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VOL. XLII. WINNSBORG, 8. C., WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1885. . NO. 1. I
A Fancy From Fontanclle.
Tha Rose in the srarden slipped her bud.
And she laughed in the pride of her youthful
** As she thought of the Gardener standing
"He is old?so old! And he soon will die.
The full Rose waxed in the warm June air,
And she spread, and spread, till her heart lay
A n/1 okrv I.i.?.Aa>1 /vnM *r>lAn cKa KOOW?
wmg uu rue iau^:icu wee U^vav ?utu
"He is older now. He will soon be dead!"
But the breeze of the morning blew and
That the leaves of the blown Rose strewed
at|_L And he came at noon, that Gardener old,
( AUd bC ttiem softly under the mould.
* And I wove the thin? to a random rhyme,
For the Eose Is Beauty, the Gardener Time.
^5 ?Austin Dobson in July Century.
X M1\T nv HOXftR.
Colonel Skerrett, Major Marsh, and
-j" Captain Pickering were silting in their
room at the Hotel Anglais, Paris. They
were Americans on their travels, all
three rough-looking down-easters, who
x had gone through the worst fire of tho
civil war. Dr. Yicaire, surgeon'in the
French army, was standing Iq front of
. . them, regarding them with a severe
* ^ air.
lite* "I come to denounce to you as you
. have insult my friend, M. le Lieutenant
Foulon. He demand ze satisfaction,"
said Dr. Vicaire, particularly addressing
Colonel Skerrett. "You have kick
his uog. You write apology, ver gooL
You write no apology, you choose ze?
. ze?ah! vat you call 1'arme?ze."
"Wecpons," said Major Marsh, com;
' ing to his assistance. Dr. Vicaire
"Apologize for kicking his darned
) cur]" shouted the Colonel. "What did
v - it come snapping and barking at my
. . heels for? 1 would kick Mr. Foolong
himself if he did that."
"Ah?' replied the doctor, "ver goot!
|r ' Insult additional;" and he - blew his
nose like a flourish of trumpets,
jjp' _ Colonel Skerrett was as brave a man as
^ ever stood in boots, but besides his conscientious
objections to a duel, the
cause of quarrel was so ludicrous that
be only answered with a burst of
v "Ah!" said the Doctor, calmly, but
reddening. "Insult tree." And he
took a prodigious pinch of snuff.
The three friends looked at each
other. Major Marsh took the word.
" "My fr5eac* allow me to act for
( him. We have the choice of weapons?"
"Then I choose them that nature
' provided. Fists?"
"Feest!" said the doctor, pondering.
"You mean ze-ze?
^ ^ Major Marsh explained in panto
^ 'Sir!" cried the fiery doctor, "you
* make ze game of me! I see you after
my friend have ze satisfaction."
, ""Don't get so hot, now. What do you
/ say to stuffed clubs in a darkened
i?." It took a long time to make the doctor
understand this proposition, but
when he did he rejected it -with con^
stantly increasing wrath. Captain
Pickering suggested a rough-andtumble
in a pit?kick, scratch, bite,
claw, and gouge. Major Marsh thought
an excellent way of settling the diffi,
jk v-jf- culty would be for the two adversaries
^ to S? *nt0 shallow water and see which
could draw the other. Finally, Colo?gf
HBj, nel Skerrett suggested that they should
bring a keg of powder on the field;cast
* lots; and whichever lost should sit upr
on the keg and apply the cigar he had
S?i? iust been smokine to a hole in the ke?.
r_br. Vicaire lore his Lair and rejected
* said the Major, "it 'pears
(' to we that we haven't got the choice
? of wi-upons at all."
l\ *-0i 2: weaj?o;., yes! But this is no
W0 weapon. S.v??ris. dagger, pcestol,
[ . jiuii? zev ail wrapun. Bui ze gouge,
/ . ..int. I'loimii nr vat vmi r?nl]
I . 7." stuff Hups?un, monsieur!" and the
| r w .rti.v I>ocior sl.anip.ui with r:tge.
p . *Doo;?>r." said lUu Major quietly,
k ^ "me ia>i sti.^esfiion of Colonel SkergBBw
rett is one that has been acted on, in
at least one case in one of the Southern
States of America. If your friend
* - ~.i4- nn/I r\itt llA Will ft/??
f , WZUltS an UUl auu uui ??
cept the ofier of a barrel of powder un[?a
der them conditions- If he don't he is
i* ' odIv foolin'with the matter. People
Mp" blaze away at cach other here for half
an hour and shoot nothing but the
pigs. When wc du a thing ia the
States we du it."
"Sir!" shrieked Vicaire withjjonceaj?.
trated rage. "You coward, you pol?\
troon, secirat! I post you in ze cafe, ze
hotel. I and my friend whip you witn I
j^' ze?eh!?ze whip of ze horse!" an he I
rushed from the room, swinging his hat
frantically in one hand antl plucking
Hp. at his hair with the other.
1& Left to themselves, the three friends
WUb laughed heartily. As for the doctors
threat of personal chastisement. Major
/< Marsh alone looked strong enough to
j horsewhip the National Guard if it/
were called out For the posting in th^
cafes they cared exactly nothing. Thev
chatted and smoked and were begitf^
- nin^to forget the whole affair.
I O O , . .
*?**- I?a?. ha nrwfor Qn.
J>UC Sa uuui lawi ku^
nounced "M. Lieutenant Poulon!"
' f M. Foulan advanced mto the room,
i j bowed courteously to th\ two, and adI
dressing Colonel Skerrett, said in perf
T? r\ rrl ? c H
"I have just seen my friend Yicaire.
Possibly he misunderstood. From
? what he told me, I understand that
\ you made propositions which no gentleman
would make. Therefore you are
^ v no gentleman. It remains to be seen
if you are a coward as well. I am
* , aware that your last proposition is a'
I mode of the duello practiced in some
[ . parts of your country. < ?f tnat my
friend Vicairc was ignorant Although
the practice is irregular, I waive that
L consideration, and personally accept
your proposal of a keg of powder under
|g#v the specified conditions. You will
oblige me by naming the time and
"Say to-morrow at 3 o'clock in the
afternoon. I reckon the little wood of
Plessis, on the road to Versailles, is a
JF quiet enough place. I will supply the
keg of powder for your use and" you
7 will supply the ouefor mine."
"Very well, sir," said Foulon, bow>
ing. "1 shall be there. The terms to
be rigidly adhered io? To apply the
cigar which one had just been'smoking
) . to the open hole in the keg?"
i ? "Precisely," answered the Colonel, j
4^ * X prCSUIUC, SU1U "HiU Uil>y?vwwM?|
f ' with a sinister smile, "that in any
event the service of a doctor or surc
geon wili be unnecessary."
4I am sure of that," said the Colonel,
! with a grin.
[.? Foulon left the room, and when he
gt had gone Colonel Skerretfc said. "I'll
k fight this here devil, but I ain't gwine
' v to be blowed to atoms, nor I ain't
* 1 * - _ L
m gwine to let that there looi diow mm- j
self to atoms." The three friends took
I measures accordingly.
f\ The next day, at the appointed time,
the live n?cn, all smoking vigorously,
r- were on the ground. Each party had
W brought its powder-keg along. " The j
Major and Dr. Vicaire tossed up. The
Foulon turned ghastly pale, but
walked iirmly to the keg which the
Americans hud brought and sat down
on it. It was an ordinary cider keg,
and Major Marsh knocked out the
bun^. All then retired to a ?afe dis-?
- * *1.- nftmoinn^
w&DCC CXCUpi tIJU
standing by Foulon's side. The latter,
down whose livid face the sweat was
rolling, took his cigar from his mouth
and advanced it, still glowing, to the
"Hold on there," said th.. Colonel,
"that ere cigar is lit."
"Certainly it is," gasped Foulon, his
lips qniwriug in spite of himself.
"Well." said the Colonel with a grin,
"you bo'nt such :i darned fool as to put
a lighted cigar into a keg of powder,
be you? When was you born?
"Sir," replied the Jieutenaut, vainly
endeavoring to hold the cigar motionless
in his shaking hand. 'I have given
my word that if I lost the toss-up I
should put this lit cigar "
"Hold on; you didu't say lit."
"Well, the cigar I was smoking."
"Put it out then."
"Sir, you have run the risk that I
ran. I have lost, and 1 but do as you
would have done. I wiil put this lighted
cigar into this bung-hole "
".rut in me taaweu-up cuu, iucu.
' You insult me again, sir!''
"Bless your heart! You fire up a
darned sight easier than this ere powder
ever will. Do you think that I
would put the burning end of a cigar
into the bung-hole of a keg full of powder?
"I have told you again, and I repeat
it, that you are no gentleman. But 1?
I am a man of honor. Bah! You shall
see me die as one. I keep my promise/^'
I'oulon slowly advanced tiie Durnmg
cigar toward the opening in the keg
"Go away here, you shall be kill!"
shouted Vicaire to the Colonel; but the
latter remained quietly beside the victim.
Vicaire covered his face with his
hands, and waited for the awful moment
which was to blow his friend to
atoms. There was a dead silence, and
then a slight hiss was heard. Vicaire
looked up. Foulon, his face purple
with rage, was holding his cigar, after
repeatedly poking it into the bung-hole.
The. Colonel was one broad grin.
"Is this powder?" asked Foulon.
"Tooth powder," answered the Co
lonel; "cost almighty."
"But," said Foulon, shakiD" ,.ith
rage instead of fear, "if you had lost
the toss-up our keg was full of gunpowder.
"I'd haye put the ci^ar out before I
put it in," said the Colonel
"Ah!" murmured Foulon.
"Or stuck in the chewed-up end. Hold
on to the terms you know."
Foulon calmly walked to his carriage.
He and Vicaire hoisted in their ke? of
omnnnwrfer and foHowed it themselves.
"bir!" shouted Foulon to the Colonel,
"I said you were no gentleman. I
say now you are a coward."
The Colonel smiled.
For three days the friends walked
about Paris and saw both Foulon and
Vicaire several times. They were not
posted in the cafes, for the Frenchmen
feared the storm of ridicule'which a
knowledge of the grotesque duel would
bring upon them. Neither were they
horsewhipped, for Vicaire argued that
they would robably retaliate, and in
such a case the whipping would be only
a modi tied form of the duel a la clup
Ou the fourth day after this "duel"
the three friends happened to be on one
of the large and beautiful steamboats
carrying excursions down the Seine.
Colonel Skerrett, like a -eonsistent Yankee,
as iu the pilot house, watching
the working of the wheel. He came
down afterward and sauntered back to
where his two friends were standing.
Near them were no" less' individuals
than Foulon and Vicaire._ Neither par
ty addressed the other. The boat was
in the middle of the river. For a long
distance on either side the banks were
straight, and the tide was flowing directly
down the middle channel. Suddenly
arose a cry of tire. A wild stampede
of passengers in the bow of the
bout was made toward the stern, and
Foulon, wiio was standing near an
opening in the railing was thrown from
his balance. As he was falling overboard
the Colonel stretched out his
long arm, grasped him by the collar
.and pulied him in again. The Frenchman
s hat had fallen off. The Colonel
nicked it ud. and with a friendlv smile
hauuoJ it to his late adversary." Fouiou
colored up and said eagerly:
Colonel Skerrett, 1 beg your pardon.
You aio :i gentleman."
In ihe meantime the panic increased.
All the bow of the boat was in a bright
bl::ze, and the lire reached the pilothouse.
The pilot rushed out with
singed beard and eyebrows, and the
l>oat slowly drifted down the stream.
'i"Ee coloael caught hold of the pilot
and dragged him to Foulon.
"Sir. said he, "ask this here fellow
which b ink is the safest to land on,
and tell jue."
He says the right one," answered
Fouion. "But the boat . can not be
managed. The wheel must be on tire."
Without a word of reply the Colonel
plowed his way through the shrieking
crowd, leaped up the steps of the pilothouse
and seized the wheel. There he
stood, the flames roaring about him, the
crowd shrieking beneath him, steadily
steering toward the right bank. Toulon
shuddered at the exhibition of sim
pie, superhuman courage. The bank
was reached. The crowd, selfish arid
crazed with foar, rushed to land. Tne
Major and tho Captain struggled up
the burning steps of the pilot-house,
followed by Foulon and Vivaire. They
dragged tho Colonel out through the
flames, bore him to the bank, and applied
restoratives. He was less injured
than might have been supposed, and at
length opened his eyes.
"Oh, Colonel Skerrett!" cried Foulon,
with tears in his eyes, "your parncrilnni
Von are a brave
JVUI. rT ,
man and a man of honor."
"The Colonel," said Captain Pickering,
can swim like an otter. He could
have crossed the creek a hundred
times without stopping."
"Fists," said Major Marsh, "are no
weapons, perhaps. Well, pistols are.
The Colonel can knock the center of a
fire-cent piece spun in the air at fifty
"I will never fight a duel again,"
"And I never call one man ze coward
for not fight of 20 duel," said
"Is all the women safe?" asked the
ColoneL ?Frederick W. Avory, in Tkc
Inter Ocean. ?
The three men in England who pay
' * no&Aaor%A VoItIA ftf
C2fcxes oa iuu liigticdt. .?wv ?
personal property are (riles Loder,
?15,000,000; Rictiara Thornton, $14,j
000,000, and Barou Lionel Rothschild,
j $18,500,000. - - - v -. -.
Conditions of Literary Elf? to Kngland
The conditions of the literary life in
America are less determined than they
are in England. The only organization
within which authorship may. be sjiid
to find substantial shelter is journalism,
and this profession is so exacting and
so inimical to most forms ot literature,
that those who have most serious
thoughts of the literary life are rather
desirous of escaping from journalism
than of using it as a vantage-ground.
It might seem at first blush as if the
universities and colleges would offer a
desirable fastness from which to send
out ventures in literature; but the
academic life is a somewhat sterile one;
it is with us so iden tinea witn tue peuagogic
that the energies of the professor,
if they movo the production of
books, are most likely to be occupied
with the tools of the profession. Textbooks
in abundance issue every year
from college faculties, but very fuw
contributions to humane literature.
The academic life again is so specialized
that even the professor of English
literature rarely produces work upon
which his successor or associate may
comment. His attitude toward the
subject of his teaching is too critical to
allow him mucli freedom of mind, and
he is besi les so conscious of his posi
tion that he is undermined in his resolution,
and rendered abnormally sensitive
to the criticism of others as well as
The constitution of the English universities,
on the other hand, directly
encourages and sustains the literary
life. This is not to say that literature
in its freest expression is not there, as .
here, outside the walls of the college,
but that a man of literary taste and
ambition may deliberately possess himcifnotinnc
VM. aOUUVUiiV ?* U*vu ?.
make it possible for him to lead a
literary life, free from fret and earking
care; and also that the prizes for
scholarship offered by the universities
distinctly suggest to the student literary
occupation. A man, in other
words, with fortune enough to secure
him a university education, may hope
to win Fellowship which will demand
only slight academic duties, leaving
him free to devote himself to literature;
A f>fn/Unf rl/HfAfn/i fIrtO CT wVlft
UliU. <1 aiUVAWJh wvr '? ?v .
falls into such a place will, by the very
force of his own nature, be urged into
literary production. Thus the university,
by a provision which enlarges the
seope of university life, is more than a
training-school for immature minds; it
is a society of scholars, and as such,
directly encourages and sustains the
The university, however, is not the
only English organization which fosters
literature aud makes a vantage-ground
for the man of letters. As it is demonstrably
more efficient in this respect
than 'its American congener, "so the
civil service of England has offered a
more convenient shelter for the litterateur
than the same service in Amcricx
Our government, indeed, has not been
slow to reeoguizo authors, but it has
been chiefly in the way of rewards in
diplomatic service for those who have
already won a certain distinction. Now
and then, notably in the ca?c of the
New York Custom House, government
offices have served as means to hardworkiug
literary men, but the general
insecurity which has hitherto attached
to this employment and the peril to
one's sclf-respect in seeking appointments
have hindered such men from
counting upon this resource. One of
the probable results of a service organized
upon the merit system is the attraction
to it of men capable of clerkly
labor, but chiefly ambitious of literary
fume. The freedom from concern
which enables one to lay aside his business
ruind, like an oiliee coat, when
the clock strikes three, and don the
literary habit, is especially necessary
to the calm and cheerful pursuit of
literature. Such a state of things exists
in London to-day, and may be confidently
predicted of Washington, New
York, auJ oilier cities, in the near future?lu
'y Atlant c.
London Society Leaders.
Lady Marian Alford is the leader of
one of the most exclusive sets in Loudon.
She is a devoted hostess of royalty.
The Marchioness of Lorae has her
own occupations, is a passable artist,
and with her husband leads a steady,
respectable, relined, dignified existence.
Lady Hayter is the embodiment of
the genius of liberalism. She is one of
the best dressed women in London
and gifted with all the graces of a born
Lady Salisbury is placed at the head
of those feminine leaders who "have attempted
to create a salon, but hers is
a Tory establishment, and she has
been known to pique herself on never
having crossed a whig threshold.
Lady Molinsworth has one of the
most eclectic salons in London. She
knows and has known everyone worth
knowing in London for hal? a century.
She has an inborn aptitude fortheLondon
dinner party of from eight to
Lady Lonsdale, who .was recently
married again, might become, under
proper auspices, a social center of real
political power. She has the gift of
receiving guests with grace, dignity
and ease. But her attention and interest
are difficult to fix aud her perseverance
is not equal to her natural ability.
Mrs. Napier Higgins is writing in
England a history of woman in the fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries,' showing
that the decay of chivalry, the rise
of the new learning, ana the progress
of the reformation marked an age in
w&ich woman was more influential in
politics, society and thought than she
had been before or has been since.
Mrs. Gladstone is the elderly incarnation
of guileless naivete?the matronly
essence of impulsive simplicity. She
is to appearances all artlcssacss; but)
in her way, one of tho cloverest women
living, becausc, in spite of over half a
century of semi-public life, she has
nnvpr onmmitted a real blunder, and
her aplomb is as remarkable as her
discretion.?Netv l'orb (Jraphic.
A Charleston merchant says: "The
long staple cotton raised on the sea
islands of South Carolina seems to be
very little in demand. Few planters
have sold their last year's crop. This
class of cottoacswaa^aE^i^jrcsed to
adulterate sill^Ut^.aliyyn&^the demand
for it ha^ceSsedf^nff ho one is
able *^Basro%.for-it ;-i*feroughi
40 cecta a ponodi. n>or& tIian. fQUEitySe3
as much ^"?K'e:oriJfhary:cotEon.^ac?c^"
uy tae ^gw-aja^T tigyruxv^._?iTii .tmiri Jt-,
can be nsed fortitBatdJandrxjUier pdr~roses-aimost
as trell .as-"iEc'loog'stapte.
doi>lt &B<svthi?&^omg?to'hwt(>TSe ''Of
our sea- istand" f Uratefs" Tifitess'1 tfcfey:
can Sffd"s^mof usw. "tBeir
yield, now^^tfe^-'sSS ^iSTifectiirera
ffsrwwi ^nniftiiitncr^faijaoeff SoiUdSll* '
11 r-ite tlieir ^oq^vsliUV---: ::&
A correspondent of the Brooklyn
Eagle, traveling; in Germany, writes:
It was a warm, still, summer Sunday?tt
often seems as though nature
was more peacefully disposed on that
day than on others?when we sallied
forth to scale the Appolinarisbcrg.
This hill is crowned, with a four-tow
cred Gothic church adorned, with frescoes.
Some-sort of.religious feast day
w as-being observed op the Appolinarisberg.
PSgrims,, yho haaui the place
and have done so; /ainee Appolinaris's
head was buried.here, were ascending
the road in their best attire, and bowing
and kaeeliag at the stations ot~ttto
cross placed beside the way. . ^
Flags fluttered about the terrace that
the church stands on, and crowds were
entering.the edifice. We stepped in,
glanced at the finefrescoes, heard the
organ* and would Jiayc attended & little
of the service it &ih&n had not crept up
to us and expressed a determination to
have-fees. Wo concluded then that the
Rhine was better worthy of our atten
U<JD. *ees BYcrjnuoic. -vu, vav
oftbeto! In chcrehes, in galleries, in'
palaces, in museums, in railroad stations,
in restaurants?fees! fees!; fcesf!
You pay tbem to the army and the
navy, the clergy-reach for them, nobili^
-atfd cyeih^Djralty: sends, its l?wSkeys
after theiu^.guides porters, clerks,
landlords,, loungers,, tram .hands, po
ilCCXUen, unvois, wu^Luius uim/ci o:?
confound the beggars! . Peasants were
gossiping about ,the terrace, looking.so
picturesque and-so like figures'onjt of
the grand opera.in their Sunday dress
that we hall unconsciously put our
hands in our pockets to pay for that
exhibition, too, but we were not assessed.
On the contrary, they made way for
us beside them on the wall that pre-,
vented visitors from rolling down the.
steep hill into town, and then stared at.
our modern clothes as curiously as we
iOOKUU at kUUli IjUaiUl, uuiiuuuouuic
costumes. There was a spring up
there, toot and nobody on hand to collcct
fees from the drinkers, so the Undaunted
who thought it Appolinaris
water, and who surmised that the barkeeper
in attendance had stepped in to
hear m#ss and was liable to emerge at
any moment and charge him half a
dollar, drank himself almost into an
illness. There was a reason, nowever,
for this seeming abnormal thirst In
Europe the water is generally bad, and
ice is to be had by none except the
ricb, so that beer and wine, being good
and cheap, are common drinks, as tea
is with us; but for real thirst there is
no such pallative as water, and beer
and wine seemed only to augment our ;
Whenever we found water that was
not green with stagnation, yellow with
drainage, or gray with mud, wo imbibed
it wiih the tremulous eagerness-:
of topers. There is good water in the,
Scotch hills, the Welch mountains, the
English lake district, some of the
Khenish highlands and the Alps. We
found it bad elsewhere, and no trouble
se ms to he taken to purify the supply
of the towns. Among the things that,
we tenderly dwelt upon when, far from
home and friends, we talked of joysj
that awaited our return, were ice water
and pie. Water is regarded by
tva ~<x>d iof^washing ^urp6$e$,~TVtmT
as to pies, he is as ignorant of that seductive
viand as ho is of buckwheat
cakcs, sherry cobblers, or political liberty.
Police Court Pirates.
Hanging about the doors of police
courts may always be found a set of
follows who make a living by preying
upon the unfortunates who are arraigned
and their relatives. Women
knowinsr nothing of the ways of courts
are easily persuaded that some devious
method can be used to release their
friends. Often when the prisoner might
be released on payment of a trifling
line, or even by a friendly word spoken
by almost any respoctabic person, the
simple-minded wife or sister is cheated
out of hard-earned dollars by the shark
who gets twicc tho amount of the line
for pretended services in getting a man
released. It is a common thing for
these fellows to take money in cases
where there is not the remotest chance
of their rendering any service. Most
people that go to_police courts do not
know that the only offenses tried there
are those of intoxication and disorder
derly conduct For the more serious
offenses the power of the magistrate is
confined to ascertain whether there is
probable cause of guilt, and then either
discharging the acc used or holding him
for trial in a higher court When a
prisoner is once held for trial it is beyond
the power of the magistrate to
let him out Yet it is a common thing
for the police-court pirate to tate
money on. the pretense of attempting
to get a man out after he has been
fully committed for trial.
The pirates will tako anything they
can get Sometimes they are satisfied
? fnw <>iUHncrq nndur nretense of
TV 4 UU M 4Vf? ?
The t; .i practice in the police
courts is i-. ;irst take the prisoner before
the clerk, vvto prepares the papers
for the signature of the justice,! so that
when the prisoheris arraigned thfe disposition
of the case is speedy. Strangers
often wonder at the celerity with
which cases are disposed of, and justices
are often censured for their
speedy disposition of cases involving
sentences of imprisonment for six
months or more. The fact, is, however,"
that the sentences by police magistrates
to imprisonment are always accompanied
by an alternative of paying
a fine. The payment oi a nne prevents
the imprisonment. In cases of commitment
of disorderly persons to the
island there is an alternative of bail or
surety of good behavior. One alderman
or saloon-keeper is often surety
for many persons thus released from
confinement. The prisoners thus bailed
out are presumed to be committed for
fvimol Affonc^c Anlv V V. &41) 1.
UiTMU vm.^. ?- ? - Tw...
The light of the sun is estimated to
equal in quantity 1,575,000,000,000,OoO,000,000,000,000
candles, the light's
intensity at the suu's surface being
180,000* that of candle llamo, 5,300
times that of metal in a Bessemer converter,
141* times- that of a calcium
light, or 314 times that of an electric
are. The temperature, according: to
Rosetti, is about 18,000 degrees Fahr.
The mechanical equivalent of the solar
onnfinilftllv ftotina. is nearly
10,000 horse-power per square foot of
^ ; "
The Yale College statistics for the
.'class of '85 show that the average expenditure
for the course of four years
"per man has been $3,262. Thirty-six
:have spent over $1,000 a year, while
"several, with scholarship assistance
aamintra hftVfi Tint ST?ent that
' amount in four years. Altogether that
"class has earned $16,770.slnce.en?ering,
seven J>a7ifljjr "xade over $1,000 apiece.
I ' '
The Seven Day's Fijrht.
? From Gen. Longstreet's contribution
Co The Century War Series, in the July
number, we quote the following: "The
Federals withdrew after the battle, and
$te next day I moved on around by the
IVtlLU wuiuu iL UiU piupjauu nru ouv/ixxix
take the day before. I followed the
qoemy to Harrison's landing, and Jackson.went
down by another route in advance
of Lee. As soon as we reached
tfce.front of the Federal position we put
oat ocr skirmish-lines, and I ordered
aij}~advance, intending to mako another
attack, but revoked it on Jackson urging
me to wait until the arrival of Gen.
Lee. Very soon Gen. Lee came, and,
ajter carefully considering the position
afitite enemy and of their gun-boats on
ti& James, decided it would be better
ttyierego any further operations. Our
skirmish-lines were withdrawn, we ordered
our troops back to their old lines
fiftsnd Richmond, and a month later
.yflttj was withdrawn ?o .
ajigjiided Confederate victory, was a
s^S?^sion of mishaps.: jU^Fackson had
amved^on the :26th??the day of his
o^a selection,?the Federals would
hjive been driven back from Mechanicsville
without a battle. His delay there,
erased by obstructions placed in bis
roid by the enemy, was the first mishap.
He was too late in entering the
light at Gaines's Mill, and the destruction
of Grapevine-brklge kept him from
reaching Frayser's Farm until the day
after that battle. If he had been there,
we might have destroyed or captured
McClellan's army. Huger was in position
for the battle of Fravser's Farm,
and after his batteries had misled me
ioto opening the light he' subsided.
Holmes and Magruder, who. were on
t&o;.2Jew Market road to attack the
Federals as thoy passed that way, failed
Co do so.
?4,Gen. McClellan's retreat was successful}
managed; therefore, we mast
?zm Hi. x? i?: n
(JlCUlt iui Utiiug Wliu juauagcu.
He-had 115,000 men, and insisted to the
fothoritieS at Washington that Lee had
260,000. In fact, Lee had only 90,000.
$en. McClellan's plan to take Richmood-by
a siege was wise enough, and
^would have been a success if the Confederates
had consented to such a programme.
In spite of McClellan's excellent
"plans, Gen. Lee, with a force
.inferior in numbers, completely routed
him, and while suffering less than McClellan,
captured over tep thousand of
v?s men. Gen. Lee's plans in the Seven
Days' Fight were excllent, but were
poorly executed. Gen. Mc.*Clellan was
a very accomplished soldier and a very
able engineer, but hardly equal to the
positicm ot neia-marsnai as a mniiary
ghfeftain. He organized the Army of
tfie Potomac cleverly, but did not
i^andle it skillfully when in actual battle.
Still I doubt if his retreat could
. Ijpiye been bettor handled, though the
sear of his army should have been more
positively either in his own hands or in
wc hands of Sumner. Heintzelman
?<Sr<?seU the White Oak Swamp prematurely
and left the rear of McClelian's
- Vl *1 KaATC
-?rlujr eipyscu, wuigu nuuiu uaic utm
L&tal bad Jackson come up and taken
ipart in Magruder's affair of the 29th
Bear Savage's Station."
Professor Langley was born at Roxbury
(now Boston). August 22, 1884.
Like many another Boston boy, he was
sent to the Boston Latin school, where
Latin and Greek and little else was
Latin and Greek was reputed to bo
the sum and end of learning, and Harvard
college seemed to show dim perspectives
of. more Latin and Greek- It
was na wonder that young Langlcy,
whose geuius lay in quite another direction,
should look about him, after
his graduation from the school, to see
if there were not some practical way
in which he could pursue those mechanical
ani astronomical studies that
already had fascinated him. He had
little inclination to enter college, and
the openinzs in astronomy proper were
very raro in those years, even rarer
than now. Since ho was ten years
old," he luul been reading and studying
astronomy, making small telescopes,
using these and others, with various
success, but always with ardor. The
practical question of how to shape his
life was one that he had solved, and a
variety of causcs led to his determination
not to go to college, but to become
a civil engineer. Here at least was a
profession whosu basis was mathematical,
and in which mechanical tastes
and acquirements would have scipe.
So the practice "of engineering was begun;
special circumstances forced him
into architecture, and for some years
this was his pursuit. These were dull
years, mostly spent in the West, where
at that time there were few opportunities
to display any real ability in this
special calling.?Professor E. ?>'. Holden,
in Popular Science Monthly for
A. Donkey Goes XJi> IVith a Balloon.
If I were lo tell you that I saw an
immense balloon once go up on Chestnut
street, witli a live donkey hanging
below the car and a man on the back
of the animal, you would probably
think I was yarning it," said a baldheaded
friend to me yesterday. "Tell
it to me for the present generation,"
I replied, "it was nearly thirty years
ago. Balloon ascensions were quite
common then in Philadelphia. We
had a nmnber- of local aeronauts?the
Wises,-P users, Sang? and Donaldsons
? * A ^Ai>aS/yn
ULIU CVUiJf UUVD lU. Or }TiUiO %k ivi uu
professor would arrive in town and
make things lively. Where Frank
Siddal now has his office on Chestnut
street, above Tenth, was located Parkinson's
famous gardens, and it was
from there that the balloon ascended
with a live donkey attachment. The
long-cared little fellow never kicked as
the balloon slowly ascended. Ho was
strapped, arounu. me oouy very securely
and as he arose the band played,
the people.shouted and laughed, and
the man on his hack, who, I think, was
one of the Puseys, took off his cap and
waved it to the crowd a thousand feet
below. His donkeyship was evidently
frightened almost to death. He arched
his head and neck to one side and looked
downward while he went heavenward.
He sailed away to West PhilaHalnhin
snmowlipm nnH down all
right with his rider after reaching an
altitude of 8,000 feet"?Philadelphia
. Mrs. Sniverlv is the wife of the Captain
of a New York militia company.
She attended a review not long since
at which her husband was the commanding
officer. Mrs? Saively laughed
all the way home, and when, after she
got home, she was asked what was the
cause of her merriment, she replied:
"It was the funniest thing in the world
to see my husband, who never dares
At-Lcu* Kw mnntK of- Knm<i nrtlnrinc all
I V/^TVU UM UiUUVU MM _>
those men about, and they doing just
I what he told them to do."
JEWS AS FARMERS.
Three Han<lr?Ml Russian Exiles Who Are
Doing l'retty Well in South Jersey.
. The colony of Jewish refugees from
Russia established three years ago on
eleven hundred acres of land near here,
writes a Yineland, N. J., correspondent
to The New York Hun, purchased
by the Hebrew Immigration Society, of
!New York, and the Jewish Society, of
London, has outlived the hardships of
its iirst years, and is beginning to bo a
prosperous community. The land is a
rolling sea of little scrub oaks, four or
live feet high, punctuated with erect
dead pine trunks. Scattered here and
there among the hills and hollows of
the tract the sixty frame shanties in
which the colonists live are hardly
noticeable. The little patches of field,
on which the grubbing up of the oaks
has exposed a light, sandy soil that every
breeze raises in a cloud oi dust,
seem mere occasional scratchings up
of the face of the barrens. There are
no.strects, no church, no stores, mills,
o$ Ivories, nor., any other indication,
except We scattered houses, that three
hundred ptfoplo are there.
Since the first year, when all lived
together in barracks, the land has
been divided. Each family has about
fifteen acres. Each plat cost tho societies
from $350 to $400, and the occu
pant is to pay for it one-half of the
cost. They must pay 3 per cent a
year upon this price, and this interest
is credited upon the principal, so that
they practically have thirty-three years
in which to pay for their homes. Under
this arrangement the colonists
take mors interest in their work, and
although they were all natives of cities,
tradesmen, artisans, and mechanics,
and knew little of farming, they have
got their small clearings into a fair
/\# j/\r> onH will fViJc VOQ 1?
dkilLO U1 VUlill ? UblVU) UUU TV AAA J VMfc
raise an abundant crop of strawberries,
raspberries and blackberries. These
small fruits are all that the land can
be made to products profitably. Finding
the colony in the wilderm ss is like
looking for a four-leaved clover. A
query addressed to the open door oi a
whitewashed shanty apparently several
miles, from anvwhere yesterday: "Is
there a Russian Jew colony anywhere
around?" brought out a flaxen-haired
man. a dark wife, with a red hand
kerchief hood-fashion on her head, and
two children- Smiles were the prominent
characteristic of the group. The
man talked English. The rest jabbered.
Ye-es-a; thees ees eet."
"Are you one of them?"
Ye-es-a," with a double-sized
How are you getting along nowadays?"
"Coo-oom-a een an' see," and the
wife and children repeated the invitation
in Russian, while the man led off
the visitor's horse to a convenient tree.
Inside the one chair was carefully
wiped with a towel before the visitor
was allowed to sit down. The man sat
on a bench and contemplated a bowl
of milk and some bread on the table.
He hoped the gentleman would excuse-a
him if he went on with his dinner;
he had to get back to work-a.
While the wife and children smiled
contentedly with reflected satisfaction
rif Vinngoo, wniaflihnru ynnrnri ?
the door and window, between bites
and smiles, in his slow, uncertain En-^
glish, the man said the sixty families
in the colony were getting along firsts
rate now, with the money they got
from their berries and from working
for other berry-growers in summer ana
chopping wood in winter. They liked
the country "ver-a moo-ooch; oh, zo
moo-ooch better than een Russia."
They were all going to vote as soon as
they got their papers. They have no
church, but the rabbi holds services
around in the houses every Saturday.
Their children all go to a district
school. The wife-neighbors jabbered
apparently approving comments as
tnis information was given. When the
bread and milk and the information
gave our, the whole party stood out
side and smiled as the stranger drove )
away, the wife insisting on shaking
hands as she said:
Further on a slender, dark colonist,
with a brogue like Villain Macavi in
"Called Back," said ho was a cloakmaker,
and couldn't farm; so he got
cloaks from -Philadelphia and made
them up. All he and his family could
earn was $1.50 a day. "Wo-ould I
like to go back to Roosia? Oh, wo-ould
L" he cxelaimed, in answer to a question,
and then his English gave out for
? (tDn/) ?VVIA?*A lcU /I A m/% AAn ATTp"
a ITUllCt TliUlC JJU UW> AUV-V\'UWJ *
he resumed. "Ah, no! I shall die
here! ye shall all die here! And ve
are vroom de cities!" And the maker
of cloaks looked mournfully away over
the scrub-oak loneliness and went back
The owner of the sole mill and store
in the vicinity said that the colonists
were doing well considering that they
had been ignorant of agriculture. They
were orderly, honest and industrious,
and would make, he thought, good cit
lzens. xney never quareiea witu uieir
neighbors, and rarely amon^ themselves,
and always paid their debts.
A bird's-eye view of our continent
shows us the elevations of the Rocky
Mountains and parallel spurs in the
West, and the Alieghanies in the East.
Mountain-ranges stand in the way of
the spreading of moths, which perish
in the cold atmosphere and the storms
which gather about the rocky summits.
Our faunas can be unaerstooa Dy
studying the formation of the land in
this way. Over the vast plain east of?
Colorado the same kinds of moths generally
prevail. The valleys in the HV est,
on the other hand, contain a majority
of peculiar spccies or kinds, often more
local in the East. In New York we
are cut off, again, by the Alle^hanies
from many species which are plentiful
in Ohio and Indiana. Our tropical
wanderers come to us up along tne
coast I have met, sailing on the
Gulf stream, flights of moths, mostly
of a few kinds, which fell on the rigging
and sides of the vessels in great
numbers. In the autumn, on Staten
Island, I have captured specimens
whose true home was Cuba and Jamaica.
Although small faunae, or limits
of particular species, are traced by
nofnrTlrcfa nnr mountain-rano'es are
the best general guide as to the changes
in the sorts of moths which we may
expect From Ohio to Louisiana we
meet much the same kinds of moths,
with a difference in the rarity of certain
species, and in the presence of
others dependent on particular kinds
of plants. But, when we get into the
valleys of the Rocky Mountains, wc
shall have taken leave of the most of
our dusty-winged eastern friends.
Some kinds take the voyage with us
completely across the continent, but
these are comparatively few in number,
and are sometimes lmost cosmopolitan.
? Professor A. B. Grote, in
Popular Science Monthly.
ATTAR OF ROSES.
An Account of the Manufacture of This
The following account of the manufacture
of this interesting substance is
condensed from a paper in the United
States consular reports. The annual
nrndnot in the district referred to
reached three tons in 1873-4, selling
for $500,000. In 1883-4 the product
was 4,600 pounds, but the cost of manufacture
has been greatly increased in
recent years and it sold for $625,000.
AVar of roses is produced on a large
scale in the province of Koumelia, on
the southern slopes of the Balkans, and
it is only the attar of these districts
that is of any moment. Small quantii*-"
in Tn/lio ? rtr? Pnroifl
ill^d LliC ^IVUUVUU 1U AUUtM UUU A. V4W*??)
but they arc used for home consumption,
and the same is the case with the
attar of roses produced in the south of
France, which, although of good quality,
forms only a very small part of the
consumption, of these producing
places. The attar of Tunis is of the
best quality, but the quantity produced
is comparatively small and tho price
high. Very little is exported.
The attar produced in Boumelia is
made by distillation from rosa dariascina,
whose color is, as a rule, bright
red; it is sometimes, but rarely, white.
Tf ic not vorv full ?is n. flower, and
bldOms in May and June. The rose
trees, when full grown, reach a height
of about six feet, and arc planted in
rows. They have to be tended very
careful from the autumn to the time of
gathering. The flowers when in bloom
are plucked before sunrise, only in
such quantities as can be distilled on
the day they are plucked. The distil
liag apparatus consists of a plain
tinned still, from which a long curved
tube is directed through a tub filled
witii fresh water, and empties in a big
bottle. Several such apparatus are usually
standing on stone hearths, by the
side of each other, and, if possible,
close to a brook in the shade of trees.
According to the size of the apparatus,
tiie still may hold from twentyfive
to fifty pounds of roses, on which
about double that amount of water is
poured, and is boiled hriskly for about
half an hour. The distilled liquid is
collected in the bottle that stands at
the mouth of the cooling tube, and the
attar of roses, which separates from
the water aDwears on the surface, I
where it is skimmed. The distilled
water is again used for distillation, and
constitutes ultimately the rose-water
which enters into trade.
After a sufficient quantity of attar is
produced it has lobe totally freed from
the water, and is kept in copper cans,
tinned both on the inside and outside.
The rose trees attain their maximum
producing capacity in their fourth year,
say from 2,?00 to 4.000 pounds per
acre. They arc very sensible to cold;
fogs and rain are also very fatal to the
blossoms. But the yield depends most
upon the weather during nine 01 aistu- i
lation; the latter lasts sometimes ten
days only, when the weather is warm
and clear, whereas it may require a
month and more if the sky is cloudy,
especially if rain falls at intervals. In
the first case the yield is almost always
unfavorable, as the roses are blooming
at the same time, and, as there is no
fjrwp tr> frotVior nml irr.fl- tlinm Hin odor
of the flower soon vanishes, and
the yield in attar is much less in conse<"rn?nr./>
cn flint. /i.OfiO to 7.000 DOUnds
of leaves arc needed to give one pound
of attar. When the weather is favorable
and the buds bloom gradually
2,500 to 8,500 pound of leaves will give
Pure attar of roses when distilled
with due care is at first colorless, but
soon takes a 3-ellowish color. No certain
method is known to detect falsification.
Admixtures of alcohol for the
purpose of increasing the freezing ca nnnitv.
or admixtures of sDormaceti.
neither of which, at least in the wholesale
trade, is now resorted to, are, of
course, easily detected. But the most
important falsifying medium is oil of
geranium, which some dealers order
even at Constantinople to be sent to
Kyzanlik, to be distiled over again
with rose leaves, and to mix with attar
of roses. Moderate additions of this
oil defy detection. The surest method
of testing is bv smell, but it requires
much training, and can only be acquired
by many years' patience. It is still
a widespread belief, although an erroneous
one, that the quality of the
attar of roses corresponds exactly with
the degree of its freezing capacity.
"The "stearopten," which is the freezing
agent of the attar, is devoid of any
smell whatever, and has. therefore, no
bearing on the flavor or the purity of
the attar. A certain freezing capacity
is, it is true, one of the claims which
one may lay on really good attar, but
this only because the admixture of
other essential oils has the effect of
lowering the freezing point The attar
sets at 52 degrees to 63 degrees
Fahrenheit, according to the quantity
of stearopten contained in it; it sometitnes,
but exceptionally, congeals at a
uigiier tcuipciuLiiic, m iu&u
feathery, transparent crystals, filling
all the liquid; specific weight is 9-87 at
67 degrees Fahrenheit.
Attar made in the highest-situated
Tillages is, as a rule, considered of
greater freezing capability, and of
more intense, but harsher, flavor,
whereas the produce from the plain
shows a lower freezing point, and is
possessed of a sweeter and finer flavor.
A tliat f/i 1 drt *ntto
~*ii. t-VHiW/t -4-1 w uiwwv*
Little Ernest, a small boy recently
emancipated from kilts, walked into
the nursery one morning, and was quite
disgusted upon finding that it had not
been put in order for the day?one of
the rules of the house being that no
playthings should be brought out until
the'sweeping was done. He left the
room for a short time, and, finding
matters no better on his return, ex
claimed impatiently: "Well.^ hasn't
this room been sweeped yet?"' * "Why,
Ernest," said hismolher, "doyou think
that is good grammar?" "Ob, well,
then," said he, "has it been swopen?"
The superstition which associates
the dog's howl with the approacli of
w nrohablv derived from-the
I J ?
Aryan mytnology, which represents a
dog as summoning the departing soul.
Throughout all Aryan mythology the
souls of the dead arc supposed to ride
on the night wind with their howling
dogs, gathering into their throng the
souls of those just dying as they pass
by their houses.
I knew an old fellow out West who
had mortgages on a whole town?a
small town ? who made it a condition
of his loan that the buildings
should be painted red. That was a
funny-looking village. There were
about thirty houses and stores and a
large iactory ana a Driage--au reu.
The people in neighboring towns made
lots of fun oyer it and the place was
finally known, as Hedtown
THE NEWS OF THE STATE.
Some of the Latest Sayinjrs ud Dolnj* in
?The Edisto River is repported to
be in good fishing condition.
?Lancaster wants a steam fire en- * If
gine, ana unarieston oners ner one,
with a hose reel, for $1,200. *
?Over 350 carloads of watermelons
have been shipped from Williston, m
Barnwell county, so far this year.
?Mrs. Eveline Wilson, a pensioner
of the war of 1812, died last Saturday
near Reidville, Spartanburg county.
?The Bank at Johnston, Edgefield
county, is now an assured fact. Almost
enough money has been subscribed
?There are many fields of cotton
near Greenville, from which the proprietors
expect to gather over a bale to
?Fannie Harri?, a pretty seventeenyear-old
white girl, has been lodged in
Greenville jail on the charge of breaeh
of trust* >
?Billy Roper, of the Trenton secKrtr
nuiij iiao twcni/j avito ui unu uwu
which he will certainly gather six
Mrs. .Tames Smith, of Aiken coonfy,
had her collar-bone and three ribs
broken, on the 23rd nit., by being
thrown out of a wagon.
?The hands on the Savannah Valley
Railroad are wording energetically,
and in two months' time the track will
be laid to Mt. Carmel.
?The upland corn is booming in
Spartanburg, and the prospect is that
nnf. mn^h rvirn trill he shirvnp^ ?
rom the West next year. ?It
is now proposed to bnild another
railroad through Edgefield; from *
the Charlotte, Columbia & Augusta
Railroad, at or near Johnston, to
?Mr. "P. KfonTi^mcrm r\f T.tnMiL
ter, lost his dwelling, kitchen and the
contents of both buildings by fire, on
the 17th ult. Loss about $1,600; insurance
?A detachment of the colored
National Guard of Charleston expect K
to attend the funeral of Gen. Grant.
The citizens will be asked for funds to
meet the expense.
?A correspondent of the Keowee
Courier says the Blue Kidge Bailroad
is an unseemly carcass standing in the
way of live enterprises, and demands
the repeal of the charter.
?Mr. Thomas Eeid, of Abbeville,
was so badly hurt by being struck in
the eye with a piece "of rock, which he
brcke off while hoeing, that he went
to Atlanta for surgical relief.
?Mr. Will Sapps was struck by
lightning, on the 26th ult., in Lancaster
county, and Lum Vaughan, colored,
on the 27ih, in the same section. Both
men were paralyzed for a time.
-The citizens of Walhalla are very
angry because the result of their pri?
m.irv election for postmaster has been
ignored and somebody has induced the ,
Postmaster General to'appoint another
?Tom McCardell and Lee Clinton,
remarks made by one relative to the
wife of the other. The case was compromised.
?A mad dosf in the nieghborhood of
Tylersville, Greenville county, last
week, attempted to bite a child, bat
only tore' her dress. He bit several
animals, however, before he was overhauled
and shot dead.
?Senator Wiugard aud Representatives
"Rrnnker and M-moniarri attended
the farmers' meeting at Lexington on
Saturday and aided in the organization
of the Lexington County Agricultural
and Mechanical Society.
?The Spartanburg District Methoaist
Conference, at its recent meeting
at GafTney City, adopted a formal protest
against free tuition at the State
College. The district embraces Spartanburg,
Laurens and Union.
?Quite a number of Lancaster's
progressive farmers have begun iii an
experimental way to cultivate grapes
wiiu iiic view ui liia&jug vtiut; iui
market, and tbose of them who have
giveu their vineyards that attention
which they require have met with
?The Episcopal church at Lancastor,
which has been closed for some
time for the want of a pastor, will
likely be opened at an early day. A
plan' is on foot for uniting with the
church at Yorkville and calling a minister
for the two charges, his time to be
divided between them.
?Five carloads of lumber for the
Greenwood, Laurens and Spartanburg
depot have arrived at the Spartanburg
and Union depot. A squad of hands
are ready to begin work. The idea of
a tramway from the Air Line has been
abandoned and they will lay the track
from the other end of the road.
?Mr. Jame? F. Hunter, of Lancaster,
who lost so severely by a recent -?
fire, met with a series of misfortunes
on the 28th. His little child was seriously
injured by a fall; Mr. Hunter
was suddenly taken ill and had to be
carried home; and his horse ran away , ?i
ana aasnea nis ouggy to pieces. ?:
?Jim Caskev, colored, who bad
been speaking disrespectfully of ladies !
iu Lancaster, was taken from his house
by a party of masked men, whipped
severely and ordered to leave the
county j which he did. The maskers
went to Lee Clinton's house /or a
similar purpose, but he had decamped.
mt_ _ . a x? l xl M
?xne eaucauuuai uuuuuk au jwiuu
is more encouraging than it has been
for mam- years. Mr. C. A. Woods
has raised the handsome snm of $4,000,
in shares of $100, to be paid in two
instalments, 011 October 15 and January
1, to buy a lot. erect suitable buildings
and the hiring of a competent
corps of teachers. tSXE
?P. A. Harmon, of Spartanburg,
1 x. 1 !_ _ U1 A
wisnes 10 Know now Jtong a aigmsnu
terrapin will live. He cat his initials
in two places on the shell^of one on the
20tb Jnlv, 3870, and Sunday, the 19th
ult., he came across him again, looking
as young as eyer. He was not more
than thirtv steps from the place where
he made "the inscription fifteen years
?Cowpens, Spartanburg county, is
excited over an attempt by Henry
Whittaker to abduct Kate Stalling', a
girl of fifteen. The girl's hrother and
the prospective groom and a friend
threatened each other with knives and
two attempts at marriage were frustrated.
Whittaker's brother went to
whip out the Stalling* family, but was
arrested. Ten warrants were issued
during the affair. Young "Whittaker
is hiding out.