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THE FAGf S ABOUT COBALT7N'
WHAT IT IS AND WHERE FOUND.
No Great Demand For the Mineral
Heretofore, Hence It Has Not Beer
Extensively Mined---Mr. Edison's
Discovery May Create a Demand
For It---Original Form .z the Mineral
and How It is Obtained---The Ferm
in Which !t Appears in North Carolina
aid the Localities Where It is Found
By JOSEPH HYDE PRATT.
The North Carolina geological
and economical survey has, during
the past two or three weeks received
a great many letters regarding the
occurrence of cobalt in North Caro
lina, and it has been thought that a
short article giving a description of
the occurrences of the cobalt and the
localities where it is known to occur
in North Carolina would be of in
Cobalt is a material that is very
similar to nickel and nearly all the
minerals in nature that contain one
of these metals contains also a small
percentage of the other. There is
great similarity between the two
metals and in the reduction of the
ores both the nickel and cobalt go
into the matter, which is afterwards
refined and the two metals separa
rated from each other. "On account
of the small demand for cobalt,
there has not been a great deal of
prosprcting directly for deposits of
this metal; while on the other hand,
the demand for nickel has constantly
increased so that deposits of min
erals containing this metal have
been prospected for in many sections
of the country. Up to the past two
years all the cobalt has been ob
tained in this country, and Canada
has been as a by-product either in
nickel or lead mining and smelting,
and there has been no direct mining
for cobalt ores. Recently, however,
new sources of supply of cobalt ores
containing but little nickel has been
fouzid in Canada, which have result
ed in the i-oduction of cobalt in
some quantity and this could be in
-creased very largely if a sufficient
demand for the metal could, -be
-created. These deposits are along
the line of the Temiscuming &
Northern Ontario Railway, ninety
miles northeast of the town of Sun
burry, Canada. These cares carry
a considerable percentage of cobalt
and are rich in native silver, which
makes the ore very profitable min
Missouri Cobalt Ore. '
In the United States the only co
balt ores that have been mined to
any extent are the lead ores at Min
La Motte, Mo., which contain con
siderable percentage of cobalt and
;a very small quantity of nickel.
'These- are melted to a slag contain
-ing lead, nickel and cobalt, which
is afterwards refined. The princi
pal use of cobalt which is in the
formn of the odide, is in manufactur
ing pigments, the principal- one being
~known as cobalt blue. With nickel,
however, the principal use has been
as a steel hardening metal and some
experiments have been made with
-cobalt for this purpose.. There is
-not, however, a distinct enough
:property of ':he two metals to war
rant the use of cobalt to any extent
as a steel or iron hardening metal
as long as its cost is so much higher
than nickel. If, however, a special
use can be devised for it, as has
been advocated by Mr. Thomas Edi
Eoin the manufacture of storage
f~tteries, there should be a consid
*erag~e increase in the demand for
the' netal, which would warrant
more prospectingtor sources of su~p
ply, although~ the prese-it known
sour (i4 3upplies of this metal
can Jsatisfy a very large increase in
/There are a number of minerals
that contain a considerable percent
age of cobalt, principally in the form
of sulphides, arsenides and oxides.
The principal minerals and the ones
more constantly met with in nature
are as follows:
Linnaeite: A pale, steel gray,
brittle mineral which tarnishes quite
readily to a copper red color is as
hard as steel, has a Decific gravity
of about 5; it is quite commrncly
found in octaherval crystals, but
also occurs to massive. It is a cobalt
sulphide containing sometimes a con
siderable percentage of nickel. This
2nineral is also known as cobalt
pyrites. ~ . - --_._____
Cobalite: This mineral is a co
balt arsenic suiphide of a silver gray
to steel gray color, sometimes with
a tinge of red or violet. It is of a tin
white color and also thassive, when
the color is ap~t to change to a steel
gray or a grayish color. It is as hard
as steel and about 6.5 in specific
gravity, it is known also as tin
white cobalt and gray cobalt.
These minerals have not been
found in any large masses, but are
mnore apt to be more or less spar
ingly disseminated through rocks
and also through veins containing
other minerals. Thiese minerals
in decomposing would form carbo
nates, sulphates, and oxides and co
balt, which would be entirely differ
ent ip appearance from the minerals
from whiesh they have been derived.
'The more common alteration prod*
iiet would be the oxide and this is
apt to be found largely mixed with
other minerals, so that little or none
of it has been found in the free state.
The principal sources of this ox
Id-- of cobalt are in association with'
the mineral psinlomelane, one of ,thE
manganese ores and that variety
known as wad, or bog manganese.
In cc'main localiis this w-'i or ho
mlagaese' contains considerable co
bait oxidelt, when it is known as
asbolite. These minerals are ir
color iron black, steel gray, and re
sembling somewhat a soft amorphout
variety of graphite or black lead
for which they have at times beer
Asbolite: This is also known a
black cobalt, earthy cobalt and co
balt oxide. It contains sometime
as high as thirty-two per cent. o
The North Carolina Decposits.
phides or arsenics, the original me
tallic minerals of cobalt, have been
identified, but in a number of locali
ties the oxide, or asbolite, has been
observed, associated with manga
nese minerals or ores. The princi
pal localities where the asbolite has
been found are as follows: A few
miles southeast of Cary, Wake
County, where black manganese co
balt mineral can be observed for a
quarter of a mile, outcropping oc
casionally on the surface. A littlE
prospect work has been done here by
sinking pits and making cuts across
the vein, and it has shown it to be
probably continnmicaceous schist
extending in a general direction
north twenty degrees east that can
be traced from Bessemer City north
eastward into Lincoln County. These
schists contain throughout nearly
the whole area numerous small
seams, incrustations and stains of
black manganese material which
gives reactions for cobalt. Some of
this material is largely iron oxide
when it is more of a reddish or yel
lowish ochre color, but the most of
it is black.
At the Ormond iron mine, one
mile southwest of Bessemer City,
there is a considerable quantity of
this material found mixed with the
iron or.e, and it may be that it was
the cobalt which went into the pig
iron that gives this iron its repu
tation for hardness and toughness.
At the Long Creek Gold Mine, situ
ated about six miles northwest of
Dallas, Gaston County, masses of
quality, taken out of the Asbuy
shaft, were thickly encrusted with
mammilary masses of asbolite or
earthy cobalt. About a mile north
east from the Long Creek mine, on
the old Lincolnton, Yorkville, S. C.,
road, near the summit of Cross or
Paysour Mountain, a band of' rock
iAeen feet wide across contains
veins and seams of wad or asbolite.
Following this vein in a northerly
direction, it descends the west slope
of Cross Mountain and fifty years
ago a number of openings had been
made on the asbolite seams. Some
of this material was analyzed and
gave 13.26 per cent. of the cobalt
and nickel oxides, the larger nmount
of this being cobalt. The same for
mation can be traced into Lincoln
County and similar seams of wad are
The original minerals from which
this cobalt oxide is derived may be
one of the sulphides mentioned
above, or one of the sulphides that
contain both nickel and cobalt.
Where It i; Found.
As all the cobalt identified in
North Carolina has thus far been as
sociated with psilomelane wad, it is
such deposits that will attract the
most attention in prosecuting for
this metal. This mineral has been
foud/ at a great many localities
throughout the State, as at Scott's
Hill, Burke County, near Lenoir,
Caldwell County; at Gillespie s Gap.
near Bakersville, Mitchell County;
on Cove Creek and Richmond Creek,
Haywood County; near Buckhorn,
Chatham County; Murphy, Cherokee
County; Franklin, Mason County;
Webster, Jackson County; and Zir
conia, Henderson County.
. The simplest test of- cobalt is by
fusing up some of the powdered
Riineral with borax, the cobalt oxide
giving to the resulting borart glass a
deep blue color. This test is so deli
cate that it will show even traces of
cobalt and can be used -even when a
large percentage of nickel Is asso
ciated with the cobalt.-Charlotte
MYSTERIES OF "RED DEATH."
Strange Sect That is Said to Have
Many Adherents in Russia.
In the Russian journal Ural are
given some amazing details of a mys
terious sect known as the -Red Death.
The sect has its headquarters at
Ekaterinoslav, and has m'any ad
herents throughout the region. They
have their temples and meet at night
for their mysteries, in which red
wine forms a considerable part.
The feature of this strange sect
which most strikes the outside world
is that associated with its title.
When one of Qe sect is at the~ point
of death he is carried to the ter'nie,
in which is a room with no window,
but covered-ceiling, walls and floor
There is no furniture, but on the
Qoor are two cushons. The victim
who, in the jargon of the sect, is
--ripe for glory," is laid on the floor
with his head on one cushion and left
alone for some time.
A young maiden clothed in red
then enters, slowly approaches the
body, and if death has not already
taken place, puts the second cushion
over the victim's mouth and holds it
down until all sign of life has gone.
*Author of Leather Stocking Tales.
He had little systematic education.
His character was developed and
affirmed before his mind was either
trained or stored. His taste natu
rally suffered. Taste is the product
of tradition, and of tradition he was
quite independent, quite ignorant.
Fortunately, he was also ignorant
of its value, and when at thirty he
began to produce literature his
energy was unhampered by diffi
dence. But it was inevitable that
the literature he produced should be
extremely unliterary, and noticeably
so in proportion to its power. His
talent was not distinctly a literary
talent. He had not even a tincture
of bookishness. Of the airt of litera
ture he had perhaps never heard. 11
Iwgs quite possible in his day-singu
lar as it may seem in ours -not tc
in er of M. HeI left school ear-ly and
was a sailor, a man of business, a
gentleman of more or less, leisure
enough, at all events, to encourage
a temperament that was aristocratic
and critical, and not in the leasi
speculative, adventurous, and. aes
theti.-From "Cooper," by WV. C.
Brownell, in Scribner's.
Excessive use of drugs is the cause
of death of 20) per cent. of the popula
tion of Austria, according to official
statistic~s. while 44 pet- cent. of the
medical profession in that country dii
of 1-art disease. *
DO YOU BELIEVE IN FAIRIES?
)h. do you believe in fairies?
Dear child, with eyes of blue,
And the wonderful Never Never Land,
Oh, doesn't it call to you?,
The children play in that beautiful land,
And wonderful things they do
Ehe pirate band they slay outright,
Oh, doesn't it call to you?
he boys they never grow up, you know,
But they play the long years through,
And things turn out as they should, my
Oh, doesn't it call to-you?
One dear little girl with eyes of brown
Is the mother of all so true,
hev build a home and keep "real house,"
Oh, doesn't it call to you?
Peter Pan is a rare bravo boy,
The "wonderfulest" that grew,
He wants you all to be the same,
'My child, he is calling to you.
He is calling with plaintive and el6sh
To all, and not a few.
"Oh, come and believe in fairies,"
Dig children, he's calling you!
For if you believe in fairies.
They'll live--yes, it's really true.
Making your life one long, sweet song,
So come and believe, oh, do!
-G eorgianna Pitcher, in the Theatre Mag
THE WOLF AND THE CRANE.
A Wolf devoured his prey so rav
enously, that a bone stuck in his
throat, giving him great pain. He
ran howling up and down, and of
fered to reward handsomely any one
who would pull it out. A Crane,
moved by pity as well as by the pros
TRICKS IN El
You can entertain your friends 1
iustration with goblets, provided yoi
hat you do not use your mother's
intil you become expert.
A tric- in equilibrium, which yoi
ust the shovel and tongs exactly as
ect of the money,. undertook the'
angerous task. Having removed
:he bone, he asked for the promised
'eward. "Reward!" cried the Wolf..
'Pray, you greedy fellow, what re
ward can you possibly require? You
save had your head in my mouth;
md, instead of biting it off, I have
et you pull it out unharmed. Get
iway with you, and don't come again
rithin reach of my paw."-Progres
COCK ON 'rHE CHURCH SPIRE.
A small black cock stood on the
ip of a tall church spire. He was
not a live cock; but he could turn
round and round, for the wind
There was an E to tell that the
--id blew from the east, and a W
to tell when it blew from the west.
There was an N to show when the
wind was north and an S to show
that it was south.
The Black Cock looked like a
rave cock, he held his head so high.
The north wind made him cold, but
the south wind warmed him. The
east wind made him Ewet, but the
west wind soon dried him. The
Black Cock did not care which wind
blew on him, as a live cock
''ould have done- He stood up
straight and brave all the time.
The folks who went by the church
did care. They looked up at the
Black Cock and said: "It will be
cold, for the wind is north;" or, "It
will be hot, for the wind is soute;"
or, "We shall have rain, for the
wind is east;" or, "It will be fine,
for the wind is west."
So you see that the Black Cock
rs of use, though he could not crow
o'r at corn, as those you have seen
on the farms do.
One day the iorth wind -blew so
hard that it broke ot the rod on
whcn the Black Cock turned, and
the poor thing fell to the roof of the
church. John saw him fall, and ran
to a man who was near and told him.
The man climbed up and got the
poor cock and brought him down.
The Black Cock -vas much bruised
and scratched by his fall.
But the man got a new rod for
him to turn on, and he 'bought some
gilt paint and a soft brush and soon
made him shine as bright as gold.
Then the man took him up to the
top of the tall church spire, and set
him in his old plac' once more.
He seemed to know that he was
made to tell the way of the wind.
Se Loo, he seemed glad to look like
gold, like the sun he loved.
In the race to reach him first, the
north wind beat all the rest, and
gave him a whirl to the north.
"Whizz! Whizz!" he cried.
And the small boy clapped his
hands up at him and cried, "Crow,
But the Gold Ccck did not crow.
He just whizzi round and showed
the folks that the wind was north.
The cuckoo alwa--s leads a mourn
l. secluded life. If we a -.
us, from May to October, it will most
probably be observed silently slipping
from the cover of one tree or thicket
to that of another, generally alone,
and frequently uttering the harsh
guttural note from which it has long
since acquired the name "rain crow."
I nevcr have understood why it
should be called a crow. Certainly
it does not resemble the crows in our
coun.ry either in voice, ap*jearance,
c- manner of life.
the cuckoo is often heard calling
on cloudy days, or just before rains,
and for this reason it is usually ac
credited with the power of foretelling
the coming shower. It cannot sing;
but it has some notes peculiarly its
own, which, once heard, are not easi
ly forgotten. "Tut-tut, tut-tut," it
seems to say, "c1-uck-cl-uck, cow,
MAIL DOXES AS NESTS.
Since free delivery of mail in rural
districts has been established I have
been pleased to discover two or three
pairs of bluebirds nesting undisturbed
in mail boxes by the roadside. It is
gratifying to know that the birds al
lowed themselves to be disturbed two
or three times a day and yet not aban
don their nests. But the thing that
gives the bird lover the greatest de
light is that fact that no one robbed
the nets. I am sure the bluebird will
in time learn to appreciate this kind
ness. and the day is not far distant
when it will be a common occurrence
y performing- the tricks shown in
fpractice a littefirst. It is suggested
est goblets, but use cups of tin
rcan perform successfully if yo~u ad
the iI~ustration shows.
to find some kind of bird's nest in
every home-made box that holds a let
ter.-From "Nature and Science," in
What :is a Lady?
Sociafly a lady is an illuminatin~g
exception to the "Crewd." She has
old-fashioned motions that puzzle the
majrity and delight the few.. She
has no longings for a career or for
suffrage. She detests snobbery, but
refuses to know any save the "best
people-for her to know.. Those
who. paint pictures, hew marble, and
write books or give to the world the
worthy products of their talents are
among her "best people." Not that
she looks upon great wealth as a
bar sinister to social eligibility.
What has money to do with lady
hood? Bue she knows the need of
money is the root of much evil:
therefore among her friends are
women whose millions are but gold
en addenda to their thrice-charming
selves-indeed she often is born to
the purple or acquires it by mar
riage. Many are called upon, but
few are chosen as a Lady's intimates.
To all she is careful to be polite,
and so escape the snare of petty
Ibroils and spiteful "roastings."
Friendships that are born in a night,
and die in a fortnight, she rejects.
IShe connides in none. If uncon
sciously she incites, she never in
vites, confidence, but when trusted
is loyalty's synonyme. - Minna
Thomas Antrim, in Lippincott's.
A journalist visited an insane
asylum to get material for an article,
and was shown over the establish
ment by one of the inmates, who was
so intelligent that it was almost im
possible to believe he could be out
of his head.
"And what are you in here for,
my man?" asked the journalist at
Immediately a cunning look came
into the man's eyes and he looked
about him warily.
"I'll tell you if you keep it dark,"
he said, lowering his voice. "I have
a mania for swearing. I write 'cuss
words' all around. It's great sport.
Why, they have to hire a man just
to follow me round and rub 'em out.
But," coming a little closer. "I'll
tell you a secret. I'm four 'damns'
ahead of him. and I've got 'hell'
written all over your back'"-Lip
Moderation in Exercise.
It is better to be lazy than dead,
and it is probably just as comfort
able. For obvious reasons the pre
scription to take "moderate exer
cise" is misleading and unsatisfac
tory. Most of us are constitution
ally incapable of exercising moler
ately. We begin violently and r.nid
Iquickly. And what is "moderate
eercise?" One philosopher who
Itried it for twenty years arrived at
the same as to walking. Smell the
~r.:oring. look down the long way
tat separates you fre-n your busi
A FLOWERY SANDWICH.
Savory sandwiches are spread with
butter that has been flavored by lying
rolled in a thin cloth overnight on
a bed of violets, mignonette, rose
petals and nasturtium leaves and
blossoms. Cover the butter with the
flowers and cover its receptacle tight.
Rose geranium leaves are sometimes
used, but tieir fragrance is pretty
Four tablespoonfuls flour, two ta
blespoonfuls sugar, two eggs, a little
milk, one teaspoonful baking pdwder,
Beat the butter and sugar to a
cream. b-at up the eggs and stir
them in gradually; sift the flour gent
ly among the butler and eggs, then
add about a tab'e.poonful of milk,
and, last of all, the baking powder.
Butter a pudding mold and put
into it a large spoonful of jam, pour
in the pudding, cover with buttered
paper and steam for two hours.
PUFFY IEAT SOUFFLE.
Add a cupful of bread crumbs that
have been soaked in a cupful of hot
milk to two cupfuls of chopped cold
meat, add a teaspoonful chopped
parsley, a tablespoonful of onion
juice, a teaspoonful of salt, one-half
teaspooonful of pepper, a-tablespoon
ful of grated celery. Mix this well
together, add the yolks of two eggs,
well beaten, and pour into a but
tered pudding dish. Then take two
cupfuls mashed potatoes, add a tea
spoonful of salt, one cupful of hot
milk and at the very last fold in the
whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff
snow. Spread this over the meat and
bake in a hot oven for twenty-five
minutes. The potatoes will puff up
and brown nicely.
FANCY CUCUMBER PRESERVES.
Young cucumbers about the length
of one's middle finger should be used
for preserving. Place them in a
strong brine and allow them to re
main there for one week. Then wash
them and soak them a day and a
night in fresh water, changing it
about four times. Wipe them, and
with a small knife slit them down
one side. Dig out the seeds and stuff
with a mixture of chopped raisins
and citron. Sew up the slit with fine
thrcad. Weight and prepare a syrup,
using a pound of sugar to a pint of
water to every pound of cucumbers.
Heat the sugar and water. When
the boiling point is reached drop the
ucumbers into the syrup, Siminer
them gently half an hour. Take out
the preserve and spread it upon a
dish in the sun. Let it remain there
until the syrup has been boiled down
with a few slices of ginger root.
hen add the cucumbers, and simmer
very gently five minutes. Put them
into glass fars and seal. This recipe
has been used by a noted housekeep
er for ov er thirty years.
Dry your saucepans before you put
Be careful not to throw anything
bu. water down the sink test you clog
Be sure to put scalding water in
each saucepan or stewpan as you
finish using it.
Take notice of all orders that re
quire time in t e preparation o- a
dinner and hurry nothing.
Take care of your copper utensils
that the tin does not become worn
off. If so, have them instantly re
Be particular in washing vegeta
bles. Lay cauliflower and cabbage
in salt and water for an hour or more
to get out the insects.
if a dinner party is in prospect,
ask for a bill-of-fare and get ready
ad you can the day before, to ease
worry and hurry on the day (ixed.
Keep your spice box always re~
plenished and take care to let your
mistress know whether you are out
of anything likely to be required,
that its place may at once be -.up~
Wear plain cotton dresses and
large aprons. Be ,sure to keep youi
hair neat and sraooth. Be careful 01
fuel. It is a great recommendatior:
to a cook to use only the necessary
amount of fuel.
lla:e an eye on your mistress's in
terests, not permitting waste os an)
kind; a cook who is just and nones
and does as she would be done b: .
worthy of the greatest respect ani
may o sure of being successful an
Pudding bags and jelly cloths re
quire care; wash and hang them t
dry directly after using them. Ai:
them well before you put them ewa:
or they will smell musty. Keep then
in a warm, dry place. After washing
up your dishes, and cleaning th4
dishpan, scald out the sink and siul
We Yankees Like Fruit.
For strictly orchord product
which found markets and presum
ably were consumed during the yea
ending June 30, 1905i, the Americal
farmer received $8S.751,840, and w
raised in American vineyards on
and a half billion po)unds of grapes
which crop) brough our America:
;-ineyardists over $13.0 00.000 more
American sub-tropical fruits brough
the producers nearly $10Q,000.00(
and we imported from the West In
dies and Scuther'n Europe $25.00%Q
000 worth of tropicai fruits.
Ernest C, Rowe, in Leslie's We!
TOPICS OF iNTEREST TO IHE PLAN 3
Plowing, Good and Bad.
A correspondent of the Country
Gentleman opens his communication
with an axiom, for it is certainly true
that good plowing is at the founda
tion of good farming. All that is
said about plowing when the soil is
too wet or too dry applies, of course,
only to heavy soil containing a large
percentage of clay. Most of the
sandy lands of this State can be
plowed as soon -as the rain stops,
without any injury. Florida farmers
have yet to learn that one-horse
plowing does not pay.
Good plowing, it has been said, is
at the foundation of all good farm
ing; and there is much of truth in
the statement. A field that is poorly
plowed is not likely to produce a
heavy crop, and always requires
extra labor in its subsequent prepara
tion and cultivation. Land that is
plowed too wet or too dry is ce-tain
to be baked or cloddy, and often re
mains in this condition the season
through. Shallow, careless plowing
has been the bane of this section;
and many a gullied hillside testifies
to the work of the man who plowed
four inches deep because he was in a
hurry to get through. Down in the
cotton country, where, in many local
ities at least, the rule is a darky, a
mule and a little one-horse plow that
turns up from two to four inches of
soil, the dam'age is equally apparent,
and even more general.
Good plowing and deep plowing
are, however, not necessarily synonv
mous. Some land needs to be turned
no more than four inches, although
it is fair to say that there is very lit
tle of that kind in thissection. Land
to be well plowed must 'e broken to
a uniform deptlt and be free from
the "skips" and "wallows" left by so
many plowmen. When the soil is
too wet to shed, or so dry that it
breaks up in chunks, a good job is
impossible. The ideal condiLion is
when the soil as it falls frorL the
plow crumbles down into a soft,
This ideal condition is not always
obtainable even where the land is
smooth and uniform, and where, as
is often the case with us, one field
may have in it a half dpzen types
and conditions of soil aiid as many
differences in 'topography, the prob
lem is one of great difficulty. Where
one has to plow up hill and down,
through alluvial deposits and clay
banks, he must be a better plowman
than any with whom I am acquaint
ed if he keeps his furrows of uniform
depth and width. He cannot set his
plow for every variation of soil or
slope, b'ut must strike an average as
best he can. This means that he
may plow eight inches deep in one
place anld four in another. Usually,
too, the Ieast depth will be reached
where the greatest is needed. Now
this is a very unpleasant state of af
fairs, but it seems also to be inevit
able. -It is one of the disadvantages
which the man who farms in the hill
eountry has to contend with. If any
one can tell us any practicaI way of
surmounting this difficulty I can
promise him the gratitude of at Ieast
one reader,. and believe he will have
that of thousands of others.
There are some things a farmer is
said never to appreciate until he has
had and lost them-running water, a
good fruit supply,. abundant shade
trees and a convenient wood lot. I
think it is safe to- add that the man
who has leveI land of uniform qual
ity cannot fully appreciate his good
fortune unless he has at one time
farmed on hilly land.-Florida Agri
The Country Boys and Girls.
It is a remarkable fact that a large
part 6f the brain and brawn has al
ways come from the rurar districts of
all .countries. We might go down
the business street of any town in
North Carolina to-day ana. take an
inventory, so to speak,. of the men
who are doing the business, and we
would find a large part of them were
reared in the country. We do not
write to make odious comparisons
between the country children and
the town children, but we wish to
call the attention of 'parents in the
country to the new order of things
coming to pass.
We wish to ask fathers and moth
ers if it is reasonable to suppose that
their boys and girls in the country
who only have an opportunity to cul
tivate and develop their minds from
three and one-half to four months in
the year will be able to stand up and
compete with and enter into life's
struggles with the boys and girls in
the towns who have- nine mouths to
iaprove the mind and be trained for
life's work: to say nothing of the
mtagzaznes, good literature and lec
tures ..o which they have :v-cess.
It is noct reaisoo'bic to supnose
that cihildren who iuava ')ractically~
Items of Interest.
President Shea 's faction held eon
trol in the teamsters' convention.
Virginia Robinson 5 years old, wa
burned to death at Cameron, W. Va
The Henrico road supervisors re
fused :o authorize an election for
bond issue to improve the count:
The women sufferagists convene<
Thc batleship 31ikasa, Admiral To
go's flagship in the battle of the Se:
of Japau.' has been raised at Sas
SThe D~uke of Connaught and mnem
bers of his staff were in an automoc
bile in Wales when it was demnolishes
by a collision, but esc'aped injury.
tFive .Japanese were killed andi sev
eral others wounded for raiding th
seal roo~kerv on the Island of Si
C-ari * . 31urphy. the Tamman;
TARM '. f10TE&8
ER, STOCKMANANO ?RUCK G.9% ER. -
the same natural ability and have
more than twice the opportunities
the others do, will be equal when the
Parents of the rural districts, your
children are as dear to you as any
parents. Do you want them to be
helpless or inferior in capacity to
their fellows in the years to come?
I am sure no true parent does. But
mark the prediction: unless the par
ents of the rural districts bestir
themselves and secure more of the
advantages for their children in the
way of education the time will sure
ly come when those who have it not
This is not a pleasant thought, but
it is as true as the Gospel itself.
We do not want to see parents of
the rural districts satisfied with three
or four months' school; they must
not be content with this if they e
pect to keep pace with the towns and
villages.-Catawba County News.
Cultivating the Plum Orchard.
There is even more necessity, for
regula-r and clean - cultivation with
the plum than with the peach, inas
much as it requires a more plenti
ful supply of wa:ter. Moisture can
only be retained by cultivation, shal
low but thorough, after every com
pacting rain, thereby pulverizing the
crust and forming a soil mulch to
shut off capillarity and so retain
the water already chambered in the
subsoil from the -winter rains. To
insure such a reservoir of moisture
the orchard should be plowed in
both directions with either cultiva
tor or disk harrow as early in win
ter as possible. Even during win
ter it will pay once or twice to break
tha' compact crust that forms after
heavy rains with an acme harrow'
or similar instrument, ,though this
is quite generally neglected by com
mercial growers to their loss.
Crops "of grass and weeds should
never be allowed to develop in the
orchard, as they not only rob the
trees of water, but of plant food
without a corresponding return. Low,
cultivated crops, like cotton, while
of course distinctly in~furions to the
trees, are less objectionable, since
to a certain extent they pay for board
and lodging. Cowpeas in rows oc
cupying the middle between the trees
are rather more of a benefit than a
detriment, for although they trench
on the water supply, they return an
equivalent in the nitrogen they trans
fer to the soil. Small grain, how
ever, is ruinous. Cultivation should
cease before the 'maturity of the
crop and not be resumed until the
trees have become dormant in the
fall. This will permit the wood to
ripen up' well, which a constant dis
ruption of the'root system by the
cultivator would prevent.-Prof. H. s -
Visiting Neighbors' Farms.
Every farmer should get out occa
sionally and visit his neighbors'
farms. Every other business man
mal-es it a point to know the men
who are engaged in his line of work,
and he profits by 'the acquaintance.
The farmer who stays at home all
the time is inclined tc. -get the idea
that the sun rises and sets for the
particular benefit of his individual
patch of earth, which means that he
is in a fair way to go to seed. Of
course when a man visits anotker
mans farm, he wilI not brag, criticise
or gossip. If he goes in. a friendly
give-and-take spirit, he will general
ly find his neighbors c~uite readyt to
explain how he grows more corn' to
the acre than does the~ man on the
next quarter, or to show why -his
coultry or his dairy bring him a prof
it, whereas they are only a drain on
the resources of too many of his fel
low-farmers. It is not safe to jump
at the conclusion that because a man'
gows more corn to the acre than you
grow his soil is any better than
yours. In nine cases out of ten he
raises more because be uses i,etter
seed, or because he hats learned-bet
ter methods of cultiv:ation.-Farm
Severe Root Pruning Favored.
Alhough the horticulturist of the
Georgia experiment station declines
to make any positive statement con
cerning the advisability of severe
root pruning when planting young
trees, he says that he is fully satis
fied that peach trees fr-om which the
rootse have been largely cut off will
live and flourish in Georgia even in
stiff clay and under adv.arre weather'
conditions. The same statement
may also be made of apple and
cherry trees. In some experiments
made he found that the root-pruned
trees made fewer, deeper. larger and
more robust roots. These rqots'
enerat'?d seventeen and one-half
inhsfr the roots oi -dnPruned
As a rule a young widow begins
to get better, looking about ten days
after the late lamented moves to the
Men haven't much love for men,
rwomen haven't much love for women;
and most men end women have less
'love for each cther than they have
. The best time a womian has going
Sabroad is waving good-by to all her
. envious friends.
A man's judgment is not to be
- mentioned with the way a woman
- an do things wvithout any.
When a girl would like broiled
steak and French fried potatoes she
- .seems to think you w.,uld imagine it
worse than for her to have fat an
Soicitors for- a charitable cnte
V prVe are offered more excuses tha