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VOL. XLIII. WINNSBORO, S. C., WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 29, 1886. ' NO. 22.
? --- ;? ? j :... ' r-.~ ?
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY:
L proceedings of the last week
Bv OF THE SESSION OF 1836.
SBr f)ecciii!)cr :il).
BHB Wlien the general appropriation bill
BBBbSI had received its third reading, Senator
Bhame moved to increase the appropria
tion for the Governor's contingent fund
&' from $2,500 to $4,000. After a little dis.
^ cussion the amendment was defeated by
r- a vote of 23 to 9.
S& Senator Khame then moved to increase
Sg the appropriation for the repair and
B furnishing of the Governor's Mansion
||L from $2,000 to ?2,700. The amendment
B was adopted by a vote of 21 to 8.
On Senator Moore's motion 8475 was
appropriated for repairs to the arsenal
B in Beaufort.
On Senator Smythe's motion the appropriation
for public printing was increased
from $12,000 to $15.'; X>.
jOTgROgSn FIGHTING OVEK A "JUDEX."
Senator Edwards moved to add to the
1 University appropriation a proviso that
tuition fees be charged in the South
Carolina College, in accordance with the
bill which has passed the Senate. The
Senator said that he did this because
there much doubt -whether the tuition
bill would pass the House at this ses
Senator Buist thought this a sad and
fearful thing to put on riders of this
sort. It might result in a deadlock and
prevent an adjournment of the General
Senator Edwards said that this amendment
would bring in $6,000 of the $23,000
voted to the College. He would not
k vote for the appropriation without this
H Senator Smythe said that the unwisB
dom of the practice of puttiug legislaStion
on the appropriation bills had been
AQATI llAHCO V>o/J
Ipimyu IHSI sesauii uuui
put a rider on the appropriation bill, and
each endeavored to coerce the other. |
r Senator Murray maintained that it
the right of the people to couple |
Actions with their grants of money, j
favored the rider. It was not i
gKnator Sligh held the same view. j
Rnator Hemphill believed in and j
K*ed the rider.
vote on the amendment resulted? j
Hk, nays 17.
V Chair voted "aye," and the!
Bment was adopted/
Bfctor Murray moved to reconsider
KnHHKOie me monca.
S?r Buist then moved to adjourn
Bb on the bill - until to-morrow,
^ gph&be seen what the House
the tuition bill, which
5& order for the day. The
this motion in order.
Btzay then withdrew his
JPH^enator Buist responded by
B ^ator Murray offered an ai l endm eat
W adding to the College appropriation all
f sums received from tuition foes;" He
wanted to make the College a real university,
and would cheerfully vote $00,^
000 to that end if the State could afford
i -?V it. This amendment would cost the
K - } people nothing, and it would greatly aid
s the University.
Senators Edwards, Sligh and EempBt
hfn opposed the proposition.
Bk Senator Wofibrd moved to table?y eas
it ? ir
The Chair said that, as there seemed
to be no demand for the this additional
appropriation, he voted "aye," and the
amendment was tabled.
A CANAL RIDER.
Senator Murray moved to add to Section
7 of the bill the folio wing additional
"That the sum of ten thousand dollars
be, and the jame is hereby, appropriated
to continue the work upon the
Columbia Canal, to be expended* by the
directors of the penitentiary in utilizing
the surplus convict labor upon the work
in such way as they may deem best, and
that thev be directed to utilize the old
I Canal in such way, if possible, as to
furnish, water power to the penitentiary."
Senator Austin moved to table. After
a short debate, hi which Senator Murray
effectively supported his amendment, a
vote was taken on Senator Austin's motion
to table?yeas 17, nays 17.
fr The Chair voted "no'' and tbe amendment
was saved. Another debate enSenator
Hemphill moved to make the
amount $5,000. Senator Smy the moved
ijg to table it. The vote was the same, 17
to 17. This time the Chair voted "no,"
and the motion was not tabled. -On the
* question of adopting the Hemphill
amendment there were 16 yeas to 18
\ nays. Senator Murray then moved to
^ v make the appropriation $8,000 instead
& of $10,000, fearing that the figure he
K first proposed could not be carried, and
the amendment was adopted by a vote
SB, After a strong speech by Senator
Woodward, and debate by Senator Sligh
and others, the Murray amendment appropriating
$8,000 for the work was
affixed to the bill?yeas 20, nays 14.
After this action the general appropri
ration bill passe a its third reading and
was returned to the House "with its
On Senator McMaster's motion, his
Canal joint resolution, -which was the
special order for 11 a. m., was postf
l. The legislative appropriation bill
passed its final roadio^-.
n The House-joint resolution providing
H| for electing^ ven trustees of the South
Caroling University on Wednesdav after
hB the^ylection of a Judge of the Eighth
He circuit w?s concurred in.
/ The consideration of the second leadBflji
,/ihg bills was begun. The first on the
jfigflf . . "" Calendar was the House bill in relation
to costs in equity cases. Several amendx
ments offered by the judiciary committee
|5|r were adopted, but the vote was reconsiderec,
and before the debate on the
"T" amendments was concluded the Senate
I at 3 o'clock took a recess until 7 p. in.
L t The follow:ing bills received their secL
' ond reading: lienewing and amending
HL the charter of Winnsboro; incorporating
Kff the Columbia Home Insurance Company;
authorizing the town council oJ
8? Wirtnsboio id issue Ixnnls in aid ol tilt*
Mount Zion College; relating to tlic
| Winthrop training school for teachers:
; - ""I"1" ^maKana^atB?BBMPBSM
' exempting portions of Berkeley and
j Charleston counties from the stock law;
j incorporating the South Carolina Fire
| Insurance Company.
j After considering a communication
I from the railroad commissioners, showj
ing that their report was filed with the
| public printer within the time prescribed
! by law, the Senate adopted a resolution,
| by Senator Black, directing the commit|
tee on printing to inquire the reason
| why *the State printer lias not printed
i the annual report of the railroad com;
missioners. This cleared the Calendar
j of all available matter except claims,
I which liad passed the House. The ses;
sion of. an hour was marked by a won;
derfui dispatch of business, and at 8
; o'clock the Senate adjourned.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
The following measures received a
i third reading:
Bill extending tbe time for the pay|
ment of the taxes which expired on December
15 to January 15. 1887. The
bill further remits all costs and penalties
charged npon delinquents. An amendment
was adopted in the House excluding
the county of Darlington from the
provisions of the bill; bill to confer certain
rights upon the Port Pioyal and
Western Carolina Railroad; bill to
amend section t>5 01 tne urenerai statutes,
relating to pliosphate deposits,
(the bill in "general gives the State a
preferred hen on the phosphates for the
royalty, and directs the royalty to be
paid quarterly on "crude rock" and "not j
after it has been dried or cleaned;") bill
to provide for the equalization of assessments,
THE COLLEGE BILL.
It was after 2 o'clock when the House
.reached the College tuition bill, which
bad been at the head of the Calendar for
some time. The Senate bill was taken
up in place of the bill introduced in the
House. The committee on education
reported it adyerselv, while two of the
members, Messrs. Daniels and Young,
recommended its passage. A motion to
kill the bill brought on the discussion,
which was opened by the Rev. Mr.
Archer, Methodist minister and member
XX \J?LL yjjJCUH^OtXlKJKJU.^^ >T JJ.V CtU. T \y\- IA^V*. tuiv
passage of the bill He was followed 011
the same side by the Eev. Mr. Young, of
Abbeville, one of the minority of the
committee. Three or four additional
speeches were made. Shortly after 3
o'clock, however, a motion to adjourn
until 7.30 p. m. was carried, and the
House adjourned without reaching ja
The judiciary committee submitted an
adverse report on the labor contract bill,
which tak<^j itp place at the-ioofc of the
Calendar. This virtually postpones the
matter until the next session.
The discussion of the College tuition
bill was resumed and was participated in
by Messrs. S. P. Hamilton, Brawley and
Kershaw against Messrs. Archer, Pope,
jsoozer ana Ansel m iavor 01 tuition. .a.
motion to kill the bill failed?67 to 23.
Mr. Brawley, however, succeeded in getting
in tlie following amendment: "Provided
further, that the faculty of the
I said University may grant beneficiary
scholarships -without the payment of any
fees to such competent and deserving
! youths of this State as may be unable to
| pay the same, and the trustees of the
said University shall prescribe such rules
and regulations as may be proper to confine
the enjoyment of this privilege to
those whose necessities require it." This
was adopted 57 to 46, and the bill so
amended was returned to the Senate.
Mr. Hyde's general incorporation bill
passed its third reading. Also a biil to
amend the debt settlement Act in accordance
with the decision of the Supreme
The House was in session until nearly
midnight, and managed to put through
a considerable number of bids.
Tuesday, December 31.
The special order for 11 o'clock %vas |
the House bill reorganizing the agricultural
department. At 12.30 it -was called
up. Senator Youmans,- as chairman of
the committee on agriculture, "which had
reported it "without recommendation,
said that as this bill revolutionized the
method of conducting the department,
and as it "was followed by other measures
on the same subject, he thought
i that a rcroDer consideration of the sub
ject could not be had this session. In
order, therefore, that time be allowed
for a careful investigation of the whole
subject, he moved to continue the bill to
the next session.
Senator'Talbert said that this measure
was due to the farmers of the State, and
ought to pass at this session.
Senator Youmans replied that he -was
a farmer and didn't share this view.
Senator Sinkler was always in favor of
maintaining the honored institutions of
the State, but he saw nothing revolutionary
in the bilL It was a graceful
concession to the agriculturalists.
Senator McMaster wanted full informatioc,
and thought it impossible to consider
the subject intelligently in the
short time before adjournment.
Senator SrnitL was a - farmer," but he
thought the matter too important to be
considered now. There were a number
of counties in which the farmers were
yet unorganized, and these would be
without representation if the bill passed
Senator Sinkler again defended the
Senator Wofford saw in the bill a provision
for about a hundred and seventy
ex-officio members. There had been
great tal'k against the few ex-ofiicio members
of the College board, but now 170
were to be created off-hand. Think of
crivinsr the State Granere and State Asrri
cultural Department only five members
each out of these hundred and seventy!
Think of treating in this way organizations
which had done so much for the
State! This was enough reason for him
to oppose the bill. He was a farmer, but
saw no good in it. It was proposed for
a purpose, of which he would not speak.
He hoped the bill would be continued.
Senator . Murray said that the bill
could be amended to suit. If the Agricultural
Society and Grange were so
strong they could control the county
delegations. He favored the consideration'
of the bill. The matter had been
already fully discussed in the papers and
in two conventions.
Senator Talbert asked what the
Grange had done beyond putting money
in the pockets of its head men?
Senator WoJTord rejoined that if the
I E Igeiield Senator ever went to the up
country lie woiud find out that it had
done a great deal. The vote on Senator
Youmans's motion resulted:
Yeas?Senators Bell, Biemann, Black,
Byrd, Erwin. Hemphill, Howell, Izlar,
Kennedy, McMaster, Moore, Munro,
Patterson, Keynolds, Bhame, Smith,
Smythe, William?, Wingard, Woffoid
>5ays?Senators Alexander, Austin,
Buist, Crews, Edwards, Field, McCall,
Moise, .Moody, Murray, Sidkler, Sligh,
Talbert and Yvood-vard?14.
^ +V*/* Qor>o4Avo lio/l ?5Tirl
U1 U-Ll^ Uoiiijuuatv* TVV^V*? ?**.?.
three-fifths of tliem had spoken against
the bill. Senator Youmans gave his vote
in favor of a continuance with such
hearty emphasis and delight as to make
a ripple of laughter passed around the
A motion to table a motion to reconrider
was adopted by a vote of 20 to 14,
and the only Till man measure which
had a chance of success was buried. The
result is distinctly traceable to a determination
on the part of various agricultural
Senators not to consent to what
fhov "Tillman rHntation."
the supply kill
received its second reading withe the following
Colleton?County levy raised from oi
to fj mills, of whicli?2i to ordinary county
purposes and j to roads and bridges,
including ?500 for part of the cost of
building a bridge over Kantowle's Creek.
Edgefield?County levy raised from 3
to 3i mills.
Hampton?Provision made for paying
the stenograher of the circuit.
General?The provision at the end of
the bill allowing county commissioners
to borrow money under certain conditions
was stricken out, on motion of
>U lAA UJN
The Talbert dog license bill, after
having lain neglected on til's Calendar
for a week, was taken up with a recommendation
from the committee to which
it had been submitted that it be continued
until the next session. A motion
so to continue it failed on a division.
After some debate, the vote on the passage
was 15 to 15. The Chair voted
"no." So the bill seemed killed. At
the night session, however, it was reconsidered,
and was passed to its third reading
by a vote of 16 to 11.
The following House bills received
their second reading: Changing the
name and amending tne cnarter 01 tne
Chester, Green-wood and Abbeville Railroad:
amending the modn of divesting
the rignt of dower of insane married
women; amending the charter of the
town of Barnwell; creating two school
districts in Barnwell countyincorpor*-;
ating the Maverick Mills of Barnwell
county; providing for the completion of
the State House; bill to amend the stock I
law as to Horry and other counties.
The following measures were killed: j
Bill amending the Act prohibiting the;
sale of liquor in the town of Lancaster;
bill relating to the hunting of doer.
The bill exempting portions of Berkeley
and Colleton counties from the stock
law received its second reading, with
Senator Smythe's amendment that it
shall not apply to lands of A. S. J.
Perry and half a dozen others.
The bill for the relief of the King's j
Mountain Military School was continued ;
until the next session.
Senator Sligli's bill to regulate the!
taxation of attorneys' costs was continued
on his own motion until nest session, as
it was too late to be acted on this year.
There was a very one-sided fight over
the House bill providing for the issue
' of liquor licenses in Berkelev and Beaufort
counties. Senators Sinkler, Smythe,
Youmans, Buist and Moise spoke strongly
in favor of the bill, showing what a
deplorable condition these counties had
been brought to by the enactment of a
prohibition law which is not and cannot
be enforced. Senator Murray opposed
the bill and made a motion to kill it, but
| subsequently withdrew his motion.
I Senator Kennedy renewed it. It was
I ^ X-3 fm.A "UM1 i/L
utueuieu. JLiie uiii pocsbcu ids second
reading by the following vote: Yeas
23, nays 9.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
The Senate amendments to the general
appropriation bill cansed qnite a debate.
The first fight occurred on the University
section of the bill. The appropriation
had been raised in the Senate from ?15,000
to ?17,000, and the skirmish was
opened by Dr. Pope, who, as usual, expressed
the hope that the House would
not caucus. He regarded it as singular
that this increase was not asked for until
n. . 1..M1 1 1 1_ _ ,1 XT C< J. _ J
me um liiiu reacneu. uie oeiiave.
Mr. Hntson, chairman of the education
committee, and Mr. Pick en, acting
chairman of the ways and means committee,
explained this omission. The
House refused to agree to the amendment.
The next amendment was the tuition
rider tacked on to the section by the
Senate and embracing substantially the
provisions of the tuition bill passed by
that body. The House unanimously refused
It also refused to concur in the amendment
striking out the $10,000 appropriated
for the completion of the central
building of the Penitentiary.
Then the Cf :al rider was reached, an
amendment appropriating $e,uuu tor tne
work on the Canal, mainly to furnish
water power to the penitentiary. This
reopened the Canal debate, in which a
dozen or more members took part. Col.
Thomas, of Richland, made an earnest
but brief appeal. He said he supposed
the members would vote as their convictions
dictated. He hoped, however,
they would vote to concur in this amendment,
if for no other reason than to give
the Richland delegation the consolation
of having done something for Columbia.
Mr. Davenport, of Greenville, opposed
this appropriation. Mr. Davenport made
the assertion that nine-tenths of the
members of the House were unable to
pay their just debts. They must not,
because they were here in Columbia
living like rich men, for what thev were.
Every year these appropriations had to
be made. If members continued voting
appropriations this way they would vote
the shirts off their backs.
After discussing the matter for an hour
Mr. Cappelman called the previous question,
which ended the debate. The
House, without a division, refused to
concur in the amendment. "
All the amendments in reference to the
Lunatic Asylum were agreed to, except
' that reducing the per (hem of the regents.
At this point Mr. Ficken moved to
reconsider the vote thereby the House
refused to agree to the amendment increasing
the College appropriation from
SI5,000 tovSJ TjOOO, stating that he did so
in order to give CoL Haskell, who had
been indisposed and who had just entered
the hall, an opportunity to explain the
necessity for the increased appropriation.
Mr. Haskell explained that the increase
was needed mainly in consequence of
the increased popularity in the College
of the school of applied mechanics and
the agricultural <l*]?atnient.
?JL. JL UJL/C t*U\ I v
fought the amencbr.e-t bitterly. In stiking
contrast were the remarks of Mr. Tindal,
of Clarendon, tiie president of the
Fanners' Convention and the representative
of that body. He had been, he
said, opposed to free tuition in the College,
'out lie could never consent to starve
the institution nor to cripple its usefulness
After some further discussion the motion
to reconsider "was carried by a large
majority and the Senate amendment
agreed to withouiia division.
The amendmenfcgiving $475 for repairs
of the arsenal at Beaufort was adopted
by a vote of 49 to 36.
The Senate increase in the appropriation
for public printing from ?12,000 to
815,000, and that in the legislative ap? ..a.-?
4-^ c-ia rmn nnf
lll/iXL tJUjWU IV vJXVjVW *? w.u mw w
The Senate amendment appropriating
$5,000 to aid in the rebuilding of the
State Medical College at Charleston
seemed to have starred up the most direful
-wrath of the reformers, who once
more rallied and made a desperate fight
against it. The first opposition came
from Dr. Pope, of Newberry, who said
that the College had no right to call upon
the State for this aid.
After some discussion by several members,
the amendment was agreed to bv a
63 to 44.
In pursuance of the resolution adopted
this morning the House to-night confined
its attention to bills which had already
** it n - rrrL*_ -x
passed tne oenae. xxiis ariaugemeiib
developed the fa?that a number of bills
which were on tijfc Calendar for a second
reading had alreMy been ratified.
The bill to prohibit the obstruction of
navigation in the rivers of the State by
bridges was continued till the next session.
The work on the Calendar progressed
rather slowly bai?without much trouble
until the Anderson-Laurens prohibition
bill was reached^:,An effort was made,
as the bill proi oiled to consume a good
deal of valuable" time, to continue it
until the next session. This^was, howcverjr^ted
-doviir. yeos~16r<nflys 72, and!
the deoate occupied the rest of the night.
Mr. Cappelmann moved to strike out the
enacting words of the bill. His motion
Tcac Irillpcl -
A member from Oconee moved to add
that county to the bill. This was adopted.
Mr. Keitt, of Newberry, moved to add
that county to the bill also.
Dr. Pope moved to table this motion.
If it was adopted he said it would split
the Democratic party in Newberry. The
motion to table was tabled by a tie vote
of yeas <30, nays 50. A vote was then
taken on the amendment direct to add
Newberry county to the bill.
Mr. Hyde then moved to amend by
adding Marion. "Voted down. Mr. O'Brien
moved to amend by adding Uiiarieston.
Voted down. The bill was then read
through to the end without further
amendments being offered.
Mr. Sarratt, of Union, moved to strike
out the last eight sections of the bill, reducing
it to the level of an ordinary prohibition
bill. This reopened the discission,
with the evident intention to keep
it up until an agreement could be reached.
After a long debate a motion to strike
out the most objectionable sections of
the bill failed by a vote of 37 to 52.
Several other amendments were voted
down. The bill, with the amendment
including Oconee county, passed without
The House sat for some time longer
discussing unimportant bills.
The Close of the Session.
Instead of carrying out the daily reports
of the proceedings, we give below
a statement of the more important matters
ELECTION OF JUDGE.
For Judge of the eighth judicial circuit
the following candidates were placed
P?v Senator JBuist, Mr. W. H. Parker,
By Mr. Pope, Mr. E. H. Graydon, of
By Mr. Ansel, Mr. T. Q. Dodaldson,
By Mr. O'Brien, Mr. J. J. Norton, of
By Senator Murray, Mr. B. F. Whit|
uer, of Anderson.
i The balloting resulted as follows:
i 1st. 2d. 3d. 4th. 5th.
| Norton ..57 50 66 71 93
farmer ?z -ii *? 01 >jo
Whitner 30 34 36 31 ?
Graydon 14 10 ? ? ?
Donaldson 8 6 5 ? ?
Total vote 152 151 152 150 151
Necessary to elect 77 76 77 76 76
Colonel Norton -was accordingly declared
THE COLLEGE TRUSTEES.
In tlie joint assembly to elect a board
of trustees for the South Carolina College,
the following named gentlemen
were put in nomination: B. W. Edwards,
of Darlington; JchnBratton, of Fairfield;
Judge Simonton, of Charleston; Paul F.
Hammond, of Aiken; Rev. J. A. Sligh,
of Newberry; Dr. Robert Henry, of Williamsburg;
Senator Izlar, of Orangeburg;
Mr. W. G. Hinson, of Charleston; Mr.
L. D. Childs, of Richland; J. D. Blanding,
of Sumter; J. F. J. Caldwell, of
-V- -T T> TT7 1
ewuerrv; v>ui. x\. vv. jwvu,ux jl/*u;jjju&ton;
"W. C. Coker, of Darlington: F. W.
McMast-er, of Richland; Judge A. C.
Haskell, of Richland.
Representative Barkley nominated
Representative!. G. Mc&issick, of Union.
??Ir. McXissiek withdrew his name.
Representative Thomas, of Richland,
by authority of 3Ir. L. D. Cliilds, withdrew
This left fourteen candidates for the
The result of the first ballot was as fol
lows: Total number of votes cast ioV*.
Necessary to a choice 70. Izlar
juration n->, Diinonton jui', naiSKen
?Hammond 93, Coker 67, Edwards 67,
McHaster 58, Sligh 58, Hinson 48, Henry
48, Caldwell 33, Blanding 24, Boyd 2o,
J73El;!Endal 2, Donaldson I, Patterson 1.
The names oflMessrs. Caldwell, Boyd,
Blanding,. M^JVjSster and Hinton were
now withdrawn, leaving the racc between
Messrs. Cokv, Henry, Edwards and
Sligh. The-^ote stood: Henry 90, Coker
85, Edwards 53, Sligh#45. Messrs. Henry
and Coker were accordingly declared
rm-rrrpT/w ire re TV TTTP mTiT>V.(iV..
The conference committee on tlie
College tuition bill reported an agreement,
which practically retains theHouse
amendments to the bill. The
only changes from such amendments are
that not only the beneficiary youth; but
his parent or guardian, shall be unable
to pay tuition, and that the trustees may
at any time change a student from the
beneficiary to the pay class. All the
provisions about affidavits as to property
from the county officers are stricken out.
In this shape the bill has been duly
THE AGBICCLTCBAL COLLEGE.
The House, by a decided vote, passed
a joint resolution appointing Johnson
Hagood, Wm. D. Johnson and B. E.
Tillman a commission to travel in this
o-rwl Pn-HArui Q tnATST
| \sUVLLLVJ.J GiJULV4. A..U. X.UJLV/^j VY*VXJ. ?*> .. -w
obtain information as to the establishment
of an Agricultural College. But
the Senate killed the resolution by a
The Senate's proposition to give $8,000
for work on the canal failed in the
House. The latter body offered other
propositions, but the Sienate "cut the
Gordian knot" by receding from its own
Both houses adjourned sine die at 4.18
on the morning of the 24th.
Snow as a Fertilizer.
Tlie opinion prevails, generally among
farmers, that snow is quite a fertilizer to
winter grain crops. The opinion, doubtless,
migrated with our ancestors from
England to Virginia and North Carolina,
and thence to the more southern states,
as population moved southwesterly.
That snow greatly benefits grain crops
in those regions where it covers the
I grouiiu. me greater pari, ui llic muiiu, |
j there can.be no shadow of donbt. But
how? In the first place by protecting it
from cold. Absurd, says one, to say that
anything covered with snow is protected
from cold. Why snow itself is a terribly
cold thing. Admit it is a pretty cold
thing, But its temperature need not be
lower than 32. degrees,-and the grcunid
under it need not be colder than 32 degrees.
Suppose just before the snowfall
the soil of a wheat field freezes
slightly. A light freeze would not hurt
grain. Now cover it up with ijix to ten
inches of snow, and let the weather turn
very cold. Let the thermometer drop
down to ten degrees, or as it sometimes
does to zero. What then? Will the
soil temperature sink down to those
J figures? Not at all. The loose, porous
snow checks the escape of iieat from tiie j
soil, just as a good fur keeps the heat j
from escaping from an animal's body, !
and the soil retains its temperature of i
approximately thirty-two degrees. The
wheat plant is kept about as cold as it
| would be in a nice frosty morning, just
cold enough for a little ice to form. It
is protected from the zero cold, and
from (what is of more importance still)
the cold, drying winds which invariably
attend these severe spells of cold. The
destructive influence of cold winds on
vegetation is apt to be overlooked. It j
intensifies the cold very much and,? as j
pointed out in a former article, is often !
the cause of death in plants. Snow, tlien,
effectually protects crops from extreme
cold and from cold and drying winds.
But does it not do more than that? j
Does it not really enrich the soil; is it
not really a fertilizer? Not much. Snow,
like rain water, contains a little ammonia;
but only a little. In numerous
cases, all the snow and rain water which
falls in a year, upon a given area, have
been carefully collectsi and examined;
the amount of ammonia in them ascertained,
and the calculation made aa to
how much ammonia would thus be carried
into the soil of an acre. The largest
amount thus determined has been a very
little over ten (10) pounds per acre, the
smallest about four (4) pounds per acre;
and the most careful observations indicate
that the average amount of nitrogen
fboth as ammonia and nitric acid) which
an acre receives from rain and snow in a
whole year, is only about live (5)pounds,
representing or equivalent to sis (6)
pounds of ammonia. Snow does not
carry into the soil any more ammonia
than a corresponding rain, all of which
soaks into the soil. A fall of ten inches
of snow is about equal to one inch of
rain, which is a good soaking rain. Now,
divide six pounds of ammonia by the
number of rainfalls in a year, and see
how little ammonia would be carried
into the soil by one rainfall or one snow.
Thirty rains in a year would make one
AAWTATiA.fiff]i /\-f o T*/vnn/^ ni
JL CLL Li V/l OJ IV >Y ^CU.xj' V/xiV * I l ujul Vi. w^/vum\? va
ammonia into the soil of an acre, or not
more of that substance than three
pounds of cotton seed meal would supply
to an acre; and ammonia is the only
fertilizing material which snow contains.
It is obviously, therefore, a very poor
fertilizer, though it may greatly benefit
crops by the protection it affords against
cold. At the North, where snow takes
the place of rain, the winter leaching of
soils is greatly reduced, because the
snow melts in the spring and runs off, in
great measure, without soaking into the
frozen ground. With us it does not remain
long enough on the ground to protect
grain to any extent; neither does it
take the place of rain sufficiently to
diminish the leaching of the soil in an
appreciative degree.?W. L. J. in the
Lynching at Toccoa. Georgia.
Toccoa, Gu., December 21.?The reported
burning of Frank Sanders, the murderer
of live members of the Swilling family,
proved to be incorrect as be was
returned to jail. Yesterday, however, a
party of 12-1 men surrounded the jail at an
early hour, battered down the door and
took Sanders to a convenient tree, where
they swung him up. It has developed that
liachel Baty, who lived in the neighbor
noon, was an accuuipiicu iu uic uuug, .wu
that it was the design of herself ami Sanders
to get married with lhe money thus
trained. The woman !::is been put in jail
and there are f'rars of another lynching.
J'XtMiUESSrt?.- THE SOUTH.
Judge William D. Kelly's Kosy Picture of
the Strides Made in Kecent Years.
i The Washington correspondent of the
New York World writes (December 9) as
follows: Judge W. D. Kelly, of Pennsylvania,
who has been on a six weeks tour
through the South, retained to-day. His
trip was for the purpose of making a personal
inspecti'?a of the progress in that
section. His time was chiefly spent in
Tcnne&ee and Alabama. In* reply to a
World eorresr>ondent he said the sifjns
of progress there are indeed marvelous. ]
"I made my first journey through the I
South in 1SS7 and went again in 1875, "j
visiting the same places I just come
from, and no one could have convinced
I me that the people of that section had
made such strides as they have. I could
scarcely convince myself that the places
I visited were the same that I saw on my
former journeys. They are enjoying
down there not only progress but prosperity
greater than is enjoyed in the
(North, and it is all owing to a change of
sentiment on the question of labor. The
old planters are beginning to recognize
not only the dignity but the value of
"Is there moral and social progress as
"Yes; the progress in that direction is
equally marked. The people are living
in a better class of houses and beginning
to show taste in art adornments, and are
introducing the comforts of life that
were unknown to the middle and lower
classes a few years ago. The residences
of the people are more neatly kept, the
exteriors are painted in taste, and the interiors
of those I entered were comfortably
furnished, with signs of refinement.
The educational privileges of the colored
people are now better than those the
whites enjoyed when I last visited the
South, and those of the whites are greatly
improved. The class distinctions
1 * 1 jl - -P J.I i
wiiicii were me curse ox mat sccwuu
exist no longer, or only to a limited extent;
and the social position of a citizen
is no longer reckoned by what his father
was, but by his own conduct and ability.
It is no longer degrading to work, but
the producers are more respected than
"The towns I visited," continued the
Judge, "are under prohibitory enactments,
and the moral condition of the
of the people is much improved thereby.
The money that was formerly wasted in
drink is now employed to promote the
welfare of those who earn it, and the re
suit is greater comforts, batter Healtn ana
an increased power of production. The
negroes are industrious and thrifty as a
class, 'and the man who earns a dollar in a
mine or a manufactory has a purchasing
power in_tho.se little towns e^ual to five
times that of the planter who is dependent" ~
upon the yield and the prices of cotton.
The rate of wages paid workingmen is
about that paid in Pennsylvania for the
same class of laborers ana the same kind
of employment, and the negroes are
proving themselves admirably adapted to
"They love the heat of the mills and
sing at "their work. They save their
... 3 xt ?:?^
wages or spenu uieui wjaeiy, iiiru i?
tlieir employers are beginning to see
that the prosperity of the country depends
upon the colored people as laborers
they are no longer treated like
beasts. I went into their houses and
schools, sometimes by invitation and
sometimes incognito. I told them simply
that I was a Northern man and was
interested in seeing how they were getting
on, and I cannot express with great
emphasis the impression made upon my
mind by what I saw and the value of information
"The people of the South are making ;
more money than we. They can produce
rough iron more cheaply, because i
the materials are hi such close juxtaposition.
I stood on coal beds which had
iron mines on each side of them, not
more than two miles away, and lime
stone iying.between. In Pennsylvania
I can assert on good authority that it
costs seven dollars to get the materials
together before the manufacture of the
iron commences. In the South, or in
f.lmsft narts of it 1 visited, it does not
cost more than two dollars. Then, again,
land is so much cheaper.
"In Pennsylvania land costs from one
hundred to seven hundred dollars an
acre, "while in the South land can be
purchased for one dollar or one dollar
and a quarter that is equally as good for
Where does the capital come from?"
"Most of it originally came from the
North, but now local capital is becoming
interested and the profits of the business
are immediately reinvested."
"Will the South compete "with the
Northern States in the manufacture of
"Yes, and outrun us. They are not
making anything but low grade iron
now, but sell all they can make at the
same price we get for a similar quality.
They do not make enough to supply the
demand, so that there is no bidding
against us, but the time will come when
e. ? j;? -? ? _;n
JLUrCLUUeS JLUr CUtXtp piuuuutxvii. ?ia-L w
felt by the producers of my own and
other Northern States."
A S?ai!or Shoots His Two Daughter*.
Ekie, Pa., December IS.?Christian F.
Schau, a sailor, shot his daughters, Minnie
and Annie, this afternoon, killing the
former outright, fatally wounded the latter,
and in attempting to escape shot at police
man Higgins, who finally clubbed Schau
senseless and effected his arrest. While
the family were seated at dinner, Schau
arose, locked the door, drew two revolvers
and nssatmea nis wne. ms aau^aiers
seized his arms it; lie was about to blow
their mother's brains out. The mother
tore herself from his grasp oil her throat,
which was terribly lacerated, opened the
door and ran screaming from the room,
followed by several shots from her husband's
revolver. Failing to bring down
his wife, Schau turned on his daughters
and shot both. Schau was making for the
outskirts of the city when officer iliggins
overtook him. Schau defied the officer
inrl (im! nt Mm but wfthonl effprt. ITh
t!?en turned the pistol to his own head and
snapped it ineffectively. The officers laid
him senseless. While on the way to the
jail a crowd of indignant citizens" made a
rush for Schau with cries of "Hang him!
Shoot Lis brains out," etc. Other officers
came to the rescue and drove the crowd
back, and the prisoner was safeiy landed
in jail. Schau was very cool and showed
no penitence. Later in the day he was
prevented from suiciding in the cell by the
timely arrival of an officer, lie afterward
1 h*a1?a /?Atrn KittArltr
U1VBA* UVTIU wU-lU VliVVi VitcVAiJ,
I>* A PRIMITIVE CABIN.
Wliat Constitutes a Wedding in the Mountains
of West Virginia.
(From the WinSeld, W. Va. Letter)
After a silence of a few minutes, in
which the old fellow had stared at me to
his content and sized-me up from head
to foot, he suddenly bursfced out:
"Stranger, is you married?" Being anlric
I3WCICU JLU uug mn AWMJ HUM
capacious mouth broadened into a grin
and said: "Wall, while you is out in
this country you oughter hunt up a gal
and git married," and then turning to a
great buxom lass who would tip the
s-'-aies at 175 and 16 years old (his hired
V-d) he continued: "Now, that is Arn.
She wants to get married the wuss kind,
and if y'all can make it up, I guess I can
scrape round and git some flour, kill a
chicken, churn and give you a weddin,"
and your correspondent thought that if
he was looking for physical strength and
development, he couldn't do better.
When bed time came I was advised to
"shell off," which, to my surprise, I
had to do before the family, consisting
of the old man and wife, ten children (a
small crop for this part of the country,)
and the fair Ann; so, with my face a
lovely crimson, I shelled oft Pretty
soon all the family followed my example.
From the log rafters of the oneroom
house, in which the family ate,
slept, cooked and did everything else,
UUC1C JJLLUi^ JLGOLV/VjULO Vi VU19U
pumpkins, apples, dried and strung, the
clothes of the whole family, pieces of
pork, and endless other things for comfort
and -winter consumption.
On the table, three times a day, we
got invariably fried pork, sweet potatoes,
coffee (minus sugar) and forever and
eternally "Johnny constant" or corn
bread, and, I may add, buttermilkHouse
after house we stopped at, and it
was always the same?nothing of the
comforts of life.
These are fine counties for coal and
timber. Thousands of large logs are
hauled to the banks of Coal river ready
for a rise, and a boom is being built to
Ciii/Cii uuc iuya.
Human Beings Living on Oats and Sleeping
on Straw, a
(From the New York Exch&ge.)
It happened that not long ago my /
business led me through the classic precincts
of Mulberry- street, one of the
slums of that peculiar civilization which
is summed up in every great city. Years
o rrr\ T TrrViO"n TVmTT Pflflf/M*
first spread his wings as a popular
warbler, he used to preface some of his
ditties by the remark that he had only
been induced to sing them at the urgent
request of some of the first families of
While picking my way through the
groups of ragged, motiveless, poverty
besotted creatures, who . for want of a
better name, are still called human beings,
my attention was arrested by a
large sign ahead on which was written,
"Hay, Straw and Oats." This otherwise
not unusual sign seemed strange on this
street, where there appeared no detached
carts, or any indications' that there were
stalls m the neighborhood The tact is
that in this vicinity civilization is at so
low an ebb that any place where a beast
of burden will he down is already
monopolized by men, women and children,
who axe more profitable lodgers.
Horses find quarters in more advanced
localities, where human beings do not
covet the places reserved for them.
In the front, of this store were a number
of bales of clean straw, of a kind
most usually used for bedding horses,
and within its walls were numerous bar3
1 Ttr xi. i_*
reis ana DOi.es. iuj utLttuuiuii was s>uou
attracted by a vyTetched man coming out
of tlie door with a bundle of straw under
his arm, who was followed by another
with a dirty bag in his hand, apparently
filled with corn or grain. Pretty .soon
a man who appeared to be a helper in ? ?
the store came to the door, and I made _v~bold
to ask him, as politely as I could,
what these people did with the bundles
of straw and the bags of grain.
"What do you suppose?" was the bluff
reply. ?*Yer a little fresh, boss."
I assured the man that as a stranger in
New York, I had only asked out of
curiosity, and hoped he would excuse
me. I soon gained his confidence, and
went away with some points on bitter
day civilization of a very suggestive
character to student of "ethical culture."
This clerk of the grain store informed
me that cellars and basements constituted
the lodging places of a considerable
portion of the inhabitants of Mulberry
street. The enterprising landlord
provides a stove in middle of the floor,
upon which is a kettle of water. On the
sides of the den bunks are built up to
the ceiling. The lodger provides his
own bedding, which consists of an armful
of straw, purchased at the feed store
for five cents, and which may do servicefor
an indefinite time. Witn the lodg
ingis included tiie iatcnen privileges.
These consist of the use of the hot water,
which is supplied by a faucet in the kettle,
and the right to warm or cook whatever
fodder the lodger may chance to
have on top of the stove. The fodder is
usually oatmeal or cornmeal, -which he
has purchased at the feed store, added
to such swill as he may beg or steal
through the day. The bill for lodging
and culinary privileges is something like
twenty-five cents a week, and when it is
considered that twenty or thirty, often
of both sexes, are packed into these
holes, the business of the hotel keeper
becomes a quite lucrative one.
And yet this great New York abounds
in schools and churches, charitable institutions
and art galleries galore!
The Torch in Arkansas.
St. Louis, December 21.?A special
from Little Rock, Arkansas, says: "News
lia-5 been received from Vituni, an inland
town of Faulkner county, in this State, to
the effect that about 3 o'clock on Sunday
morning every business house in the town
was simultaneously set on fire and burned
to the ground, including the barns, cribs
and outhouses of Messrs. George and
Thomas Harris, residing about half a mile
from Vituni. Nothing at all was saved,
and the Harris Bros, lost great quantities
of com. fodder, cotton seed. hav. &c.. thev
being considered the wealthiest fanners in
che county. Total loss about $150,000. No
one lias yet teen arrested, but suspicion
points to one or two bad characters.
A point any woman can appreciate Point
lace. > - ^
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