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P WEEKLY EDITION. WIXNSBORO, S. C.. WEDNESDAY. FEBRUARY 15, 1882. ESTABLISHED IN 1844. f|
BY HESEV WADSWOBTH LONGFELLOW.
AsSeleucus narrates, Hermes described the
\ principles that rank as wholes in two myriads
Jl of books; or, as we are informed by Manetho,
Hfc he perfectly unfolded these principles in three
myriads six thousand five hundred and twentymr
fire volumes. * * *
* * * Our ancestors dedicated the inventicns
of their wisdom to this deity, inscribing
all their own writings with the name of Hermes.
|PQpr vsriu tnrougn tgyprs Teaert pieces
Flows the lordly X;le,
b * From its backs the great stone faces
Gaze with patient smile;
StiH.'he pyramids imperious
L 'Pierce the cloudless skies,
% And the Sphinx stares with mysterious,
^ Solemn, stony eyes.
Wt Bat where are the old Egyptian
Demi-gods and kings ?
Nothing left but an inscription
Graven on stones and rings.
Where are Helius and H^hoestns,
Gods of eldest eld ?
Where is Hermes Trismegistus,
Who their secrets held ?
Where are now the many hundred
* j Thousand books he wrote ?
By the Tha<finaturgists plundered,
Lost in lands remote;
In oblivion sunk forever,
As when o'er the Jand,
Blow? a storm-wind, in the river
Sinks the scattered sand.
> Something unsubstantial, ghostly,
gm Seems this Theurgist,
In deep meditation mostly
^ Wrapped, as in a mist.
Vague, phantasmal and unreal,
To our thougkt he seems,
Walking in a wor d ideal,
In a land of dreams.
Was he one, or many, merging
Name and fame in one,
* Like a stream to which converging
^ Many streamlets run ?
Till, with gathered power proceeding,
Ampler sweep it takes,
Downward the sweet waters leading
From unnumbered lakes.
By the Nile I see him wandering,
Pausing now and then,
On the mystic union pondering
Between gods and men;
' Half believing, wholly feeling,
With supreme delight, J
How the gods, themselves concealing,
Lift men to their height.
Or in Thebes, the hundred-gated, o
In the thoroughfare j?
Breathing, as if consecrated.
A diviner air;
And amid discordant noises,
In the jostling throng,
Hearing far, celestial voices,
Of Olympian s .ng.
Who shall call his dreams fallacious ?
Who has searched or sought
All the unexplored and spacious
Universe of thought ?
Who, in his own skill confiding,
Shall -with rale and line
Mark the border-land dividing
Human and divine ?
Trismegistus! three times greatest!
How thy name sublime
Has descended to this latest
Progeny of time!
Happy they whose written pages
* Perish with their live^,
Tf OTni/1 f>>p rrnrr>Win^
? Still their name survives!
Thine, oh, priest of Egypt, iately
Found I in the vast,
. "Weed-incumbered, somber, stately
Graveyard of the past;
And a presence moved before me
On that gloomy shore,
#As a waft of -wind that o'er me
Breathed, and was no more.
W ?Century Magazine.
TWO WEDDING DAYS.
Everything had been duly and propel
ly arraiged for the weddicg. The
? ? ?? ' ~ t ITiVf XTaII ~Dott f a \f y
CLJ ^TUgt'IilCJU t Ui ?jcu> v*uj wv -tun.
Beitram Langley hsd been announced
in tie fashion column of a leading
"society journal," and the wedding day
% had arrived.
I am Bertram Langley?commonly
called Bert?and while I confess to being
most sincerely and entirely in love
with my little Nell, I mnst add I had
been quite annoyed about our marriage,
first at the persistence with which she
insisted upon a grand wedding.
For a month before we were to be
married I believe I never entered the
house once but Sato?Nell's married
sister?rushed into the room with an?
"Excuse rae, Bert, but Nell is wanted
??a ? r\.
a moment. ur, uun u iuva uuw,
Bert, but Nellie mnst see Madame This
or That," till I lost all patience.
There was another cans? of annoyance
too?Nell's father was a rich man, and
as able as he was willing to furnish his
daughter with as much finery as she
might desire, while I. on the contrary,
was a man with his way to still make in
i the world.
True, I had a fair income and fair
prospects, bnt I conld not hope to give
Nell as luxurious a home or as elaborate
jsr a wardrobe as her papa provided?at
least not for some years ; but I could
\ afford to support a wife, and I loved
Nell with all my heart.
I When I asked Mr. Hartley's consent
\ to our marriage, he was at first just a
little inclined to find fault with my
financial condition. An older man, with
a well-secured iortune wouia cave
suited him better. He had a most un,
wholesome dread of forfcuno-hunters,
and even went so far as to have a mild
suspicion that I might be just a bit inf
clined in that way; but all that \7ore off
in time, and we were on the best of
The day before the one fixed upon for
our marriage, Nell and I had our first
tiff. I called to inform her of the
smallest possible hitch in the church
machinery. The regular sexton was
obliged to leave town, but had secured
the services of his brother (a very deaf
and stupid man, as it turned out.) Possibly
she might have some instructions
to give him.
I waited full half an hour in the reception-room,
cooling my heels and
wanning my wrath, before Nell rushed
" What is it Bert^?" she asked, breathlessly,
" I'm awful busy 1"
"If you are in such a hurry it is no
matter what I wished to say."
?/ Nell opened her eyes in surprise.
" I've got to select some lace," she
exclaimed, " and Kate can't wait.'
Jm " Neither can IP* I retorted, shortly,
1^ pulling oh "Sly gloves. Then after a
m. moment I added, " yen think a gTeat
deal of furbelows, don't you ?"
"Indeed I do!"
? " I am afraid you will have to do with
vastly less when you are married."
Nell tossed her head saucily.
"All the more reason 1 should be
fn onirvr rvarva erfrps ma "
. ?wvnv>? w ?>- '
"It is cot too late to retreat," I said
coolly. " If yen repent yonr bargain,
there is time to escape."
Nell's eyes grow big with horror at
"Indeed, it is entirely too late !'* she
burst out. "Why, everybody knows it!
All our set have cards?I should die of
mortification to put it off now! We
must go on, any way; I have no fancy
for being a laughing stock for every
. " "Better be laughed at a week than
. miserable for a lifetime," I retorted.
Nell opened her lips to answer, but
just at that moment Kate ptti her head
in tie door.
"Nell! Nell! Excuse me, Bert?"
I stayed to hear no more, but turned
on my heel and strode away.
No sooner had I reached my hotel
then I was heartily ashamed of myself;
and when Ton, my elder brother ^nd
only living relative, rushed in and told
me that he had left his wife ill at home,
so anxious was he to see me married,
the last bit of crossness departed.
Next morning 1 saw Nellie for a moment
only, but the kiss.I pressed on her
dear little mouth was a silent plea for
pardon and a promise for better control
j over my temper next time.
i JbJverung came?tne cnurcn was
packed?and I, feeling most uncommonly
stiff and awkward in a span new
suit and speckless gloves, was waiting
in the vestry.
Nellie was to enter upon her father's
arm, followed by her bridemaids and
! groomsmen?six in number?while I
I was to enter in the nick of time from
j the vestry, the minister from his study J
I and meet before the altar.
I had lequested to be allowed to be
alone, so as to keep my part in mind,
and for the same reason went early to
the church, so as not to be stared at and
confused, for this show affair was not
one bit to mind.
Just at the last moment Tom came
rushing in, followed by the sexton.
"I've got a telegram from .Letti-e,"
said Tom, his voice quivering. "She is
worse, and I must start at once. Just
time to catch the train. Good-bye, old
VvATT ? n..\A ACO T?ATI "
VUJ I VIUU ViWOO JVU.
'Tm going to?just came to wish you
joy Mr. Berk," said the sexton, who had
known me since I was a lad. "Sorry I
can't see you married. My road's the
same as your brother's, so I'll go with
him;" and off they both hurried, the
door shutting with a sharp click behind
The time for the arrival of the wedding
party drew near, I advanced to the door
that opened into the church, designing
to open it and peep through. It resisted
j my efforts. I struggled with it sharply
?no use! the door was locked.
Then I flew back to the inner door
j and listened. The organ was playing
1 gaylv, and a subdued hush told me that
| Nellie was entering on her father's arm,
an/3 Vidro ttoo T trier onoeA likft a
I glanced around The windows
! canght my eye?why had I not thonght
' of them ? I conld at least make my
escape, and the ceremony might be
delayed, and consequently awkward;
still Nell would not be utterly put to
shame. Like the madman I was, I
seized the table, dragged it to the
window, sprang upon it, and climbed
on to thejiigh and narrow window sill;
throwing up the sash, I prepared to
leap cut; but I had reckoned without
my lost; the cord that held the weight
was broken, consequently the moment
my hand left the eash the window
descended with startling rapidity,
striking me fall upon the head, anc,
knocking me off the narrow sill, dashing
my head against the sharp corner of
the table, and at last landing me fall
length on the floor.
I tried to rise; something warm
rushed over my face ; I put up my hand
to clear my eyes?my hand was covered.
I felt giddy and weak, still I staggered,
to my feet; then a black mist arose
around me, and I kne* no more.
This was Thursday eve. Snnday
afternoon, the sexton, returning to his
duties, found lying upon the aoorhalf
dead, wholly delirious, my face '
covered with blood, and a hole large
enough to let the life ont of any man.
That mine was spared was because I had.
fallen with the wound down, and the
soft pile of the carpet acted like lint to
stanch the blood.
As soon as I could control my
thoughts I begged to know of Nelli e.
Poor little girl! she had been quite
wVion T foiled tn armour
u*ci nuoiiuvu* TI uvu
Kate's husband rushed out to inquire o:c
! the sexton if he had seen me. Ee was
positive that I had been there, and
equally positive that I had left again in
company with his brother?said he
could not be mistaken - both seemed in
a great hurry and had jumped into a
carriage and been driven rapidly awj y.
Messengers wero sent to my hotel,
but without gaining a clew to my whereabouts
; so after a mortifying wait
Nellie had been taken home, and the
very morning of the day I was dis
covered the whole family sailed for
As soon as J was able to stand, I sailed
in search of the woman I hud so inno
cently humiliated. Not knowing her
whereabouts, it was two months before
I found her. Af last, one evening,
wandering on the seashore of a quiet
little English town, I espied her?and
That she believed me a most blackened
villian was plain, for the look she
gave me when she recognized my
presence was one of unutterable contempt.
Now that I had found her, I
was determined she should hear the
! "Nellie," I cried, hurrying to hei,
and grasping both her little hands before
she had time to escape.
!4 Well sir?" she replied, haughtily,
trying in vain to free her hands.
" My darling," I pleaded, " you will
at least hear a man before you condemn
j Her face flushed angrily.
" What can you say," she burst out
hotly, "that will mafie your conduct
less dastardly? Have you not made me
the object of every one's ridicule and
contemptuous pity! Offering me public
an insult no -woman could ever forgive ?
Hayejou not made me hate everybody,
jEydyymost of ail ? What more do yoa
wish, Bertram Langley?you villain !"
I winced a little at the word, as I
thought of my broken head?though
God knows I did not blame her, believing
as she did.
"Why are you here ? And why did you
run away?" she demanded, with a whole
world of scorn on the word "runaway."
" I did not run away ; I was locked
" Locked up ! For what ? Where ?'
cried poor Nell, starting back, a look of
horror creeping up into the "brown eyes.
I verily believe she thought for an
instant I had added murder to my other
? Wire in thft vpstrv." T PYnlftinorJ a !
.,u.j, ~ ?- " ?. J ?r
little foolishly. " Come and sit down
and let me tell yon. I am qnite ill
This was a master stroke. Nell seated
herself without demur, and half sitting,
half lying at her feet, related to her the
chapter of my misfortunes.
Dear little'girl! ker face brightened
before I was half through?indeed, I
am sorry to say she laughed quite heartily
; but she became sober when I told
her about the window coming down and
leaned over and kissed the scar on my
head tenderly, and I knew that peace
and confidence were restored.
Great was the family wonder to see
us walk in together; but everything
was all right as soon as I explained, and
Mr. and Mrs. Bartley consented that
j Nell and I might be married next day
j in the quaint ltttle church in the place.
And so we were. I led mv bride in
* A 1 T\ 1 ?*** . ?
myseir, ana rapa ana mamma hartley
j followed soberly behind, and Kate and
j her husband were all the crowd we had.
Lizzie Esthelz, of Beverly, Ohio,
I who lost her power of speech three
! years ago, found herself able to articn1
late, and now is able to talk as well as
j ever. The case is puziiing the doctors,
j as she had no bodily ailment to canse
,! her to be speechless, and her restoraI
tion is equally unaccountable.
THE SATIOXAL LEGISLATURE.
Some Curiou* Fact* About Member* of I
I During the first forty-five congresses, j
| all but 142 out of the 5,337 members j
I were born in the United States ? New
i York having 705, Pennsylvania 598,
j Virginia 535, Massachusetts 439, and
| Connecticut 340. Most of our foreign- ,
j bore statesmen have come from Ireland. |
I England, Scotland and Germany have i
! followed in about equal proportion. J
i There have beer, two who were born in j
j Bavaria, two from Bermuda, five from j
i Canada, seventeen from England, iive
! from France, twelve from Germany,
fifty-two from Ireland, one from
Maderia, one from ttie Netherlands, one
from New Brunswick, one from Nova
Scotia, twenty-one from Scotland, two
from Switzerland, four from Wales, and
four from the Weet Indies. Out of that
long list there have been some 2,000?
considerably less that half ? who
received a classical, collegiate, or liberal
edncation. Is has been the custom,
more observed in the Eastern States
than in the West, to send their representatives
to Congress for long continued
The occupations of congressmen embrace
nearly every branch of modern
industry and the professions. Yet
there have been representatives of some
occupations -with whom the newcomers
will hardly think it an honor to be
classed. Among them may be mentioned
one prize-fighter, one murderer,
and one barber.
From the colonial days to the present
it has happened that several generations
of the same family have served in one
or both branches of Congress. The
mos t notable among these are the
Adamses. Bayards. Breckinridsres. Har
risons, Chanclers, Stocktons, Frelinghuysens
A complete record of the number of
congressmen who have been engaged in
duels has never been kept; but the
number who have died in affairs of
honor is pretty well known.
Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the
treasury under Washington, leader of
the Federalist party, and a leading spirit
in the formation of the Constitution,
was mortally wounded by Aaron Burr,
at Hoboken, July 3, 1804.
Richard Spaight, of North Carolina,
was the first to die in a duel. He
served in the Constitutional Congress,
and sat in the convention which framed 1
the Constitution. He was killed by hij
successor in Congiess, John Stanley. 1
The latter was tried, and sentenced to
imprisonment, but was pardoned by
Governor Williams, of North Carolina, in
a year. Stanley was subsequently elected 1
to Congress. 1
Thomas K. Harris, of Tennessee, died ;
in 1816 from wounds received in a duel 1
with Colonel Simpson. 1
Spencer Pettis was killed in a duel ;
fought with Major Thomas Biddle, at
St. Louis, An gust 26, 1831. The duel '
arose out of ft quarrel over tlie United.
States Bank, the president of which, 3
Nicholas Biddle, was the brother of the 1
Armstead T. Mason, ex-senator from 1
Virginia, fell in a duel fought near 1
Washington city with John M;Carty, 1
his brother-in-law, in 1819. <
Joseph Pierson, of North Carolina,
died from a duel fought in 1831 with
John Jackson. <
Jonathan Cilley, of Maine, died from 1
a shot received in a duel fought Feb. '
28, 1838, fired by Williwna J". Cbovoo, <
Kentucky. Graves was subsequently ji
elected to congress.
George A. Waggaman, United States
Senator from Louisiana, lost his life m
a duel near New Orleans, March 23,
George Poindester, Representative
from Mississippi, fonght a duel with a
merchant and killed him about 1835.
There have been many duels which
were bloodless. Among them the following
are the most notable:
Those between Henry Clay and Humphrey
Marshall, and between Clay and
John Randolph, of Virginia. Samuel
W. Inge, Representative from Alabama,
foflght at Bladensburg with Edwaid
Stanley, of South Carolina, in the ThirA?
nai+Vicir Vioinct SArioTIS
LV-HrOu VJULLgXCOOj UVXVXAWA ww^?W ,??
John S. Jackson, of the Thirty-seventh !
Congress, fought several duels, one ,
with Thomas F. Marshall, none resultii
Leonard Jarvis, member from Maine,
challenged a colleague, F. 0. J. Smith, .
from the Porfcls.md district, in about '
the Twenty-fourth Congress, but the .
latter declined to fight.
There have been a number of mem- j.
bers who have committed suicide.
Eaywood Chauncey Riddle shot himself
through the head in Tennessee, .
about 1875. He was undoubtedly in- ;
James Blair, a Representative from !
South Carolina, blew out his brains at
a bcarding-House on Capitol Hill, April !
Felix McConnell, a member from j
Alabama, committed suicide in a fit of j
delirium, at the St. Charles hotel,
"Washington, by stabbing himself and
then cutting his throat, September 10,
Representative James Ashmore, from
South Carolina, blew out his brains at
Sardis, Miss., December 6, 1861.
Elijah Hise, Representative in the
Fortieth Congress, committed suicide
at Russellville, Ky., May 8,1876.
John White, Representative from
Kentucky, committed suicide at Richmond,
Ky., September 27, 1845.
James G. Wilson, United States Senator
from Xew Jersey, threw himself
from his house in a fit of delirinm in
1832, and was killed.
William Ramsey, Representative from
Pennsylvania, committed euicide at I
Barnum's hotel, in Baltimore, by shoot- j
ing himself through the eye with a pistol, i
about 1840. !
.InVin F.win<r_ nf Indiana, was found I
dead in his room at Vincennes in
1S39, and on his table the following
Here lies a man who loved his friends.
His God, his country, and Vincennes.
Representative Alfred H. White, of
Ohio,committed suicide by taking poison
on tho grave cf his two children, at
Coinmbus, August, 1, 1865. He was
charged with improper acts in connection
with cotton speculations.
James Heniy Lane, United States
Senator from Kansas committed suicide
at Fort Leavenworth, about 1866.
James S. Johnson, Representative
from Kentucky, committed suicide
while suffering from ill health, at \
Owensbcro, Kv., February 12, 1^73.
A number of Congressmen nnd exCongressmen
have met wiih accidental
Clement S. Yalladingham died from
the accidental discharge of a pistol in
1870j while arguing a murder case at
Eobert Young, United States Senator
from Indiana, was killed by a railroad
train while walking on the track, at
Indianapolis, November 14, 1855.
Abraham B. Yenable, "United States
Senator from Yirginia, perished in the
burning of the Richmond theater, December
James Martin, Representative from
South Carolina, was drowned on the
passage from New Orleans to Galveston,
November 15, 1857. He vras the
founder of the Southern Quarterly
Josiah Stoddard Johnson, Senator
from Louisiana, died Maroh 19, 1813,
from the effect of an explosion of gunpowder
on a steam packet on the Red
Charles J. Julian, Senator from Dela
aware, died Octobers 17, 1S62, from
in juries received while experimenting
with a rifle-cannon which he had
There have been members of Congress
who have killed men not on the field of
Eenry Daniels, from Virginia, shot
his brother-in law, at Mt. Sterling, Ky.,
in 1845, as the result of a quarrel.
Daniel Sickels killed Philip Barton
Key, February 28,1859, at Washington.
Richard Weightman, a delegate from
"fCf>TP iVfoTi/>A in tVio t.liirf-v-QA^nrwl CV.n
gress, killed a Santa Fe trader with the
same knife with which he cut a cadetcomrade
at West Point?an act for
which he was expelled from West
Charles F. Mitchell, of New York,
n-as convicted of forgery in 1842, and
tent to Sing Sing, but was pardoned a
Jacob Barker, once a great financier,
wa3 indicted in New York for conspiracy
to defrand ; removed to New Orleans,
and was elected to the United States
Senate?but was not admitted to his
Richard Potter, representative from
North Carolina, w?,s sentenced to ix
months' imprisonment in 1831 for an
assault on two male relatives of his
wife ; and then removed to Texas, where
he was killed in a private quarrel.
The assault of Brooks, of South Caro
lina, 'ipon Charles Summer, is historical.
General Houston, of Tennessee, was
reprimanded before the bar of the
Eonse for having waylaid and knocked
down with a bludgeon William Stanbury,
a Representative from Ohio, in
the Thirty-second Congress, on account
of words spoken in debate,
Thomas D, Reynolds, a Representative
from Tennessee, in the Twenty- i
second Congress, was assaulted in the
Capitol, May 14, 1832, by Morgan A.
Heard, who fired a loaded horse pistol
at him, the ball grazing his arm, and
then struck him with a bludgeon.
Shall "VVemen Smoke'
Well, that is a question for her to
decide. The practice is a pernicious
one ; it pollutes the breath and blackens
the teeth; it injures the complexion,
and undermines the health; but, for all
that, Mary has as good a right to a sly
pnff as John. It is assumed that woman
will not be attractive to man if 6he
smokes. "Why not, if the man smokes?
If they enjoy it, as they pretend, why
deny the enjoyment, to women? That
which they keep in their own mouths
they cannot call unclean in others. He
whose month is odorous with tobacco
can have no sensitiveness a-, to the
same odor in other mouths. Kissing
is an exchange of endearments peculiar
to human kind. It is current coin of
the rewly married. If the man's lips
are reeking with tobacco, shall not the
kiss have the stronger zest if the
woman's lips exhale the same flavor;
Does he not need this strong flavor to
reach his own highly flavored sensibility?
If tobacco-tainted lips be
repulsive, the wife needs to tan hers in
she same way in self-defense. The
married state is a leveler. One of the
twain, who are now one flesh, cannot
continue delicate if the other is coarse.
What is meet for the one is meet for
;he other. The wife of a smoking man
lan have no reason of cleanliness or
delicacy toward him to keep her from
smoking. Ho who smokes or chews
>an lia^o no clclIC&Cj to Vo
i smoking or chewing woman. Jf there
is any benefit to bo derived from
smoking, then, woman should share it
frith man. It is a habit of stimulation
c?hich is exempt from the reproach of
intemperance. A cigar is a' stronger
intoxicant than a dram, but he who takes
ia.ilv drams is called a toper. One may
keep his brain fuddled all the while
with tobacco; may be so subject to it
that if he misses his cigar, pipe or cud,
be runs down, as the toper when he
misses his stated dram, and yet be not
i subject for the temperance crusaders ;
cnav himself be a crasader. Here is a
way in which women may get a share of
ihat incessant stimulation which seems
a necessity to men. With unlimited
;:igars, and those positive nerve stimulants,
tea and coffee, they will not have
i bad chance. Why should they be
hindered from indulging their own sweet
wills in this respect ??Exchange.
A Valley of Roses.
The maritime vale of Santa Barbara,
for sixty miles facing the Pacific ocean,
says a California letter, we consider the
most attractive in the states. The soil
is extra deep dark alluvium. By the
formation of the coast it is sheltered
from the rude trade winds, elsewhere so
udpleasant on our shores. Here flourish
in luxuriance the fig tree and the olive,
the prune and the almond, the orange
and the lemon, the nectarine and the
pomegranate. Here grows Alfalfa
clover, giving three cuttings a year and
pasture through the winter. Here
flowers bloom perennial. Here only is
a paradise of roses and other fragrant
Sowers cultivated for commercial perfumery.
Here the bee pastures all the
year, the hivers gather honey every day
and abstaining themselves they give to
man nearly their whole production.
Only in stress of stormy weather they
draw upon their hoarded sweets.
Feathered songsters never migrate from
this elysium. Man's dwelling is enlivened
by the chirp of birds, and their
music gives perpetual cheer, unchecked
by winter frosts. i?appy, tnnce niesseu
are they whose lot is ca?*- where happiness
is so lightly wooed and won 1 Here
in mid-December the company's rose
gardens are 3 sight to charm the eye,
when, day by day, children gather everblooming
flowers for extraction of perfume
for the toilet. At Kezanlik, in
the foothills of the Balkan raage, in
Ronmelia, Sonth Tnrkev, is a valley
devoted to rose cnltnre exclusively for
like purpose, but there the sale of the
nosegays to many villages is extra profitable.
There, as here, the hair and
the clothes of all who work among the
roses retain the perfume for a week of
absence from the valley.
A Tailor's Kevenge.
The Leeds (England) Mercury tells
how the late Mr. Poole, the eminent
tailor, was walking on the pier at
Brighton one morniDg, when he was
accosted by a cerlain noble lord who
honored him with his patronage. "Good
morning, Mr. Pcole," said the peer,
"Good morning, my lord," replied the
tailor, who then passed on. "Stay, Mr.
Poole; I wanted to show you this coat,"
cried the aristocrat. "It doesn't fit me
at all." Mr. Poole was a gentleman of
ready wit. He stopped, looked carefully
at the coat, then, drawing a piece
of cbalK from his pocket, said: "Your
lordship is right, the coat wants to be
taken in here, and let out here, and
just a little bit lengthened here," and
at each "here" he made a heavy chalk
mark. "Now, my lord," he continued,
as he saw that a crowd of' wondering
idlers ha'd gathered round them, "5
you will just take that coat up to London,
marked as it is, my manager will see
'"e aH-or^rl ",n vorcr satisfaction.'
luau xu xo j
His lordship did not again commit the
impertinence of giving Mr. Poole in
structions on the pier at Brighton.
Praying toward the east is an ancient
custom, and when churches were built
in early times thev were bnilt with a
view to this practice. A number of
reasons are given for the canse; the
' most important is this: At the Savior's
crucifixion His face was tnrned towards
j the west, and hence by praying, turned
to the east, is signified looking into His
HOME LIFE OF THE CZAR.
How the Russian Ruler Lives?His C<i?
toros and CharacterlHtics.
The general arrangement of the
buildings, besides offering the advantages
of accommodation to be fonnd
in a large mansion, affords special
security for the personal safety of the
emperor, whose apartments are completely
isolated and unapproachable
except by narrow passages that are
strictly guarded. The galleries at Gatchina
have long been farced as contain
-o i. aa11AA4;^0
mg magniucexit atustiu vuuctuuuo.
One which leads to the emperor's
private rooms is called ?he Japanese
gallery, and here are assembled a number
of curiosities of the highest value,
which have from time to time been
presented to the great white czar by
rulers of China and Japan. The Japanese
minister, who was lately presented
at Gatchina, and who is a great collector
of both European and .Asiatic bric-abrac,
stated that there was nothing in
the East to compare with this Russian
collection, and that it would be impossible
to replace many of the ancient and
extremely valuable artistic objects that
adorn the imperial gallery. .
i T'Vi/i vv/^iviaTTr ci ft i r> or.Ti'iTI f>f the CZar
-1.A1U UivUUUij - ?
is a comfortably but si&plyj^urnished
apartment. Little elegance or oraa
ment is noticeable, bnt a. large writing
table and other unmistakable signs denote
that many of the emperor's hours
are here passed in close application to
the endless business that devolves on
the autocratic head of ft system of bureaucratic
centralization. The czar is
tin early riser, and the labors of his day
commence at nine in the morning. Till
one o'clock he is occupied in his study
receiving the ministers who present
their daily or weekly reports, and consulting
with them over ^fiairs of state,
it is especially significant of the policy
of the present czir. that, while high
UULLUicUO ilii V c Ulbou a wuivuiy vwtaining
an interview, 'his majesty is
always accessible to provincial deputations,
which are sometimes composed
of wild Khirgiz, sometimes of swarthy
Kalmucks or skin-clad Samoyedes, and
sometimes of illiterate Russian peasants
who desire to present a holy picture to
their great father, and to express their
loyalty and devotion to his person. The
emperor receives one and all with a
stern dignity, which, though accompanied
in most cases by a certain kindness
of manner, always leaves the conviction
that Alexander III. feels himself
an autocrat, and is determined to yield
none of his prerogatives, bnt to impress
on ail that approach him tliat they are
in the presence of an absolute, kindly
master. This species ot self-assertion
was a trait in the character of the em
peror in his very earliest days. He is |
devoted to mnsic, ar.d when a boy it
was suggested that he might derive
pleasure from taking a part in the
musical performances of the palace
orchestra, the then heir-apparent was delighted
at the idea, and it remained to
be settled on what instrument lie should
learn to perform. Characteristically
this imperious prince selected the trombone
as being the instrument with which
he could produce the greatest effect,
and, lover of music though he was, his
performance appealed chiefly to consist
in a well-sustained and fairly successful
effort to drown the remainder of the
Although stern and even overbearing
to the majority of those who surround
him, Alexander ITL has always been a
8YXE .... J. 'C- _ ? ^ uuxcr and
father.' <3 o'clock daily h
lunches with hi. lfe and children, and
to this meal none but the closest intimates
of his family are ever admitted.
After the luncheon, if thero are no
further deputations to receive, or important
business to attend to, the czar
goes out walking or driving, in company
with the empress or his sons. In
the evening there is often a little music,
of which the empress is as fond as the
emperor, and her majesty is a good
pianist. The czar retires to bed early,
and by eleven o'clock all is silence in
the imperial apartment.
During the daytime the empress
' ^ 3 A
occupies a room on me grotrna noor, exactly
below the czar's study, with which
it communicates directly by a small
private staircase. The czarina's boudoir
is elegantly furnished, but in a simple
style, and with no appearance of luxury,
except such as is given by the presence
of certain handsome pieces of furniture
and objects (Tart, which remain to testify
to the more extravagant tastes of former
occupants. The empress is an admirable
manager, both of her time and of
everything that pertains to the household
duties. Her great intelligence
and sweetness of manner have given her
an extraordinary influence over her
husband and all other persons who are
brought into contact with her. The
Antchkina Palace* which she ocopied
as czar en a, was a model of household
management, and to her initiative is
due the commencement of sweeping reforms
in the administration of the other
1 OVi/1 Crt wn^tAMAoa
overgrown pamuea. ouo xo j^?u.iv.llcoo,
and takes as far as possible an active
share in the management of half the
charitable institutions in Russia, and
particnlarly those that are connected
with the protection of women and
children. Every morning, while the
emperor is busy upstairs with his
ministers, the empress receives the report
from Mons. Delainoff and others,
whom she intrusis with the supervision
of the various societies in which she is
interested. The empress' solicitnde for
[ the safety of her husband is well known,
and it has been observed that she is
never at ease when he is called away
from home. The education and care of
her children also engross much of her
thoughts. The e dest son, the czarewitz,
is in his fou-teenth year, and resembles
his moth 3r in features. He is
- * ? ~ ~ /licriaclflati onrl
OX &LL itUl/lVO ttUU iiYCAj Uit^/vuiuivuj MUM
for one of his years is far advanced in
his studies. Russian is always the language
employed by the imperial family
when they are together, but when the
boys are with their teachers they speak
French and English on alternate days.
Six hours a day are devoted to study by
the young princes, but their education
is not limited to sedentary studies alone.
They are also practiced in riding and
shooting, and the czarewitz is, it is
Biiid, already a good shot and rides
vi ell.?London Telegraph.
A Deserted City Discovered,
j The discovery of a deserted city,
I sixty miles long, cut out of the rocky
j fs.ce of a winding cliff, rewarded the
[ efforts of Mr. Stevenson's Smtihsonian
Institution exploring party during
l its researches in New Mexico and
j Arizona the past season. This is
| by far the most important find yet made
j among the ancient haunts of the cliff
j dwellers. Some of the houses contain
| four or five dwellings, one on top of the
i other, and in the plateau above the cliff
were found many ruins of temples of
i worship built of well-cut square stones.
! A comparison of the collections of pot[
tery and implements gathered in the
| cliff houses by the exploring party with
those obtained in the Pueblo villages
strengthens the theory that the Paeblo
Indians are the degenerate descendants
of the once powerful race, that buil9
the mined cities of the plains, and then,
retreating before some more warlike
race, carved out these singular dwellings
on the sheer iralls of dizzy precij
pices, and found in them, it may be for
i centuries, both fortresses and homes,
j Perhaps the hieroglyphic inscriptions
seen by Mr. Stevenson will one day be
I and frvnTid tn onrtfrain I.Via
| tragic history of the wanting away by
j wars and famines of this ill-fated people
who, like the coneys of the Bible,
' made the rocks their retnze,
A DUTCH KER3IISS.
The Annual Femivnl of Dordrecht, Holland.
Dordrecht on the Maas, writes aHolland
correspondent, was the scene
of the Kermiss which I am about to
describe. The town is very old and has
its full share of canals and water ways
appertaining to its kind ; in fact for a
stranger it is exceedingly difficult to get
out of the place when once there on
account of the immense number of
intercepting water-ways which bar
escape on all sides.
TT(-iTcoT7/sr qq fn fno TTpmrnss As it is
generally held in July, or id the beginning
of Angust, fine weather almost
renders the open-air life of the people
at this time possible; the fair lasts a
week, during which time all business is
suspended and the fun runs fast and
Well, on the occasion to- which I
refer, we entered the town by the road
from Kotterdam on a sweltering hot
afternoon in July, and even in the out|
skirts the natare of the fete proclaimed
I itself. Everything seemed "en gala."
As our cab rolled along the crowd gradually
increased, until at length we had
to proceed at a snail's pace in order to
| avoid running over some one at every
step. Sometimes a lot of young peoplo,
men and women alternately holding
each other by the hand, would come
t~: 1 ? ~ ?:? ?
JL UoilJLLli^ CLiVU%, DlllgllAg, \J? ItttllCl J?W
ing, one of their curidus Dutch songs
at the top of their voices as they went,
carrying all before them, and almost
too excited to part hands even when onr
vehicle blocked the way. A little
further on a group of clumsy looking
soldiers with their sweethearts might
be seen heartily enjoying themselves
with an " al frasco " dance, half polka,
half jig. And the damsels! How curious
they lotk with their strange caps
with the corkscrew - like ornaments,
called "kryiler," sticking out on
each side, causing them to look like
some nondescript horned biped. How
every one of the girls manages to procure
a pair of kryiler is a mystery,
since these are often very extensive, and
even the simplest sort cost several
guilders. Some of these have been in
the family for centuries and are greatly
But meantime we have arrived within
ear shot of the center of attraction, and
on turning a corner the whole scene
suddenly bursts upon us. Imagine a
large square filled with booths of every
description, each with its row of kerosene
flares in front of it. Everywhere a
rushing, seething crowd blocks up the
street and the spaces between the booths.
But, see! here is a stalwart fishermaD,
probably from Schweiningler, with a
couple of fair townswomen on his arms.
He, poor fellow, is in the "betwixt and
between" state, and his womankind are
skillfully steering liim through the
crowd to some place of refuge, but, alas
for their good intentions. Mr. Jan, on
passing a pancake tent, rushes away
from his protectresses and is quickly
engaged in swallowing the delicious
hot morsels as rapidly as they can be
prepared for him, leaving his friends to
their devices and certainly, not inviting
them to partake of the good thing?.
Oh, those pancakes! how tempting
they look, and what immense quantities
are disposed of every day ! Another sort
of cake, fried ki lard and served up
hot.also commands a large'consumption.
TIia DntfOi TiRTiallv rarrvRmftll flnorms
of eau-de-Cologne in their pockets
during the summer, and as a matter of
COttrStr Xlje vcriiQ^-??. n lV
"roaring trade."" The eau-de-Cologne"
is used everywhere, and at all times. At
home and in church, in the office and
on the street. Mynheer may be seen
besprinkling himself and his friends
with the fragrant water rs they eat,
pray, work or walk along, as the case
may be. At a party which I attended
during the Kermiss it was very amusing,
every now and then, to observe a gentleman
gravely handing his flask all
around the room, when all where
esprinkled and the turn came to himelf,
having to be contented with the
But I am digressing. It is already
quite dark, but the fun seems in no
way abated, the dancing, singing and
rushing about go on as madly as ever.
Every one of the lower class of inhabitants
seems to be in the street.
Masters and mistresses must have a j
bad time of it daring this period, for
all the servants hive liberty, and do
not bestow a thought on their houses,
or on the work which they leave their
employers to do for themselves.
Eight on in the small hours the turmoil
lasts, and then for a moment, just
to let exhausted nature a have time to
refresh itself with sleep, the streets are
deserted, a few hours after again to resound
with the noise of many hurrying
feet and the shouts of the pleasureseeking
The cafe chantants are of a harmless
kind, and are visited by all classes.
Nothing objectionable ever takes place.
AmoDg the fair cantatrices the English
element is invariably well represented,
and it sounded very strange to hear
the roars of laughter with which a
foreign audience received an?sometimes
difficult to understand?English
song. But then the Dutch are cosmo
As is the general rule on the Continent,
Sunday is the day of days for
amnsements. In Dordrecht, for instance,
during the Kermiss, how curious
it looked to see a neat Dutch family,
with the father at the head of the band,
trooping along to one of the many
gardens?beer gardens, one miv:ht clas
tt em, and yet they are not that, either?
with which the town abounds, where
the father drinks his beer and plays
"kegel" (skettles), and mamma sips her
"spirit-water" and sugar and gossip,
with her neighbors, while the crowd of
children of all ages play merrily around
Everything goes on quietly, and the
Vvnom nf t.Tio howls as thfcV roll
along the alley, mingles with the
animated laughter of tht- 2lders and the
shrill piping voices of the youngsters.
In honor of the Kermiss the children
had a treat given them in the evening,
in the shape of a carousal or merry-goround,
in which sooth to say, many of
the seniors joined them. After the
children had left on their way home to
bed the large hall belonging to the
establishment was lighted up and
dancing was earned on for some hours,
but still all breaking up on the right
side of midnight.
The last day of the fete? idleness and
i a surfeit of amnsement have done their
work and the people are thoroughly
tired out and eager to commence the
old routine of business again.
Sayings of the JLittle Ones.
Tommy don't like fat meat. One
day the steak was very fat. " Tommy,'
asked the professor, "will you have
some beefsteak ? " 4< Yes, sir ; but I
don't want any that has pork all round
When little Belle was two rears old
she used to admire the full moon very
much; buc wh^j her aunt pointed out
the new moon, she exclaimed, in the
most distressed tone, "Oh, 'tis broken
A little boy of seven had been in the
habit of sitting with his three-year-old
sister in church. Last Sabbath he
refused to sit in his usual place with his
sister. "For," said he, "folk? might
think we were married."
In five years the work of the American
Baptist Missionary Union has increased
or. JVT-icRinnan"ps. from 138 to
?j lvuvnw * - v ? ?,,
186; native helpers, from 942 to 1,107;
churches, from 778 to 1,001, and members,
from 633,329 to 89,593.
A CONVICT'S LIFE.
1 Prison Discipline and Behavior of the
AubnnCN*. Y.) Prison.
The prevalence of drunkenness in the
| State prison at Auburn once puzzled
j the officers for a long time. It was at
first supposed that whisky was brought
in by some one, but finally it was discovered
that a distillery was in full
operation within the walls of the institution.
An enterprising convict had
rigged a "worm" in a secluded spot in
the kitchen, and with corn-meal and
rye was able to produce a liquid that
? 1J .Li.- ?1
wouiu. jiiioinjate wuucvci uxau&
much of it. The man did a thriving
business, and when he was discovered
he was making money at a rapid rate.
"Beer," as it is called, is made even to
this day. The beverage is a brewing of
bread crusts and yeast, and is exhilarating
if nothing more. The men in
the kitchen make it and sell it to the
prisoners. At one time connterfeitiDg
was actually carried on in the prison.
Imitations were made ot silver coins
which would readily deceive unless
closely examined. Molds were made of
plaster of paris, and the ten, twentyfive,
and fifty-cent pieces were plated
in the saddlery hardware shop. The
convicts were well supplied with this
bogus money, and a great deal of it
found its wa7 into circulation outside.
The men are not allowed to carry
watches, but a great many of them do,
notwithstanding the rule to the contrary.
Usually the watches are kept in
leather bags which are suspended by a
string about the neck underneath the
fllntliinn X ernn/1 mtmrnf +Tip nrisnriAra
read the newspapers regularly. How
they obtain them is a mystery. The
New York dailies reach Auburn at four
o'clock in the afternoon, and often they
will get into the hands of the convicts
the same evening. Of course, each
prisoner is not supplied with a paper.
One paper will do for a dozen men or
It is supposed that all letters written
to convicts pass through the hands of
the chaplain, whose duty it is to see
that they contain no mischievous or improper
language. Half of the men in
the prison send and receive letters that
the chaplain never sees. These "go
fVirnnorVi fho nn^pr(rrrmr>r?" as t,he nffi
cers say.- Generally they urc. taken in
and eut by citizen-foremen, whose
sympathies the men enlist. Some of the
convicts send out for raw steaks, which
they broil at the forges and in the furnaces.
Others prefer cake and pie, for
which they will spend every cent they
Sunday affords a diversity in prison
life. At six c'clock, the same as on aweek
day, the convicts leave their cells
and march to the bucket ground.
Thence they proceed to the mess-room,
where the morning meal of hash is
eaten, after which they obtain their biscuits
and return to their cells. At nine
o'clock they go forth again, this time to
Hi" w?.tortr> />Vicno1 rPhfi <JC if. ifl
kug AMV *w
called, is a large room?perhaps 100
feet loDg, and 75 feet wide. At the
front end is a platform, in the center of
which is the chaplain's desk, and on
the left are the organ and seats for the
choir. The anditoriam is filled with
benches. In the rear of the chapel is
a small gallery for the spectators.
Daring the services the gnards sit on
the broad sills of the windows, which
are several feet from the floor, and keep
their eyes on the prisoners. The walls
bear sach inscriptions as " Meekness,"
march single file, one behind the other,
v ?i_ _ i j
e2.cn man wuu uis uauus upun mc o mco
of the one in front of him. The movement
is the lock-step, and the leader,
who has won his place by good conduct,
stamps with his left foot to keep his
men in perfect step. The front seats are
filled. "When a bench is reached, the
leader of a company step3 aside and
waits until it is filled, with the exception
of one seat at the end. which he
takes himself. The rest of the company
file into seats in the rear, and so on
until all are seated. The gnard stands
near and counts off the number of men
for each seat. The doors of the chapel
are closed after all the convicts have
marched in, and the services begin with
the "voluntary," which is sung by the
choir. This choir is a peculiar feature,
every member of it being a man.
Sopranos and altos, as well as tenors,
baritones and bassos are men.
The instrumental music is especially
meritorious. The men sit nervously in
their places and move their hands and
feet uneasily. They are not allowed to
turn their heads when they come in,
and they must not look about while the
services are in progress. How much
the men fear God is perhaps best
shown by their actions when prayer is
offered. The beholder will L. durpris 1
to see how few bow in supplication.
The majority hold their hands up in a
defiant way, and seem to be entirely
unmoved bv the spirit of prayer. In
this connection it may be said that a
"Sunday-school" is held before the
regular services. Only those who desire
need attend, and it is not over one in
twenty who takes advantage of the
opportunity. The classes are taught
bv young men, mostly students at the
Theological Seminary, who volunteer
to do this work. The only ones who
take real interest in the chapel services
are the Sunday-school scholars. The
others leave their cells simply to oreaK
the monotony of the day and to hear
At 10 o'clock the convicts, after
spending an hour in the chapel, march
back to their cells. On the way they
receive bread and cru?t coffee, which
comprise the dinner. Bread and water
are served twice during the afternoon
to the men in their cells, but they do
not receive sapper. The men do not
leave their cells again until Monday
morning. Tho rest of the day is spent
in reading, writing, and plotting. On
Sunday the chaplain was surprised, in
the middle of his sermon, to see a
convict'pop up like Jack-in-the-box and
shout at the top of his lungs. The
nrisfiTprs are verv excitable, and one
man might set all the rest yelling. As
a rule, convicts do not like Sunday, as
they do not obtain as much to eat as on
other days, and it is tedious remaining
locked up so many hours.
Tfce scene at the dinner-hour in the
mess-room is not tne least interesting
phase of prison life. The men sit at
long narrow tables, but only on one
side, as it is not thought best to place
them face to face. They are given half
an hour in which to eat, and if they
have not satisfied their appetites by
that time they must go hungry. Each
man is allowed so much to eat, but
these who are recognized as "big eaters"
are seated in an adjoining room and
given more. The men demand good
1 - " > - > xi j ? _i.
] iooa, ana wnen mvj uu uui ^ct iu ciicj
show their displeasure by groaning tnd
littering cat-calls. At times the noise
is deafening. Sometimes the corned
beef will become bad before the kitchen
men are aware of it. and whenever this
meat is served trouble at once ensues.
The "Auburn system" of government
origiated at Auburn prison some fifty
years ago. Discipline was maintained
by the ase of the lash or "cat." For
1 every violation of the rules the cat was
applied proportionate to the offense 01
the physical ability of the man undergoing
punishment, until at la*t a man
n??s trilled, and the la*h was prohibited
: by law. The shower bath followed, but,
| as related by old officers, a man died
j from the effects of a deluge, and the
i "shower" was discontinued. The irot
S yoke, or crncifix, the dungeon, the bal
i and chain, and shaving th? heads were
I the different modes of punishment nntl
1862, when the application of the yoke
was forbidden. The shower bath, to
the dismay of the convicts, was resumed,
and used nntil 1869, when all physical
punishment was prohibited. It was
soon found that the men could not be
made to work if they were not punished
when they deserved it and the "paddle"
was devised, and is in use at the present
time. The "paddle" is made of solej
leather and is about two feet long and
I three inches wide, with a wooden handle.
The convict is taken to the "jail," wnere
his feet are fastened to the stone floor.
A pair of leather cnffs confine his hands,
and to these is attached a rope by which
his arms are drawn np. His body is then
bared and while a convict presses on the
victim's abiomen, the head keeper or
depnty agent's waiter applies the "paddle."
The resnlt is often quite serious.
Men have been known to remain in the
hospital for a long time after the punishment.
The "cap" is also employed
a great deal to bring the men to terms.
It is an iron cage, which fits over the
head and locks under the chin. The
convict can wear it and still k|pp at his
work The most common method of
punishing prisoners nowadays is -to
consign them to the dungeon on two
ounces of bread and a gill of water a
day. The only articles in a dungeon
are a bucket, and a plank about a foot
wide to sleep on. It is no difficult
matter to see how quickly an obdurate
man will nnnia t.n the f?nnclnsion that it
is better to obey the rules than to be
locked up*in tlie dungeon. Men used
to be strung up, but that plan is not resorted
to, at least to any extent, now.
They were either held up by the thumbs
or the wrist, often until they fainted.'
A terrible machine, long since thrown
aside as being too dangerous, was the
' jacket." It could be drawn up so :
t tightly as to squeeze the life out of a
man. Of late years the punishment has j
not been nearly as severe as in former
years, but good government has been
achieved by strict rules and their rigid ;
enforcement. In 1874 a law was passed j
requiring the. construction of separate i
cells for the confinement of incorrigible '
prisoners, but such cells have not yet i
been built. Nothing seems to have !
such a salutary effect on refractory i
prisoners as solitary confinement. The j
dangers of maiming or disabling a con- j
Vll/ily aiiU, OO UUO LTiCU U1IU VOCVj Ututvw?
ing fatal injuries, are, by this method, j
entirely obviated.? New York limes. ]
Elephants in Winter Quarters.
"Here they are, twenty of them, and |
this is the gentleman who has taught t
them all they know," said Mr. Thomas, - t
Mr. P. T. Barnum'a press-agent, at the i
Bridgeport, Connecticut,winter quarters (
of "the great moral show." Banged t
on three sides of a room one hundred <
feet square and fitted up foi their special i
accommodation, are twenty elephants,
ranging in size from the largest in the
country to the engaging baby elephant
lately- born in Philadelphia. "Yes," ,
said the keeper, "they are remarkable ,
beasts. They will live eighty or ninety
years in captivity, unless a locomotive 1
or something of the sort should happen
to strike them. Even then the chances
would be against the locomotive." The ^
scene Drougac viviaiy to miuu a picture .
of what the Tertiary Age might have j
been, with its roving monsters It ,
seemed impossible that, the gigtutic
beasts, slowly and continually sws ring .
their head3 from side to side, shon] i be ]
so tame and so easily managed. The c
keeper gave a scarcely audible signal, !
never wished to hear again. The Anvil j
Chorus, if it bad been present, would
have hidden its respective heads in J
shame. This noise is made through
the elephant's trunk, and there is not
the slightest use of trying to get in a
remark edgewise when one of the per- J
formers has the floor. The throat tones ;
sound like distant 'thunder, and make '
the most ambitious drum of no
consequence. The baby elephant came (
up to receive a lesson?its third. It was (
to be taught to stand on its forelegs and ^
head. An apparatus was fastened to its ,
hind legs, and they were hoisted into (
the air by block and tackle, with the .
paternal assistance of one of the larger
* ? ttti ! _ il; ^?
elepnanis. w nue uu ima resuieuc puaition
the baby was made to touch its .
head upon the floor, and when it had j
done this it was immediately let down, ,
After a few trials, baby seemed to
enjoy the process very much, and J
presently put its head on the floor of I
its own accord, as soon as its legs were j
lifted. Having learned to do this, it '
was given an agreeable reward of car- '
rots and allowed to frolic in an elephan- !
tine way to its heart's content. The .
keeper's method of training his charges ;
is entirely by kindness, althongh it is
often very difficult to break in an old ,
and wicked fellow. Mr. Thomas or- .
dered a performance by the eiepnanis
in two squads, aligned according to
size. It was reallj startling to see them '
standing abreast in single line, and at !
th? order, "By the right flank, double ,
file," march off to the right, in double
file, with much more eclat than often
is displayed^ by seme city regiments.
Mr. Barnum makes use of his elephants
to do all the heavy work about the
building, such as pushing chariots here
and there and hoisting weights. The
keeper said that these animals, if their
angry passions were once really rou3ed,
could easily break through the walls of
the building and escape. They are so
docile, however, that it is rarely that
anything exciting nappens. ne is
occasionally throve by them, if something
irritates them, as was the case
when the baby elephant was weaned.
Both mother and infant expressed their
wrath with great frankness and unanimity.
Last snmmer, while on the
road, ?he of the ponderous beasts refused
to come out of a river it had
crossed, and delayed the whole train
for several hours, while he placidly
rested or playfully gamboled in the
Curiosities of the Census,
A bulletin issued from the United
States census office, showing the approximate
areas of the several States
and Territories contains mucii matter
of curious interest. Texas, the largest
State, has an area of 262,290 square
miles, and Rhode Island, the smallest,
i has 1,085 square miles. Nye county,
Nevada, is the largest county in the
United States, covering 24,000 square
miles. San Bernadino, Cal., with 23,000
square miles, is the next largest.
California has four other counties each
of them as large as Massachusetts;
; three that are each larger than ConnectI
iuut, and fifteen others that are each
! larger than Delaware. Sioux county,
Neb., contains 21,070 square miles.
Oregon also has several large counties,
Grant, Umatilla and Lake, containing
respectively 17,500, 14,260 and 12,000 i
square miles. Presidio, with 12,500
miles, is the largest county in Texas.
| The smallest county in the United
| States is New York, State of New York,
! and it has 1he largest population.
Several years ago Ericsson predicted
! that the Nile and the Ganges would be
lined with cotton and other factories
driven by soiar heat. A French engi
neer in Algiers has already contributed
i to the fulfillment of this prediction by
pumping water and making it boil by
solar fore* alone.
Within fifty years the number of
i ordained foreign missionaries has
, j increased from 656 to 6,696, not includ[
[ ing native assistants ; the number of
> communicants in native churcbes nas
i increased from 70,000 to 857,332, and
I the contributions of American Chris?
tians have risen from $250,000 to
I ?2,500,000 a year.
Firemen Sliding Down a Brass Pole.
Eagine 33, of the New York fire department,
Captain Golden, lie? in Mer- . cer
street. The house is old-fashioned
and inconvenient, bnt Captain Golden
and his men are alert and spry, and
their work as firemen has made the
company one that the commissioners
are prond to show to distinguished ^isi- . v
tors from other cities and from Europe.
Commissioner Yan C >tt and Chief of
Battalion Bresnan, who was promoted
from the captaincy of the company
takes an especial interest in it,
- * * "? a? a*
and tne men, oeing anuer uie vgusuui,
supervision of their superiors, have
been put on their mettle. Until Saturday
evening last they fancied th-.y had
got the work, of hitching up snd dashing
off to a fire down to about tlw finest
point. Twice successively, for the benefit
of a Sun reporter, they got to their
stations on engine and tender within
three and a quarter seconds. Quick as ?they
were, though, they Were no quicker
than Jack and Jim, the engine
horses, and Bill, the jet-black motive
power of the tender. At the first note ,
of the gong the big animals, as swiftfooted
and sure-footed as cats, sprang .
from their stalls and tlrandered among
the flying men to their places under
their harness. Indeed, Jack, a noble
roan and the pet of the company, could be
induced only by a stern command
to wait for the stroke of the gong, but >-v*
as he saw the captain approach it
danced and plunged in his stall, his
eyes blazing with excitement.
After the trials, Chief Bresnan, who,
? i > J o woi*
WJXLL ex-^xiuerzaiill lUUXlIC, woo VJI a liuiv
to the house, directed the men to return
to their sitting-room. Workmen had
been setting up a novel appliance for
saving tiijie in getting ready to start for
a fire. It was a highly polished brass ~M
pole, about three inches in diameter,
set in a socket in the main floor, and extending,
through circular holes cut in
the two upper floors, to another socket
in the roof. "Captain Golden ordered
four men to go to the bunk-room on the /
second floor-and lie jlown on tbeir cots.
rhe two men nearest the pole were to
3lide down at a stroke upon the gong, .
md the other two to run down the stairway.
The men chosen to run down the
stairs were the youngest and most active
in the company.
Captain Golden stepped to the gong
md gave one resounding clan^. Overhead,
for an instant, there was a clattsr
of feet. Then two objects, clad in dark
blue, flashed dosvn the pole, and within
;?ree seconds the driver was in his seat,
ind the man whose duty it was to snap
he* spring buckle on the off horse stood,
vi'h uplifted hand, at 'his- poet. The
ithor tr.en had zot onlv half way down
;he stairway, and bad twenty-tive feet
>f flooring to traverse before they could
each the engine.?New York Sun.
Alpine Climbing a Trade.
Alpine climbing has within the last
iwenty years become a science and a
Tace. Alpine clubs accumulate experience
which is at tLe disposal of all the
jrorJd. They have their newspapers
md "their annurJ dinners, and their
monthly meetings. There are shops
vhere every mountaineering requisite
s sold, and so numerous are the guides
;hat it is hard nowadays for even the
3est of them to make a living. These
natives of the Alps make mountaineering
easy. They point out to us the
" ? - -x xf_ _
saiest roaas, ana warn ns against we
nosfc dangerons rocks. They cnt for
^j^cagJtdveEtarer a step in the ice
it they even assist his upward journey \
by a friendly push behind. Any danger
of falling into a crevasse is avoided by
the party being tied together, and a
precipice is brought within reach of
the average tourist by a rope ladder.
Eenca, unless the ascent is entirely a
new one, there is really little danger
:o encounter. The ordinary mountaineer
climbs for pastime and applause,
ind he must be a spiritless caitiff inleed
who kno^s not the zest which
racn danger as the usual, but now and
then inevitable, avalanche imparts to tehat
is one of the tamest of sports.
The Alpine climber, it is true, sometimes
sets up claims to be reckoned
among the pieneers of science. He
now and then prints a dnll drawingroom
boolc, with pretty pictures, and
fondly imagines that he ranks with
Sanssures, Tschades, Schlan-Gentweits,
Forbeses, Payers and Tyndalls, who
were first attracted to the Al]<>s by a
love of whfct Bacon called ''natural
knowledge," bnt their work was carried
on at elevations which the Alpine
ithlete would not condescend to visit,
ind where there is less peril. The
people who insist on writing letters to
the papers about the necessity of looking
after these reckless folks waste
their sympathy. The average Alpine
tourist is perfectly able to take care of
himself. When he foolishly courts
danger, the verdict must be that afterall
he has a right to choose his own
way of making his exit from a world in
which he cannot otherwise achieve distinction.
The Manna Li the "Wilderness.
Botanists and travelers have been
rather nnsncessfnl in attempts to ascertain
the origin of different kinds of
manna known in commerce. In the
valley of Gohr, to the south of the
Dead sea, sixteen hours onward which
leads into a long valley. Buckhardt
found what he called manna, dropping
from twigs of several kinds of trees.
According to his representations Arabs
collect it and make it inter cakes, which
are eaten witn uieir a^useous uutter
made from the milk of sheep; They
churn it thns A goat skin is filled wiiil _
milk and suspended between two poles, ***
swung to and fro by pulling an attached ~
cord till it assumes a ne^ cbaracter?a
greasy, soapy mass?and that is Arab
butter. Mr. Turner found a grove of
tamarisk trees near Mt Sinai in the
valley of Farran, which iurnish what
the monks called manvia. They were
busy, about ten feet high, from which
drops of sweetish ihick fluid ooze. If
taken early in the morning, before the
sun is up, it may be kept in earthen pots
a considerable time. It i3 used in lieu
of ougar in the convent. Commercial
manna, principally in the hands of
" * - ' 1 A 1
drnggists, is a product 01 me puncrarea
stems of the ornus Europa, growing in
Calabria. An article very similiar in
appearance and medicinal properties is
procured in Sicily by the same kind of
process. Both have a sweetish taste,
are soft, of a pale yellowish color, and
used for their mild laxative quality
rather than food. From the forgoing
facts it is very clear ttnre is not the
slightest resemblance to that extraor- - ?
dinary nutritious article which was
miraculously provided for the children
of Israel in a barren wilderness on a
memorable occasion, while in their
forty years' peregrinations toward the
TMv->rmspd land?Ronton Trannarivt.
Queer Rewards for Doctors.
The late empress o! China bavin?
recovered from her former serious sickness,
some half a dozen surgeons
chosen by the governors of provinces
and sent to Pekin, according to imperial
directions, to attend upon her ^
majesty, have been rewarded by various _
appointments. One, it is announced,
is to be made a taotai, or intendent of
circuit, another a prefect, another a disi
w>o;riot-rofo oriel <sn f/irth. This IS
very much as if after the recovery ot
the Prince of Wales from his historic - '|||
sickness Sir William Jenner had been
made a county court judgo and Sir W.
Gull a stipendiary magistrate.?Skung- j