ter wn can be made, the
mo the farm land tribu
tar e purely agricultural
se rage country town is
o loc nter of from 75 to 150
squaterritory:- that is the
toAn efi by the trade result
ing f rea of farms. Accord
i!ng to al statistics the average
farmner s $627 a year for supplies
-clot. his family. househoic4
riensil that he does not grow
limsel implements. etc.
Now be evident that if a plan
evoted to Village
y high one; but the approach to it is
thousand inhabitants, with no rich
gling in the same society, every child
beggar, opportunities equal, nobody
humble to be shut out. That's New
. . . The civilization that lingers
England, and nestles sweetly in the
approaches a crowd like Boston, or a
ike New York, roti. It can not stand
ization. "- Wcndell Phillips.
ties are rapidly sapping the strength
te country towns by destroying local
spirit. The very life of the country
this paralyzing force and the protec
lished is by arousing local sentiment
environment, the beautifying of home
departnent desires to keep in touch
2d Local Improvement Associations,
rovement and the protection of rural
vn to encourage small industries and
ing along the line of street improve
: lawns aad public parks?
ng the support of the local trade?
is will be welcomed by the editor of
>1e given place in these columns.
greatest good for the greatest number,
the farni of each agricultural area
surrounding a 'town should support
that town to their uttermost.
Every dollar that the farmer spends
in the town indirectly comes back to
him in the way of benefits. The town
grows, it supports better stores, more
churches, better schools to which he
can send his children, furnishes bet
ter near-at-hand markets for his prod
ucts, and fiially increases the very
value of. his farm land. As a good il
lustration, the Dry Goods Reporter as
sumes that such an agricultural town
has a population of 1000, its support
coming from the country tributary to
it. The life of the town is its retail
trade. If it secures the entire purchas
ing business of the farmers, it must of
necessity grow rapidly. But Mont
gomery Ward and Co., Sears, Roebuck
and Co., and others of the enormous
mail order houses send out their great
four or five pound catalogues describ
ing everything under the sun. Suppose
that instead of spending his $GOO a
year in his home toWn, each farmer in
the community diverts 50 per cent of
his trade from his town and sends $300
a year to the catalogue houses; it
means that half of the business of the
town is gone. On the basis of one hun
dred or one hundred and fifty square
miles of territory to support the town,
it can be estimated that there are five
hundred farmers in the district. Three
hundred dollars a year in trade from
each of the farmers means that one
hundred and fifty thousand dollars
annually is taken from the home town.
In the course of ten years. this means
one and one-half million dollars. Aver
aging the profit on this amount at
twenty per cent, it means .iat in ten~
years' time, three hundred thousand
dollars profits are taken from the town.
Now, on the other hand, should the
farmer, instead of sending away his
money to the foreign place for goods
he requires, give all his trade to the
home town, its business would be im
mediately doubled, and with twice the
employment for the people. Year af
ter year, the profits made by the mer
chants would be retained in the town,
would seek investment in starting new
industries, and at the end of the ten
year period, instead of a town of one
iLhousand, there would be a lively city
of from two to three thousand, and
e'very acre of farm land within the
trade radius of the town would be en
hanced in value from ten to twenty
IIt can be plainly figured out that the
Iindividual farmer who would divert
halt his trade to Chicago, New York or
some other foreign city, in the course
of ten years would send away three
thousand dollars. If it were possible
that he could save ten per cent on this
amoumt, in ten years' time he would
iave thre~e hundred dollars-. Ilis .nly
compensa'tion would be a dead home
town, poor schools, a poor home mar
ket, and no increase in the value of his
real-estate holdings.
On the other hand, by giving his
patronage to the home town, even
though he nmst pay the merchant ten
per cent more than the foreign house,
the reg-ilt 'w-onld be like this: On ac
count of increase in farm 7alues, one
hundred and sixty acres of land worth
ten dol'lars more per acre, sixteen hun
dred dolla'rs; or, thirteen hundred dol
lars better off in ten years than if he
gave half his patronage to the foreign
concern. His home town is a lively
one, all public improvements, all mod
ern conveniences, high schools. to
which he could send his children
cheaply, good churches. good roads,
and everything that can add to thecom
fort and happiness of its residents.
and those who 'reside near it. Not
withstanding, that the farmers' land is:
enhanced in value, his taxation will be
ests of the town will pay the burden
of taxation, and the amount of each
tax-payer will be less in proportion to
carry on government.
While the country household, in
looking over one of the big catalogues
and sending an order for $50 worth of
goods, may be able to figure out an
immediate saving of five or six dollars,
even after they have paid the freight,
there is no question as to the final out
come, if the practice is persisted in by
all the people of any particular local
ity. The home town will suffer, the
home market will fail to increase, if
it does not decrease, as will also the
value of the farm lands. Undoubtedly
the catalogue houses can sell goods
cheaper than the average country
store, for tey do a cash business,
you send on your cash with yorr
order. There is no risk in the cata
logue or mail order' house business.
Possibly if you arranged to do business
on the same basis with your country
merchant-cash down with your pur
chase-you could get almost as favor
able prices. But the country merchant
is supposed to extend credit to every
one: he has bad bills which Le never
collects and consequently must make
a greater percentage of p'rofit on the
things he sells.
Every community which is imbued
with the spirit of building up Its own
industries and of supporting its home
town with local pride, is sure to be-the
most'prosperous; there can be no gain
saying this fact.
The Story of the Boy and His Little
Plot of Grouna
At the age of five every boy -is by
instinct a gardener. If guided by op
portunity, emknple and intelligent di
rection he will dig, plant and develop
an interest in growing things; lacking
these the call of mother nature leads
to mud pies. Given a square yard of
mellow ground, a tiny hoe and a hand
ful of beans, a healthy five year-old
boy will have a combination that ex
cels anything yet designed in "nature
From five to ten the world begins to
dawn. He looks up and out; he sees
and imitates, but does not reason. He
should play without hindrance, If the
square yard of ground be enlarged to
a rod, the handfui of beans to a collec
tion of seeds (the kinds for sale in the
grocery stores are best as these have
brilliantly colored pictures on the pack
ages and the boy learns thereby what
manner of a thing he is to expect), this
square rod will be the play ground to
a surprising extent.
He may not plant the kinds you ex
pect or want him to plant, as his view
point is different from yours. It Is un
wise to Insist on any given plan. Let
this garden be his own. If it has been
entirely to carrots or cabbage let it re
main carrots and cabbage, for they are
more to him than your choice variety
It is unwise to expect careful pains
taking effort and constant care from
a boy of this age; encourage it but do
not compel it.
He can be taught by example all of
the needs of plant growth but his hoe
ing and weeding may be superficial.
If you ask him he will allow you to dig
in his garden to loosen the soil deeper
than his strength permits. It is wise
to do this for tnere must tne carrots
and cabbage to harvest Or there will
be no play ground here next year.
If the boy of five has been allowed
the run of a garden, if at eight he has
a garden of his own, at-ten he will love
gardening and will have absorbed an
amazing store of knowledge, and to
him may be imparted at this age in a
way and manner that will awaken the
the purest and best that is in him, the
mystery of life.
A pumpkin plant on a compost heap,
sending its vigorous shoots ever the
weeds, climbing where it cannot creep,
thrusting its snake like head through
the garden fence, is a thing of wonder
to a boy if he is but taught to see it,
and' when its great golden blossoms
appear there is a still greater wonder
Boys of twelve and fourteen may de
sert the garden for the ball field or the
fishing rod, and it is well they should,
for the serious time of life is confing
soon and play days should be as many
and long as school and home duties
will permit. But a garden for a boy at
this age may be a greater factor in his
training for life than at any other, for
by this time the "root of all evil" has
entered his soul; he has learned that
money is essential in order to procure
the many things a boy must have, and
the garden, which to this time has
been a recreation field, a place of won
degful possibilities in the way of good
things to eat and pumpkins for jack-o'
lanterns, may be a most fertile field
of revenue.
Whatever the crop the uroceeds
should be wholly his own, if he has
produced the crop wholly by his own
efforts. There is but one way that he
can learn the value of money and that
is by earning it. The 'wise nise of
money must also be learned but that
is outside the sphere of gardening.
From address of Prof. Cranetield,
Wise Agr, College
Learn by Doing.
Give every VI
"Every Child in a Carden-E rery
vidual, Industrial Independi
Home of his On
"A little croft we owned-a
A garde.n stored with Pe=
And flowers for posies. oft c
Plucked while the church
"The Citizen standing in the doorway of his
gathered about his hearthstone. while the ev
sounds that are dearest-he shall save the F
barracks are exhausted. "-Henry ?. brady.
"The slums and tenements of the
great cities are social dynamite, cer
tn1h to explode sooner or later. The
only safeguard against such dangers
is to plant the multiplying millions of
The Brotherhood of Man
Charity that is Everi
The Secret of
This book is the first of a Series
that will Chronicle the Progress of the
and inform all who wish to co-operate
with it how they may do so through
the formation of local Hom-rotters'
Circles, Clubs or Gilds to promote
Town and Village Betterment. stimu
lat% home civic pride and loyalty to
home institutions. industries and trade,
improve methods and facilities of edu
cation in the local public schools. and
create new opportunities "At Ioie"
that will go far to check the drift of
trade and population to the cities.
The first Gild of the Homecrofters
has been established at Waterto.wn,
Massachusetts. The Gildhall, Shops
and Gardens are located at 143 Main
Street, where the Garden School is
now fully organized and over one
hundred children are at work in the
Gardens. The departments for train
tug in Homecraft and Village Indus
tries are being installed. The Weavers
are already at work at the looms.
It is not designed to build here an
isolated institution, but to make a
model which can be duplicated in any
town or village In the country.
obtained by sending twelve two
cent stamps with your name and
address (carefully and plainly
written) to The Homecrofters' Cid
of the Talisman 143. Main St.,
Watertown, Massachusetts.
There is New Hope and Inspiration
for every Worker who wants a Home
of his own on the Land in the
HIOMECROFTERS' which is as fol
"Peace has her vIctories no less re
nowned than war."
We believe that the Patriotic Slogan
of the Whole People of this Nation
should be "Every Child in a Garden
Every Mother in a Hlomecroft-and In
div idual Industrial Independence for
Every Worker in a Home of his Own
on the Land," and that until lie owns
such a Home, the concentrated purpose
ad chief inspiration to lab~or in the life
of every wage worker should be his
determination to "Get an Acre an.1
Live on it."
We believe that the Slums and
Tenements and Congested Centers of
population in the Cities are a savagely
deteriorating social, moral and polit
ical influence, and that a great public
movement should be organized, and
the whole power of the nation and
the states exerted for the betterment
of all the conditions of Rural Life. and
to create nnd upbuild Centers of So
cial and Civic Life in Country and
Suburban Towns and Villages, where
Trade and Industry canl be so firmly
anchored that they cannot be drawn
into the Commercial Maelstrom that
is now steadlily sucking Industry and
Humanity into the Vertex of the
Great Cities
We belide that every Citizen in
this Country has an inherent and
Fundamental Right to an Education
which will train him to Earn a Liv
ing, and, if need he. to get his living
straight from Mother Earth: and that
he has the same right to the Opportun
ity to have the Work to Do which will
afford him that living, and to earn not
only :.cord ortable livelihood, but
enough more to enable him to be a
Homecrofter and to have a Home of
his Own, with ground around it
sufficient to yield him and his family
a Living from the Land as the reward
for his own labor.
We believe that the Public Domain
is the most precious heritage of thme
people, and the surest safeguard the
nation has against Social Unrest. Dis
turbance or Upheaval, and that the
rause of Humanity and the Preserva
tion of Social Stability and of our Free
Tnstitutions demand that the absorp
tion of the public lands into specula
tive private ownership, without settle
ment, he forthwith stopped: and that
the nation should create opportunities
for Homeerofters by building irriga
tion and drainage works to reclaim
land as fast as it is needed to give
very man who wants e Home on the
Land a chance to get it
We believe that, as a Nation, we
Work Together.
an a Chance.
Mother in a Homeeroft, and Indi
wnee for Every Worker in a
z on the Land."
plot of corn,
s and mint and thyme.
, Sunday morn,
ells rang their earliest chimes."
- Wordsworth.
home-contented on his threshold, his family
ning cf a well spent day closes in scenes and
e;ub'.c when the drum-tap is futi!e and the
our fast increasing population in in
dividual homes on the land-home
crofts. however small, owned by the
occupant. where every worker and his
family can enjoy individual industrial
indeendence."-George H. Maxwell.
Nippon's Power
s of a Great Calamity
- The Sign of a Thought
Money, and should pay more heed to
raising up and training Men who will
be Law-Abiding Citizens: that the wel
fare of our Workers is of more con
sequence than the mere accumulation
of Wealth: and that Stability of Na
tional Character and of Social and
Business Conditions is of greater im
portance to the people of this country
as a whole than any ocher one ques
tion that is now before them; and we
believe that the only way to Preserve
such Stability, and to Permanently
Maintain our National Prosperity, is
to carry into immediate effect and
operation the Platform of the Talis
man, which is as follows:
1. That children shall be taught
gardening and homecraft in the public
schools, and that Homecraft and
Garden Training 'Schools shall be
established by county, municipal.
state, and national governments,
where every boy and every man out
of work who wants employment where
le can gain that knowledge. can learn
how to make a home and till the soil
ad get his living straight from the
ground, and where every boy would4
be taught that his first aim in life
should be to get a home of his own
on the land.
2. That the New Zealandi system of
Land Taxation and Land Purchase
andi Subdivision, and Advances to Set
tlers Act, shall be adopted in this
country, to the end that land shall be
subdivided into smaill holdings in the
hands of those who will till it for a
livelihood, and labor find occupation
in the creation of homecrofts, which
will be perpetual safeguards against
the political evils and social discontent
resulting from the overgrowth of
cities and the sufferings of unem
ployed wage-earners.
3. That Rural Settlement shall be
encouraged and the principle of Pro
tection for the American Wageworker
and his Home applied directly to the
Hlome by the Exemption from Taxa
tion of all improvements upon, and
also of all personal property, not ex
ceeding $2.500 in value, used on and
in connection with, every Homecroft
or Rural Homestead of not more than
ten acres in extent, which the owner
occupies as a permanent home and
cultivates with his own labor and so
provides therefrom all or part of the
support for a family.1
4. That the National Government,
as part of a comprehensive nation
al policy of internal improvements
for river control and regulation,
and for the enlargement to the
utmost possible extent of the
area of the country available for agri
culture and Homes on the Land, and
for the protection of those Homes from
either flood or drouth, shall build not.
only levees and revetments where
needed, and drainage works for the
reclamation of swamp and overflowed
lands, but slmil also preserve existing
forests, reforest denuded areas, plant
new forests, and build the great reser
voirs and other engineering wor'.s
necessary to safeguard against over
:ov and save for beneficial use the
dood waters that now run to waste.
5. That the National Government
shall build the irrigation works neces
sary to bring water within reach of
settlers on the arid lands, the cost of
such works to be repaid to th~e govern
ment b~y such settlers in annual in
stallments without interest, and that
the construction of the great irrigation
works necessary for the utilization of
the waters of such large rivers as the
Columbia. the Sneramento. the Colo
rado. the Rio Grande, and the Missouri.
and their trib~utaries. shall proceed as
rapidly as the lands reclaimed will be
utilized in small farms hy actual
settlers and homemakers, who will re
pay the government the cost of con
struction of the irrigation works. and
that the amount needed each year for
construction, as recommended by the
Secretary of the Interior, shall be
made available by Congress as a loan
from the general treasury to the Re
lamatin Fund, and renaid from
lands reeained, as required by. the
National Irrigation Act.
6. That not another acre of the pu'
lie lands shall ever hereafter be
granted to any state or territory for
any purpose whatsoever, or to any one
other than an actual settler who has
built his home on the land and lived
on it for five years. and that no more
land scrip of any kind shall ever be
issued, and that the Desert Land Law
and the Commutation Clause of the
Hoiestead Law shall be made to con
form to the recommendations of the
Public Lands Commission appointed
by President Roosevelt and of the
Message of the President to Congress.
7. That the Timber and Stone Law
shall be repealed, and that all pub
lic timber lands shall be included in
permanent Forest Reserves, the title
to the land to be forever retained by
the National Government. stumpage
only of matured timber to be sold,
and young timber to be preserved for
future cutting. so that the forests will
be perpetuated by right use; and
that the National Government,.shall,
by thg reservation or purchase of ex
stin'g forest lands, and the planting
of new forests, create in every state
National Forest Plantations from
which. through all the years to come,
a sufficient supply of wood and timber
can be annually harvested to supply
the needs of the people of each state
from lhe Forest Plantations in that
8 That all. unlocated public lands
aot otherwise reserved-shall be re
erved from .location or entry under
iny law-.except the Homestead Law,
nd shall be embraced in Grazing Re
;erves under the control of the Secre
:ary of Agriculture, 'who shall be em
owered to issue annual Licenses to
traze stock in said Grazing Reserves,
)ut such licenses shall never be issued
or a longer period than one year on
gricultural lands or five years on
.razing lands, and all lands classified
Ls grazing lands shall be subject to.
-eclassification at the end of every five
rears; that no leases of the puble
trazing lands shall ever- be made by
:he National Government, and that
:he area of the homestead entry shall
ever under any circumstances be en
arged to exceed 100 acres.
9. That the public land states shall
idminister the state lands under a
ystem similar to and In harmony
vith the national public land system
bove outlined, and that each state
;hall enact a State Homestead Law
or the settlement of lands owned by
:he state, and that state lands shall
>e disposed of only to actual settlers
inder such law. and that all state
ands shall at all times remain open
:o Homestead Entry.
10. That it shall be the law of every
state and of the United States, that
beneficial -use is the basis, the meas
re, and the liinit of all rights to
rater, including riparian rightr, and
that the right to the use of water for.
irrigation shall inhere in and be ap
purtenant to the'Tand irrigated, so that
the ownership of the land and the
water shall be united, and no right to
water as a speculative commodity
eer be acquired, held or owned.
"Outward changes, eennomical and
3olitical. more or less marked, are
lways going on in the forms and or
~anizations of society. But to-day one
~an make a specially strong argument
that great and radical changes are im
pending. No one can believe that
existing conditions will continue in a
world where all things move and
rhange. Waste, extravagance, political
2orruption, fierce mercantile rivalries,
:olossal monopolization of wealth and
af the industrial plants of the world,
masses of dreary poverty-these are
natural subjects for profound. patri
tic and humane concern. Is not the
old social and industrial machinery,
the competitive or wage system. show
ing signs of breaking down beneath
its load?
"The question is quite fair whether
niy system is just that permits indi
viduals to roll up immense fortunes as
the result of lucky speculations, or of
the rise of land values about a great
city that permits other individuals to
inherit almost unlimited money power.
as men once inherited duchies and
kingdoms. while millions of working
men, with small wages, live close to
the danger line of debt. or even of cold
and starvation, and are liable to be
thr)wn out of employment for months
at a time, -
"When in the face of natural wealth,
never so abandant, and forces of pro
duction augmen' ed iudefinitely by
cince and invention, so many almost
ai! to realp any benefit from the re
sources which surely belong to th6
race, it must at least be confessed that
our present system. both of production
nd of distribution. is not intelligently
or humanely managed. Its results do
not represent an ideal democracy, a
brotherhood of nman.--From "Thme
Coming People". by Chas. F. Dole.
It behooves everyone who has eyes
to see and ears to hear and a brain
with which to think to study the tre
iendous social problems with which
ire are face to face to-day.
Whether they are settled right or
wrong will affect every member of the
-rmnity. No one can escape the
vils that will result -from a wrong
cttlement and everyone will be bene
itted hy p. right settlement.
Nothing is more inmnortanit than that
we should get started right. There Is
'idmnen and insniration in every line
has. F. Dole.
In order to bring this book within
hew rch of all, a popular edition has
ust been isud by the Homnecrofters
ld of the Talisman which can be had
or 25 cents. p)ostage included. Remit
)V nostal money order, express nmone'
rder or postage stamps to "THEf

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