Newspaper Page Text
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j vou XLy ~~ WINNSBORO, S. C , WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 21, 1888. NO. 17.
|| HOW THE DEVIL TRAVELS.
| BEV. T. DEWIT TALMAGE'S SUNDAY
L MOKXTXG DISCOCKSE.
R His Satanic Majesty Marches to His Vic
tims' Souls Through Avarice, Thflt,
Bp- Forgery, Jealousy, Murder, Arson, Adultery
and Every Other Crime.
^ At the Tabernacle on Sunday morning
the Kev. T. DeWitt Taimage, D.
D. took for the subject of his sermon:
"Satan on his Travels." His test was,
Job i., 7: "And the Lard said unto
Satan: Wence comest thou? Then Satan
I answered the Lord and said: From going
to and fro in the earth, and from walking
up and down in it."
"In my test," said Dr. Taimage, "we
haw, Satan on his travels, and I am
t going to tell you some of the routes he
is apt to take. Oil his way down from
the palace where he reported himself in
answer to the question: 'Whence comest
thou?' the first range of mischief he may
be expected to take is the air. It was
not a witticism or a slip of the pen when
Paul in his letter to the Ephesians called
Satan the 'i'rince of the Power of the
Air.' I think that it means that Satan
works through conditions of the atmosphere.
The west wind is full of angels,
i the east wind is full of devils. Satan
spreads abroad his black wings and hurf
ricanes andjeuroclydons and Carribean
whirlwinds and equinoctials are hatched
out. He takes the miasmas that float up
from swamps and hatches them into tj,
phoid fevers. He takts the cold blasts
Land hatches them into pneumonia and
rheumatisms and consumptions.
"Not only has he power in the upper
highest clouds float, but
power over the lower air which we
wokiio at as we breathe nineteen
times a mute and take in 350 cabic
feet of air a every twenty-four hours,
and much ? thif air affects the arterial
circulation/ou see what opportunities
the Prince-" the Air has of contaminating
and (foiling and demoralizing a
^ man. Thagh atmospheric influence
he clouds/* disposition and rasps the
nerves ac'covers the best of people
with reli)us despondency, as in the
Hiward Payson and William
H m that beloved apostle of
B BfeJames W. Alexander. His
is to have the air of
I feted, and inthat way dulls
1 and stupifies the people,
that the atmosphere of not
Be out of a hu ndred churches
athe, and whole coogregaRh
after Sabbath, are as
Yes, he is worthy of the
Pgave him?'Prince of the
I route he is apt to take is
Saestic life. There is no
Jt for him than conjugal
H>) says to the husband:
L wife you have compared
b once was. Don't you see
n: has gone out of her cheek,
e several wrinkles about her
a sprinkling of frost on her
ides that, you have advanced
jk^^tilffsiie iSTstood still
Bbw hard it is that you
BR to such dullness ?>nd
Hen he turus and says to
Knan neglects you; you
Be jealous. He likes his
IBLuu and anything and
Hp than you. Why not
Marriage is only a civil
B?> and not a divine alliBhave
that ring. It means
Bou might as -well give it
Bring is handed over to
Bosses it into the yawning
B^honsands ot marriage reBed
almost to the breaking,
Hind to all men and women
Bess in the present marriage
Bhey resume the old time
njpd take as much pains to
Belves agreeable as they did
Bor twenty years ago, before
Bg march announced to the
Bl fluttering crowd that the
Broom were coming. AccordBiatistics
of Professor Dikes,
Bar in moral New Hampshire
BSe 241 divorces; in tempeiate
BS divorces; in good old Massa-*
K 600 divorces, and in New EngF'steady
habits,' 2,113. In one
fof Illinois 830 divorce suits were
in one year, and in many places
* > . n t
HB|BBjUU|kis as II new arrangement nau ueen
fi?of the commandments, and instead
hr there were only nine, the seventh
H Hnandment having been left out.
Hen yon 6ee how many husbands and
pes are parted by law, and know of so
8j Kny who would like to dissolve conjuHal
partnership, do you not come to the
onclusion that Satan is engaged in
Wf "Another route that Satan is apt to
H^'cake ic Lit, active travels is the 1'actorieB
5 W ant^ other establishments where capital
V sits in the office or counting room and a
tm good many hands of laborers are bus?
Hy among wheels and spindles and fabrics.
Wr On this visit he will first step into the
manufacturer's office and finding the
p owner and proprietor of the great establishment
all alone with his correspondence
and his account books, says to him:
KBT?~*5?u are not making as mnch money
as you onght. You furnish all the brains.
"Were u not for your enterprise this caff
tablishment would not be in existence.
These men and women in your employ
are very common mold. Their appetite
is coarser and they do not need the luxBt
uries you require. Their comfort and
happiness are of very little importance.
Put them down on the very verge of
starvation and take all the profits into
your own possession, and 11 tney ao noc
like it tell them to go where they can do
"Having done his work in the counting-room,
Satan steps right out among
the. workmen. He says: 'You work too
IgSfi^SMSgxhonrs and you do your work better
H ^fj?? k? be done. You are
M HLttvin^PS&Jtafi!. bond-holder, anyhow.
H BESa-jias no right to have any more than
B W?* ^"^y sS&nld he ride and you
H Kw&lk? Why should he have tenderloin
H flfrfeakand you salt pork? Captial u the
jflBacmy of labor. ?et labor be the sworn
H Roe 01 capital Why don't you strike |
Hgd bring birr to terms? Wait until he
?f*8 ?large order to fill by contract, and
he cannot help himself. Go all j
together, without a moment's warning,
and tell him you are going to stop. 1 f
'irt --winore rosocrtr-es tbau yon know oi
Persists in going on and cettin*
now men, give them a volley of briokBbats
or put a little dynamite in his oflice j
OSS ^low him and his factory all up with
rtttio wuw ci.piOU.OH.' . ,
"Look out there oil the night sky J
Great fire somewhere. "What is it? The
night is cold and Satan has made a big
bonfire of that factory to warm himseix
by. The capitalist has lost heavily and
Hie "workmen and their families are
without bread and clothing. 'Whence
fcomest thou, Satan?' 'From going to and
fro among employers and employees, and
walking up and down among them. Ha!
hal I was the only one that made anything
out ol that strike. "What a splen
did fire and lots of smoke! Ha! ha! I like
"Another route Satan is apt to take in
Ms active travels is through the mercantile
establishments. He steps in and
says to the clerks: 'How much salary do
you get? Is that ail? Why, you can't
live on that! You have a right to enough
for a livelihood. A few quarters out of
the money drawer will never be missed,
or here and there is a remnant of goods
you could take home without beiDg
found out. Or you could change those
account books a little, and you could
make that fignr-" eight a naught and
that figure five a three, and if you do
not feel exactly right about doing that
you can some day pay it back, which
you can do perfectly easy. Don't feel
Jike running the risk? Well, then, you
can't go to the theatre, and you can't
go on that round with the boys, and you
will have to wear that plain coat, whereas
13 i ?* I
you coma, nave yutut uvcitvjm jiu..i.iuou,
and take board at a tip-top place, and
walk amid plosli and tapestries positively
Oriental. While you are making np
your mind I will just go through the
different parts of this great commercial
establishment and try every one, from
the wealthy firm down to the errand
"The result of that Satantic visit is
that one of the partners has drawn so
much out of the concern that the whole
business is crippled, and a bright and
promising boy is sens home to his
mother in disgrace and a young man is
in jail for embezzlement. Three lives
ruined and three eternities. Whence
comesfc thou, Satan? Satan would rather
have one young man than twenty old
ones, if he won the septuagenarians
and the octogenarians he coaki do but |
little harm with them. But he says:
Give me a young man, especially if he
be bright and generous and social.' He
sees that the young men have for good
or bad been the mightiest in this world.
Hernando Cortes conquered Mexico at
32. Gustavus Adolphns became immortal
in history so early that he died at
38. Kaphael, the most famous of painters,
died! at 37. William Pitt was Prime
Minister of England at 24. Jesus Christ
completed his earthly life at 33. Five
years in a young man's life are of more
ru^nray -f/vr rrnnr) or <vuil than t.hfl last,
fifteen of an old man's life. So Satan is
especially greedy for young men, and
in going to and fro in the earth ha has
especial temptation for them.
"Another route that Satan on his
active travels is apt to take is for the
dispoiling of the people's souls. It does
rot pay him merely to destroy the bodies
of men and women. Those bodies
would soon be gone anyhow; but great
treasures arc involved in this Satanic excursion.
On this route he meets a man
who is aroused by something he has
seen in the Bible, and Satan says: 4Now
I can settle all that. The Bible is an
imposition. It has been deluding f.ne
world for centuries. Do not let it delude
you. It has no more authority
than the Koran of the Mohammedan or
the Shasfcei1 of the Hindoo, ortheZenuaVesta
of the Persian 1' He meets another
man who is hastening toward the kingdom
of God and sas: 'Why all this precipitation?
Religion is right, but any
-time within the next ten years will be
sooh enough for you. A man with a
sfconfc chest like touts and such muscular
development, need not be bothering
himself about the next world.' But
Satan says nothing to him about the fact
that the professor who gave his whole
life to the study of health and could lift
m&re pounds than any American, died
at about 40, and that another learned
man who proved conclusively that if we
observed all the laws of health we need
never die, jexpired beforG he got his book
on that subject published.
"Satan meets another man who has
gone through a long course of profligacy
and is beginning to pray God for forgiveness,
and Satan says to the man:
'You are too late; the Lord will not help
such a wretch as yon, you might as well
brav * up and light your own way
through.' And so with a spite and an
acuteness and a velocity that have been
gaining for 6,000 years, he ranges up
and down baling, disappointing, d<sfeating4
afflicting, destroying the.human
race. He has instigated every war. He
has rejoiced in every pestilence. He
hafe started every groan. He has pressed
out every sigh. He bas bulled every
ship wreck. Lararettoes, insane asylum*,
commercial panics, plagues, destroying
angels, continental earthquakes, and
world wide disasters are to him a
perfect glee. Can you look upon
the Communism and the Mormonism,
and the Mohammedanism, and
the wide sweep of drunkenness and
fraud and libertinism, the Franco-German
War and Crimean War, the North
and South United States War, and rivers
of blood flowing across continents of
misery into oceans of wretchedness,without
realizing the power of the evil one,
who reported to the Lord Almighty,
and when asked: Whence comest thon?
answered: 'From going to and fro in
the earth and from going up and down
* Ji. 5
"Remember, it is do sin at all to be
tempted. The best and the mightiest
ha j be tempted. Milton describes a
toad qaat at the ear of Eve. The sin is
in surrendering-. Do not feel so secure
in yourself as to think you cannot be
overthrown. How do you account for
the fact that thero are so many old men
in Sing Sing "and Auburn and the other
penitentiaries serving out their protracted
sentences for frauds committed
in midlife or advanced age?, although
their early life had been good, and
nothing had been suspected of them
until at 50 or GO years of age the whole
land was struck dumb at their forgery
or embezzlement. The clock in the
steeple of old Trinity Church striking
the hours did not remind the recreant
j Wall-streeter of the passage of time that
I would soon bring exposure to and doom.
xne explanation is mat itiepniatopiieies,
Apollyon, Satan got in his work at that
time. The man was not naturally bad.
He was as good as any of you are, but
Satan, with whole battalions of infernals,
swooped upon him unawares. Look
oul for the wiles of the devil, not only
those of you who are young, but the
middle-aged and the old. Outside of
God yon sre not safe a moment. But
yield not to disheartenment. If we put
our trust in God our best u'ays are yet
to come? days of victory, days of song,
days of Heaven, and the best days of
the cause of righteousness in all the
earth are yet to come. As the ten
thousand men of Zencphon's army when
bev (r'tm-'3 to the top o: Slouiit Thcchrs
? . .!
1 -i i IS'VkV lilt? M'UtlJ-iS v?n >v Uivii iiivj >*civ
lo saii to their homes, the soldiers with
clapping hands and waving banners all
together shouted: 'The sea, the sea!' So
we to-day in oar march toward our
heavenly home como up to the top of
the mountain of holy anticipation and
look off upon oceans of light, and cc.-ans
of joy; and, thrilled as we never bave
been thrilled before, we clap our hands
and wave our gospel ensigns, and cry
one to another, and shout up to the responding
and re echoing heavens: 'The
sea, the sea!'"
Line written on a buttonless shirt: "Insatiate
starcher, would not one suffice!"
THE FARMERS* ASSOCIATION.
Annual Meeting in Columbia?The President's
Address- The Legislature Requested
to Accept the Clemson Bequest-- Other
(Columbia Record, Nov. 15.)
The Farmers' Association of South Caro
linn met in Agricultural Uall last night,
President D. K I\ orris ia the chair. He
addressed the Association, setting forth the
present aims and objects of the organization,
more especially with reference to the
Ciemson bequest. On this subject Mr.
2\ orris said:
"The munificent bequest of Mr. Clemson
has eliminated the plea of poverty from
the list of objections to the establishment
rtF .,n ?orric-!iimr!il ffl]Tlie flllld aC
cruiog to the Slate upon its acceptance of
that bequest was, in the opinion of gentlemen
learned in the law, available for the
erection of the necessary buildings.
"The property is magnificent, and the
funds given by Congress for the advancement
or agriculture in this State should be
given to its support and diverted from the
maintenance of a system at once unpopular
and unprofitable. More than this, the
Stute should coyer every doliar bequeathed
by Mr. Ciemson for the education of the
sons of its sturdy yeomen. It has been
said that the State should not accept the
bequest because it could not control the
management of the college "when erected.
"The fallacy of this statement was obvious.
Mr. Ciemsou's executor was instructed
to deed the propeily to the State,
not to tne seven tiustees. Should the
State accept the bequest in the time specified
it will pass into the ownership and absolute
contiol of the State; his seven trus
tees, like the six chosen by the Legislature,
will be in the hands of tne State, and cun
do nothing without the consent of the
' Whether the Clemson bequest is accepted
or not, you should stand by your
demand for a separate college, and the
funds, not being spent, should be husbanded
and allowed to accumulate until such
time as the courts will pass upon this bequest
or the Legislature litis acceded to the
ciemands of the people for an agricultural
college. Until we have this college for the
education of the masses, and until a more
economical administration sof State affairs
is entered on, the Farmers' Association of
South Carolina cannot, will not, must not
The next business in order was the election
of officers. After several withdrawals,
Capt. G. W. Shell, of Laurens, was unanimously
elected president. Capt. Shell had
himself declined to run against Col. Donaldson,
of Greenville, who in turn would
not oppose Captain Shell.
The followiDg-named gentlemen were
elected vice presidents: M. L. Donaldson,
of Greenville; G. Leaphart, of Lexington, 1
and J. iS". King, of Abbeville.
A number of resolutions were offered
and referred to the committee on resolu- 1
tions, who reported favorably upon the following,
which were adopted.
By J. C. Sttibbling, of Oconee:
Whereas the Hon. Thomas G. Clemson,
rliii hv his last, will and testament
(locate to the State of South Carolina a
large property for tlie purpose of establish- ,
iug an agricultural college at Fort Hill in
said Stale; and whereas we, the farmers of
South Carolina, feel the need of agricultural
education and very much desire the
said college to be established; be it, there1'oie,
Kesolved, That the Legisluture be urgently
requested to pass a joiut resolution i
at its?ensuing session to the effect that the 1
State will acctpt the Clemsou bequest i
whenever the will shall have been established.
A resolution was adopted commending
certain newspapers [uames not given] that ;
had worked in the interest of the agricul- j
tural movement to the members of me organization
for their preference and support.
Mr. 15. O. Duncau offered a resolution
that this Convention suggest to ihe next 1
Legislature tLie names ot nve gentlemen to
till the vacancies about to occur ou the
Board ot Agriculture, which was adopted
and a committee appointed, who presented
the following names: For the First Circuit,
W. T. C. Bates, of Orangeburg;
Third Circuit, J. E. Tiruiall.of Clarendon;
Fifth Circuit, iJ. it Tillman, of Edgefield;
Seventh Circuit, J. A. Siigh, of Newberry;
State at large, D. Iv. Norris. of Anderson.
The following resolutions by Mr. Norris
were unfavorably reported by the commit
tee, but adopted by the Convention:
"Th;d the President of this Convention
do appoint two of its members, who shall
forthwitti visit the Agricultural College of
Mississippi, located at Clarksville in that
State, and investigate thoroughly aud impartially
the workings of said institution.
"That for the information of the people
of this State said committee shall make,
through a leading paper iu each of the
cities of Charleston, Columbia and Greenville,
a report upon the success or failure
of said institution, according to the conclusions
they shall have reached from observation.
"That the two members at large of the
State Board of Agriculture are hereby in
vited to j-'ia with the two members of this :
Convention in making the investigation, ;
and report as herein provided for." J
The Ciiuir appointed as such committee *
D. K. Norris, of Anderson, and J. E. Tindal,
of Clarendon. t
A resolution by Mr. B. Odell Duncan, <
demanding the acceptance of the Clemson ;
bequest by the Legislature and diverting (
the land scrip fund and exjKjrimcatal sta- (
tion fund from the State University, was i
reported unfavorably and the report was ,
Dr. J. 0. Byrd, of Darlington, offered a <
resolution calling a Constitutional Convention.
It was unfavorably reported and
finally laid on the table.
A resolution urging and requesting tbe (
Legislature to so legislate as to secure a re- <
duction of expenses in the State govern- ]
ment was reported unfavorably and the f
committee's report was sustained by the (
At 12 4o A. M. tbe Convention ad c
> 5-- -1
journeu .vine uie, unci mg c-^ecutivti
committee as follows:
Abbeville, G. N. Nicholls; Anderson, D.
K Norris; Aikeu, J. E. Ilawlinson; Chester,
J. II. Hardin; Clarendon, J. E. Tindan;
Darlington, J. O. Byrd; Edcefield,
B. K. Tiilsnau; Fairfield, T. P. Mitchell;
Kershaw, W. K. Thompson; Greenville,
W. B. Buist; Lexington, J. M. Crine;
Laurens, J. M. Hudgens; Pickens. W. T.
Field; Newberry, Thompson Connor;
Spartanburg, Moses Wood; Sumter, H. R.
Thomas; Oconee, R. W. Shelor; Berkeley,
J. B. Morrison; Marion, E. T. Stackhouse;
Union, J. W. Gregory.
riASOb AM) OltfcrAA'8.
One thousand Pianos and Organs to
close out by October 1. All Organs and
Pianos sold at cash, price, payable
November 1?no interest?delivered to
vonr nearest depot. Fifteen days trial.
Organs from $24 up; Pianos from S150 .
np. Ail instruments warranted. Bend
k-r circulars. Bay now and have the
u.e of the instrument. Remember we <
pay freight both ways if the instrument
don't suit. Prices guaranteed less than
N. W. TRUMP,
* Columbia, S. C.
If Great Britiau and Russia ever get
fighting, it will be another contest betwetn
bull aud bear.
The world is round. This is probably
the reason so many people fail to get
square witli it.
Hatters report the sale of silk hats far in
| excess of that of last season. More young
1 men are wearing silk hats than ever before.
THE LAST REMNANT.
F5rt?>(*n Full Grown Dinon and Seven
Calve* Corralled by Texas Cowboys.
C. J. Jones, of Garden City, Kan., better
known throughout the southwest as
"Buffalo" Jones, who started with a
party of seven last April to capture alive
llie only remaining herd of buffalo on the
plains of Texas, has succeasfullv accomplished
his purpose, and the shaggy haired
captives are now made acquainted with
civilization and the comforts of a well
kept ranch a few miles from Garden
City. In starting out to capture the animals
Mr. Jones calculated that he would
lind about one hundred animals roaming
over the plains between tne norm ana
south forks of the Canadian river, but he
found upon arrival there that the number
had been greatly overestimated. There
were hardly two score all told, and these
so scattered that it was with the greatest
difficulty that he and his party of experienced
hunters corralled and saved
from destruction the small herd.
The story of the hunt and the manner
of capturing them has been told from
time to time by dispatches brought by
the carrier pigeons sent with the party.
A total of fifteen old buffaloes and seven
calves were secured and have been carefully
watched by Lee Howard and others
of the party, while awaiting the arrival
of the tame herd owned by Mr. Jone3,
which was used as the guide for the wild
animals in the trip north. Mr. Jones
shipped from his ranch thirty-two domesticated
buffaloes and upon arriving
at the spot where the wild ones were
corralled the latter were turned loose
among the tame ones. They speedily
fraternized, and after a few days the
journey to Garden City was begun. The
combined herd were driven by cowboys
and dogs, as the common Texas steer is,
and the whole lot safely ranched on Mr.
This ranch is on one of the finest grazing
sections in southwest Kansas, covering
1,500 acres, well wooded and
watered, with abundant ranges on every
side. The 200 head of cattle and sixtyone
buffaloes on this ranch in winter and
summer roam over the surrounding
plains. This is where Mr. Jones and his
colleagues, for he will organize a stock
company for the breeding of his buffalrcattle,
intend to go into an enterpris.
that eventually will revolutionize th.
breeding of range cattle. The domestic
cow crosses with the buffalo bull admirably
and the product is a large, hardy
and superb meat giving animal, requiring
comparatively little care, living'
almost entirely on the range, and
strong enough in the cliaracteristics
of the wild animal to withstand
the storms of winter. The domestic
cattle, when a blizzard comes, turn
their backs to it and soon become exhausted.
The buffalo cross breeds face
the storm and come out of it as well as
ever. They need less attention, grow
fat and thrive on the ranges that the domestic
cattle desert, and altogether present
a field of enterprise that offers large
profit. The meat is firm and juicy, and
the average weight of the dressed carcass
is over 1,200 pounds. The price in any
market is double that of the best ordinary
beef. The hide of the cross breed is also
a val uable article. It is a thick, siuooth
skin, with the soft hair of the buffalo
covering it evenly, and can be readily
sold for $50 each.
Mr. Jones discovered near "Winnipeg a
similar ranch, owned by S. L. Bedson,
warden of the penitentiary, but it is not
being run on so large a scale. This ranch
is situated about sixty miles southeast
from Winnipeg, and on a recent visit
Mr. Jones found that the greatest success
was being had by Mr. Bedson in
sross breeding. He has no hesitation in
pronouncing the half and three-quarter
breed cattle the best in the world for
range purposes. On the Bedson ranch
the buffalo cross cattle live entirely on
the prairie grasses, summer and winter,
pawing up the roots in winter and needing
no care. Mr. Bedson is not making
tnuoh effort as yet to market his stock,
lml is getting only eighteen cents a
pound for such as he kills for market,
Imt the hides bring him $30 each for
robes. He has only twenty-five head
if the half breeds, but will have many
more next year. Mr. Jones offered hi3
rival in t!he business no less than $500
ipiece for the twenty-five head, $12,500
n all, but the offer was refused with a
augh. Evidently Mr. Bedson knows he
las a good thing. He even refused to
put a price on tbern.
On the (Jarden City ranch there will
-\e\ Ana s\F CXn 11 /\rx*att
;o\v6, a sturdy breed, which, with the
juffalo cross, produce the new cattle, and
.he day is not far distant when the epicures
in all American citi^ will be able
;o indulge in the luxury of a table meat
;liat combines the nutritive qualities of a
juicy buffalo steak with the firmness and
tenderness of the best stall fed ox.
While in the north, Mr. Jones heard
,hat a few miles out of Emerson, Manitoba,
there were some moose deer and he
it once made arrangements to try, and
capture a young one to add to his stock
)f wild animals, and in his endeavor he
;vas entirely successful, bringing back
pvith him a male moose calf about six
s-eeks old, which he will place oil the
harden City ranch.?Chicago Times.
Smith to Contest.
S. E. Smith, the colored candidate for
Congress who opposed Mr. Tillman in the
second District, will contest his seat in the
fiftieth Congress. Smith's main grounds
or contest will be based on the operations
>f our registration laws, which he claims
ire operated in such a manner as to practically
disfranchise the great majority of nerro
voters. Many turned out, be says, who
lad no registration certificates, and for the
;ame reason others stayed at home having
xien told that it was no use to go to the
villa, Smith also claims that man? of his
cotes were thrown out by the managers
menus'; deposited in the wrong box. He
said the Democratic constable, who was alowed
to be inside with the managers,
svould instrut Democratic voters who could
lot read, so that they always got their balots
in the right box.
We asked Smith was not his main reliance
of contest|on the fact that he the ught
he colored voters were in a majority in
his district, and that fact alone should en,itle
him to his seat?
He said that had some weight, but he
objected to confining his constituency to
,he colored, claiming that the Republicans
peere in a majority, and that if they all
;ould have voted he would have had a majority.?Aiken
Kumortt of a Terrible Railroad Accident.
Gkeenville. Nov. 12.?The North
Carolina. Air Line train, due here at 1.51
P. M. did not arrive on time, and the depot
officials have been notified that the
train has been abandoned on accouut of a
wreck between Toccoa and Tugaloo River
trestle. Particulars of the accident are
unauthenticated here, but it is learned reliably
that the train was thrown from the
1 ? ?.J on/^
irac& auu nuciwaiua m*, uuu
burned up. Horrible possibilities are suggested.
but reports are conflicting as to
whether there was any loss of life or not.
The Mother's Friend, used a few weeks
before confinement, lessens the pain and
makes labor quick and comparatively
easy. Sold by all druggists.
TO EUROPE IN A BALLOON.
PROF. KING WILL TRY THE VOYAGE
IF FUNDS ARE RAISED.
He Believes It Pognible, and Explains His
Theory?How He Will Overcome the Dangers
Attending the Experiment.
(Philadelphia 1 inn s. Ncv. 14.)
Prof. Samuel A. King, the well-known
aeidnat, has expressed his willingness to
attempt a voyage across the ocean in a balloon.
provided the necessary funds are
raided. Prof. King has nude 294 succefsful
voyages since 18;">1 and feels confident
that he can cross to Europe. In speaking
of ihe project, Prof. King said yesterday:
"My prime reason fur wishing to attempt
this trip across the ocean is to demonstrate
the usefulness of the balloon. The balloon
has been misunderstood from the first.
Instead of being intended for serial navigation,
it is really an immense meteorological
instrument by which we shall be enabled
to lr-vo all ihat cau be learned of the atmostAore.
Besides that, it is probably the
one means of reaching the. inaccessible
p?trts of the earth at some future period
after the full development of its powers.
We have had any quantity of experience
in ballooning in a small way, and the main
thing which has kept it alive is the gratification
the public has experienced in witnessing
ascensions. View inn the mailer
from my standpoint, something more should
be done, something- more should be dene.
somethiug on a grander scale, nnd that
wmeu lies nearest wziuin reucii teems 10 ue
an occan voyage.
pkofessoh ring's theory.
"I think the voyage can be successfully
accomplished Professor Wise said that
he thought the trip could be made in three
or four days, and gave as his reason Ibe
theory th?t three miles above Hie water
there were two constant, rapid currents of
air, one going west and one going cast.
His plan w as to get in the east current and
then the only difficulty would be to keep
the balloon in ihe air a suflicieut length of
time, Now, there is nothing to support
this theory and I do not base my offer upon
it. The general direction of the wind on
the f ceun is east and I feel confident that
the lalloon would reach it final destination
when once started on its way ar:d for a
certainty it would not again come in view
of the American coast.
' This ocean voyage will require more
than ordinary skill and judgmeut and a
balloon of large proportions fitted up with
unusual appliances. It will have to be
capable of lloating in she air a number of
weeks. It will start upon an errand the
true nature of which we have previous
practical knowledge. We would probably
encounter storm the iliec: of which we can
only imagine. We would have constant
waste of water benc-aili us into which we
may be driven by unforeseen circumstan
ces. "We may be blowu north or south out
of our course and so l?e delayed in reaching
our destination. But not withstanding
ali this I think it can be saftly accomplish
ed, and that the accomplishment of this
feat will be fruitful o' discoveries of the
greatest value to scir.nce as related to meteorology.
THE SUM NEEDED.
"It lias been suggested that the North
Pole might be reached by balloon. This
may become eyident when once the ocean
is crossed, and may possibly follow, but
ur.-.i'?omething of this nature has happened
thei* is no hope of any sane person attempting
to find the North Pole by this
"From $13,000 to $14,000 will be necessary
to defrav the exoensea of an ocean
voyage. If it is asked what are we to learn
by the voyage it may be difficult to answer.
It will probably demonstrate the movement
of storms across llie ocean, the general
drift of the atmosphere, as well as a vast
amount of meteorolgical phenomena to be
gathered in no other way. The United
States Signal Service Bureau would take
great interest in such a voyage, and would
be represented by one or more observers.
The principal obstacle to be overcome in
startiug out on such a voyage is the great
expense which must necessarily be incurred
in procuring the most perfect outfl:
that prudence could suggest. But this
might be overcome when once the possibility
and benefit accruing is brought hefore
those possessing sufficient means to insure
success. An effort will be made to
raise funds necessary and if it is successful
preparations will be begun at once.
PROVIDING FOR EMERGENCIES.
"No balloon has hitherto been kept
afloat twenty-four consecutive .hours, except
Gilford's great captive balloon, which
was kept in the air while the Paris Expo
silion lasted. This was because the balloon
was not allowed to rise to a great altitude
but was kept up at one height all the time.
The great waste of gas in ordinary ballooninc/
it- rtonca^ Kir ATnonoiAn
Jxc ^aucgu i?jr iut u\|;ououui nuiV/U ivr
lows a rise to a great altitude, thus forcing
the gas out of the opeu neck. Now I propose
to adopt the system used by Gifford,
that of keeping at certain altitude. I will
fctay down in the lower atmosphere, about
two thousand feet high. This will be accomplished
by a drag rope or a similar contrivance,
and I propose to lose nothing by
"Another advantage we have in the
ocean balloon is that we can use heavy material
for the envelope, thus reducing the
loss by percolation to a minimum. In ordinary
ballooning it is considered preferable
to use lighter material and suffer the
loss by percolation. To make the voyage,
>1 balloon witn capacity or about oW.uuu
cubic feet wiil be necessary. It will be
filled with pure hydrogen gas, the lightest
"Under all circumstances wc would be
provided for emergencies. If we should
happen to be swamped we would have appliances
which would render us capable of
rising again. If we were compelled to
leave the balloon we would always have
something that would float, so that in case
failure did come it need not ntcessarily be
followed by loss of life."
Lost and Found.
On Saturday afternoon about 2 o'clock a
two year old child of Mr. J. 3L. Dickenson,
who lives near Buford's Bridge went out
to play. About a hfllf hour later it was
missed and the immediate vicinity of the
house was searched and the wells were
raked but without success. The neighborhood
was aroused and everybody joined in
: J rnu* vusit
a wiuci i. iiv Xiigut Uicn kju
and suspense and aniexty grew greater as
the unsuccessful hunt went on. Some
time after dark a horn was heard and soon
after a colored man rode up In hot haste,
bringing the little wanderer with him. His
wife had heard its cries iu their yard, a
mile from Mr. Dickenson's, went out and
brought it to the light and fire. It bud
strayed through dense woods and thick
briars all that distance, and was badly
scratched and torn by its travel. When
found it was quite numb with cold. Perhaps
some guardian angel led its steps to
the humble house where it found help,
and so saved its young life.?Barnwell
The world may be searched from pole
to pole and no remedy found equal to
B. B. B. (Botanic Blood Balm) for the
nnwA A ? rvAlf Atl T 4" 1 ? O mtVl Zl.'l T7
c-11 rc Ui uiuuu yviouu. o.i> ?o a xowtuj
founded on scientific medical knowledge,
and its reputation as a curative established
by such true and unsolicited
testimony as are found in our columns
from to time.
Custodier (to head waiter)?Here, sir,
this clumsy fellow has spilled over half of
my cup of tea down my back. Head waiter
(to clumsy waiter, sternly)?BriDg this
i gentleman a full cup of tea instantly.
OLD BILL H1NDSLEY.
A. Tennosseean Who Couldn't Tell the
Truth If He Wanted To.
A horseback traveler, in Tennessee,
approached an old fellow who sat on a
log, near Richland Station, and asked
him if he had lived long in that neighborhood.
The old fellow scratched his
grizzly beard, looked about him,
whistled softly and then said:
"I lived here when Andrew Jackson
msuifl his famnna StAta Rank snAArh.
standing right out there on that
"You don't say so!1'
"Yes, I do."
"What is your name?"
"Those who know me best and who
consequently respect me most, refer to
me as Hon. William' Hindsley, but
the more ignorant, and consequently
more familar, call me old Bill."
"Very productive land about'hera, I
suppose?" the stranger said.
"So do L"
"Good place for watermelons?"
"Tolerable. I raised a few last year
that were putty good size. I know a
passul of us took one, ripped it in two
with old Unclc Jim McLaughlin's crosscut
saw, hulled out the meat, and got
in the shell and paddled across the high
"You don't say so!"
"Yes, I do."
"Good place for corn?"
"Only tolerable. I raised some last
year, though, that was putty good ,
size. Passul of tis1 one day shelled
one of the ears, put the cob on Wat ,
Goosetree's wagon and hauled it to a ,
"What for?" ' i
?TY> havp it finwai? intn InmhAr.1'
4 'You don't?" .
'Yes, I do," Mr. Hindsley broke in.
"That's a pretty big stump out
there," said the stranger.
"Yes, pretty good size."
"Was the tree very tall?"
"About two hundred feet."
"Yes, I do."
"How long has it been cut down?'
"I cut it down last spiing was a year
"Thought you said that Andrew
Jackson stood on that stump."
"Oh, no; I said he leaned against the
"Yes, I remember now. Timber
grows very rapidly in this country,
"Yes, pretty peart I neglected chopping
down some black oak sprouts in
my field one day, and the next morning
we chopped down several of them and
eplit them into rails."
"Woll ?h*i>. is rpmn.rtfl.hlfi. "Nmr.
that great tree that was so tall, how
long was that growing?"
"Well, I tell you. It came up sum- '
mer before last and was grown by the
"I thought you said that Andrew '
Jackson leaned against that tree."
"Oh, no; I said ho used to own the 1
land where the tree grew."
The stranger rode away, and meet- j
ing a man shortly afterward, asked j
him if he knew Hon. William Hindsley.
"Yes, I know old BilL"
"Know him pretty well?"
"Yes, well enough to know that out
here at the station if a man repeats (
any thing that old Bill says, w'y, we J
fine him a bushel of meal."
"Srmnnsn tVift mrm rftfiisos '
to pay it?" *
"He can't help himself, for the mat- E
ter has been decided by the Supreme c
Couru A fellow named Ben Hardin (
contested the case, and it broke him 1
HOTELS IN JAVA. ?
On$ of Mrs. Forbes* Experiences In the I
/ Eastern Archipelago.
Hotels here are all similar in plan, r
a quadrangle. The front block is the
reception hall, fronted by a veranda.
The veranda is faced with marble,
? a a-4 n a. n
ana aispuseu 111 iu arc uumcruus suiudi ?
tables, chairs and lounges. Passing
from the veranda through the reception
hall you will find the dining room fi
extended back into the square. It is r
simply roofed, and flowers in pots and ?
pendant creepers fill the open sides. 1
The bedrooms open into the court-yard, ^
formed by the remaining three sides f
of the square, having each a veranda 3
furnished with a table and a lounging *
chair, making, as it were, a parlor for fi
the occupant of the bedroom behind. *
As I returned (from the bath) at every 1
cottage door sat the occupants, the \
gentlemen lying back in their chairs, c
with their bare feet extended over the '
long ledges. Ladies sat by them and 7
below, and "boys" hurried hither and 1
thither. The sarong and kabia form 2
the native dress, adopted by the Euro- '
pean ladies ior comiort ana conveni- *
ence In the climate, and worn by them s
as sleeping attire, as also during the *=
day in a richer form. Imagine a piece ^
of calico two yards long cut from a *
web. Sew together the raw edges,
and you have a petticoat without band ^
or hem. Imagine it covered with s
floral patterns or curious deviccs of [
crawling creatures, or having a village c
with houses and scenes of daily life de- *
pioted on it, and you see a sarong, or c
skirt. Put this over your head, draw 1
all the fullness In front, and form of ;
thin a large plait; put round your waist *
to hold it a cord with a rich tassel de- *
pending, or a gay silk sash. Then put *
on a dressing jacket of fine lawn, trim- e
med with lace; loosen your hair and *
let it fall down your DacK; sup your *
stockingless feet into Indian-looking: *
pantoffles, with gilt or silver embroid- ^
ery. Take now a fan in your hand and *
promenade before your mirror.?J?z~ t
periences in the Eastern Archipelago by I
Mrs. Forbes. , <
A doctor in an Ohio town, who lives on
a street leadiDg to the cemetery, has a re- 8
versible sign. Usually the sign presents <
his name and office hours; but when a funeral
passes he turns it over, and then the )
following legend is displayed: "Not my *
patient; I cure all who follow my direc- 1
Tommy?My father is a church mem- i
I T/\k Cia T)nf 1
UCI. O \JU.UUJ UW W liUJJC. JLULULLIJ Ltlit I
my father says your papa ain't 'cos he 1
don't never come to church, nor put noth- 1
in'in the collection box. Johnny (brave- <
ly)?Well, my, papa is an honorary mem- i
ber, and honorary members don't chip in.
The simplest question has more sides i
than we can see.
?On the spot where Louis II. of Ba>*ria
is supposed to have sat with his
physician, Dr. Gudden, just before taking
the fatal leap into the Starnbergcr
Lake, a column is erected bearing a
?On public occasions the Governors,
of the British provinces in Australia
all appear in military uniform; yet not
one of them is a professional soldier.
This looks funny, even to a practiced
eye, and the people of this country
think it ridiculous.
?A telephone has been fitted up be
tween the Hospice on the Great St.
Bernard and the valley below, and the
monks are now informed when travelers
start to ascend the pass. If they
do not appear within a proper time
servants are sent to meet them.
?The gypsies claim to have descended
from the ancient royalty of Egypt.
An old gypsy named Rafael has asked
the Emperor of Austria to invest jhjm
with the dignity of King of the gypsies,
because he can prove'his direct descent
from King Pharaoh.
?A Spanish General of Barcelona
has bequeathed a million francs to
found a refuge for the orphan daughters
of poor officers, a proviso being
that each must be beautiful in face and
form, "because the more lovely a woman
is the more she is exposed to danger
in this world."
?Bismarck's sleeping room in his
country seat at Friederichsruhe is very
Bimply furnished. The bed and chairs
are of pine and entirely unadorned,
and there is nothing about them beyond
their unusual size to distinguish
bhem from the beds and chairs found
in the homes of the humblest German
?The most important source of insome
of the oity of Paris is the octroi,
Dr duties on comestibles, wine, etc.,
which amounted during the fiscal year
snded to 187,000,000 francs. The city
lerived nearly 19,000,000 francs from
the gas works, 12,000,000 francs from
the city water works, 8,000,000 francs
torn the market halls, and 5,000,000
Fran as fr/vm nnhlift fionvevances.
?An extraordinary will was recently
idmitted to probate in Pestb, in which
:he testator, a physician named GoldDergar
de Bdda, left his fortune?about
i quarter of a million of florins?to acjumulate
for the benefit of posterity,
intil by the operation of compound interest,
it shall be sufficient to relieve
lestitution universally. And accordng
to a calculation made by the testajOr
his wishes may be carried out when
tfie capital shall amount to the sum of
;wo hundred and nine millions of florins.
?From October 1,1878, to March 31,
1887, 12,500 neglected children were
iaken charge of by the government in
Prussia and placed in houses of refuge
or with private families. During the
period 1,600 were discharged and 2S5
lied, and the number was further reluced
in various ways by 154, so that
it the end of the time the government
lad under its care 10,461 persons. The
;otal expenses incurred was 7,t>U0,U0U
narks, nearly one-half being by the
National Government, the remainder
by the municipalities.
?The Prince of Wales became much
snamored of the magnificent mustache
worn by the coachmen of Hungary.
)ne man in particular roused the adniration
of His Royal Highness by the
ierceness and grace of his hirsute ,
idorninents. On reaching Marlbor>ugh
House the jehu saw that the
joachmen, footmen, and, in fact, all
he servants wore faoes devoid of hair. (
le at once sought a barber and had his ,
ace shaved clean. When the Prince <
taw him again he was horrified. "I 1
mgaged you for your mustache and for
lothing else," said His Highness. That 1
jvening the Hungarian set out for his
rntive land. i
A SURGICAL MARVEL 1
riie Marvelous Properties of Iodoform
When Properly Applied. '
A startling advance in surgical '
icience has been made by Dr. Maxi
nilian Klein, a German militarv sur
[ eon. The particulars are given by i
he professional journal Memorabilien.
I man accidentally cut off his left
jreat toe in the middle of the first 1
omt. The severed piece remained
langing to the foot, but the connecting
ikin was scarcely thicker than a
hread. Dr. Klein sewed on the fragaent,
dressed it with iodoform, and .
lad the satisfaction, in twenty-two j
lays, of finding the wound healed and
he toe perfectly sound and flexible. '
Cncouraged by the unexpected result 1
n this case, Dr. Klein was induced to
ipply the 6ame treatment again. ;
V recruit, in order to disable 1
limself and so escape from military
ervice, deliberately cut off his fore-fin- j
fer with an axe at the second joint,
["he finger end was lost, and could not
>e found until half an hour had !
ilapsed. It was then cold and blue.
Nevertheless, Dr. Klein sewed it to the ,
tump and applied a bandage of iodo- j
orm gauze. As early as the second I
lay it was evident that circulation had
)een partially re-established throughmt
the finger, and in six weeks the ,
nan had not only left hospital, but
?as doing the very rifle drill which he
lad hoped to shirk. The finger was, ,
n fact, as serviceable as it had ever ,
>een. These stories read almost like ]
ixtracts from the exploits of Baroa
klunchhausen. That they are chronl- ,
:led in Nemorabilien is, however, evi- |
lence of their truth. English surgeon* I
Till not be so unwilling to credit them
is they would nave oeen in tne any8 i
>efore the discovery of the marvelous i
properties of iodoform.?SL James'
"Wife?Why, John, what made you get l
uch a little umbrella with so much han- <
ile? Husband?That handle'ssolid silver
'Yes, but you can't put the handle up
vhen itraiucj." "Well, I'd like to know :
f I didn't put it up for live dollars during
he last wet spell?"
Ladies according to a London paper. :
vill have to show that they are in fashioD
dj just raising tne nem 01 rneir aress a in3e,
for it has been decreed that they are to
wear sandals. The sandals are to he worn
Dver the boots, and are of calf, but still will
Qot be higher than the instep.
Bear's fur, and others of long, shaggy
fleece, will be fashionable trimmings "for
Among the several theories advanced to
Jvcnuut for the deieat of the Den)*.<cra!ic
electoral ticket in New Yoik, while Mr.
Hill, a Democrat, was handsomely elected
Governor of the State, and Mr. Grant, a
straightout Tammany Democrat, was
elected Mayor of the metropolis, that of
the Brooklyn Eagle is expounded in ierins
which state the case most strongly. The
following is the text of its' editorial comment:
There are poliucal facts which have ML
aided to produce Piesideut Cleveland's de- XA.
feat in bis own State. They are facts for
which respansibiliiy d:;es not abi^e at the
doors of the Eagle. It will be seen that
Governor Hill's line words iu public, that
-his supporters should prefer the national
ticket to his personal fortunes, have betu .
construed in a Pickwickian sense wbeie he
runs ahead of the President. VVre hope his
Excellency was misrepresented by his supporters
when they made his apparently
sincere words the sheaths in which they
cased their knives, until they.hur;ed theui
in the body of Cleveland. We are aware ^
that a partisan'ciunot be truthfully aiways "
held responsible for The action of his fol- __ .
lowers, and we trust that the Democracy
of the United States, ia the inquest they
are certain to conduct, will ascertain the
facts before they ruth to unjust conclusions.
An unhomogeneous association of
national and State tickets was a misfortune
which we deplored, as it involved a danger
which we feared and which the result has
confirmed. We are free to declare, however,
and would be just in ia.) ing it, that
the alternative to not renominating Mr.
Hill-was a very serious one, so long as he
was unwilling, for the sake of success, to
take himself out of the field. Had the Administration
machined the nomination ot
another Democrat over him, interference
wouid have been plausibly charged and ie
sentmect would have been aroused. The
right course would have been for liim to
reiase a renomiuation, instead of effecting
one with the implied obligation to see that
thereby Mr. Cleveland cauae to rto harm
and that the Executive of the Stare would
build up no wall of bcnefirs for himself,
founded on the slaughter and cemen ed by
the blood of the President. The obligation
has not been met. it is to be desire t that
the Governor will be able to show that the
fault is not his. Certain it is that, had be
not insisted on a third period in the Gov- *
ernotship, and had the nomination of a
man been secured whose atmosphere and
record would have conesponded witu.
those of the President, and whose friends
would not have been the President's enemies,
the result might have beeu different.
Another infelic ty was the quadrangular
Mayoral contest ia New York city. Primarily
the responsibility for that is due to
the County Democracy, whose eff/iocinent
as an organization, accompanied, in the io
terest or uie puDiic nosiiii, wiui suoauie
disinfectants, will not be an unbefitting
consequence of the national defeat. To
their blundering hand and available for
tbeir gaoiiug purpose, tlie urbanization
found the vanity, obstinacy and g&rruluy
of Mr. Hewitt, with his unequalled capa
city to make a good Mayor aod a fatal candidate.
The figures will probably show
that Mr. Cleveland was traded to defeat by
the strugglers for the municipal fiesbpots
over the river. Nor is the result in Kings
county satisfying. Tne campaign committee
did their best to overcome tne disgust
at gang politics. The local candidates
were iu part a surrender of the orcauized
machine to the unorganized one, and in
part a concession to public sentiment; but Vv
the majority nas decreased Instead of iu- ~ ~~creased,
and Cleveland, like Hancock, is
made the victim of a management which,
we trust, finds not too many tacks in its
laurels 01 learner.
The Agricultural and 3Ieclianieal Society.
The annual meeting of the State Agricultural
and Mechanical S-ociety was held
last night. President Humbert delivered
the welcoming address.
Memorials on the life cf deceased members
of the association were read and ordered
spread on the minutes. Eulogies on
the lives of Messrs. B. F. aDd J. VV. Williamson
were prepared and read by Colonel
J P. Thomas. Col. John S. Richardson
prepared and read a eulogy on thy iife of
the late Hon. D. Wvatt Aiken.
Col. J. B Humbsrt and Col. T. W. Hoiloway
were respectively re-elected President
and Secretary, and the following were
elected Vice Presidents: Major Leapharf, of
Lexington, First Congressional District;
Col. A. P. Butler, Second Congressional
District; Col. B. F. Crayton. Third Congressional
District; Mr. J. Wash. Watis,
Fourth Congression?1 Districl; Major 3.
H. Ma^sey, Fifth Congressional District;
Col. E. R. Mclver, Sixth Congressional
District; Mr. W. G. Hinson, Seventh Congressional
The Executive Committee elected are:
t a t\.? ? r n r> c; * i n
lUCSSiS. O . O. JL/UUU, o. vy. JL . VJ&IUC, Xw4 1/.
Childs, Columbia; E. L. Roche, A. T.
Smythe, Charleston; T. 0. Sunders, Sumter;
S. A. Gregg, Florence; I. S. Bamberg,
Bam^rg; R.^A. Love. Chester; N. C.
Elobertson, Winnsboro; T. J. Moore, Spartanburg;
0. P. Mills, Greenville; I). P.
Duncan, Union; S. W. Vance, Laurens.
The society tlieo adjourned sine die.?
Columbia Record. Nov. 16.
The Sharpshooters of McGowan's Brigide
assembled again last night aud effected
i permanent organization with the following
as officers: President, Maj. W. S. Dunlop;
Vice President, Lieut. N. I. Hase];
Secretary, job a u. squier; treasurer, uarid
The following were enrolled as member?: . -?
Maj. W. S. Dunlop, Arkansas, commanding
battalion; Lieut. N. I. Ilasel, Charleston;
Sergeant David Moore, Columbia; S.
VV. Ruff, Fairfield; Rufus Hurling, E.geEield;
I. Dicks, Burnwell; Ilenry Bundrick,
Fairfield; John C. Squier, Columbia; S.
fhomas, Richland; Colonel A. C. Haskell,
Columbia; O. F. Chappell, Bookman's;
W. H. Biunson, Edgefield.
Major Dunlop delivered an interesting
recital of the war history of the brigade,
ind a vote of thanks was tendered him
After the meeting the members met at
Branigan's, where they partook of an excellent
supper.?Columbia Record, fly-ember
"What is an edition de luxe?" asked a
sustomer in a bookstore. "It is simply an
edition de looks," was the conclusive
It is claimed by physicians that few men
ire killed by bard work. But is this any
reason why the physicians shouldjush to
The proprietor of a bone mill announces
hat "parties seDdiug their r-wn bones to be
iround will find their orders a'tended to
with punctuality and despatch."
"We never furnish a knife with p;e,"
said a prim waiter at a Keokuk, Iowa,
boarding-bouse. "Then bring me the axe,"
:ried the new boarder, in despair.
A generous patron was a lady who conIrlbuted
to a fair held the other day. S! e
brought a large number of useful and fanc y
irticles to assist in the adornment of the
tables, and after they had been accepted
purchased them all herself.
The propagation of game should be taken
up seriously and become a branch to be
foslered and encouraged in the same manner
as the methods of the pisciculturists.
Thot ffgmo/iun ill 1V TPStrtPfd tfl
depleted portions of the country is not a
question of doubt. Experiments have
shown that under proper conditions perfect
success is sure to result from the effort.