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H TOL. XLIX. WINNSBORO, S. C., WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 12,1894. . < NO. 18. ^
^ - OUR MW GOVERNOR.
mm THE HON. JOHN GARY EVANS INAUGURATED
The Inaagraral Address Yerv Conservative
and Patriotic in its Tone?What He Tiecommends?The
Full Text of the Address
"Will be Found Belorr.
Columbia, S. C., Dec. 5.?The Hon.
John Gary JKvans was inaugurated
Governor of 7 South Carolina yester"
day in the presence of a large and enthusiastic
crowd. Do^n stairs in the
executive chamber the inaugural party
wa& assembling about noon. The
Governor-elect was there chatting
most of the time with Chief Justice
Mclver. Governor Tillman, having
shortly before done his last work as
chief executive, wearing a white flower
in the lapel of his coat, walked ut>
and down, and was in an ideal goocl
humor. United States Senator Irby
was there too, as were also Circuit
Judges Benet and Norton, .and Dr. J.
A. Kice. Verv soon the clerks of the
two houses, with the members of the
inauguration joint committee, came
The Senate came in about 1:05 p. m.
with much pomp. In a short time the
^ inaugural party entered, headed bv the
KL sergeant-at-arms of_ the House, "bearBL
ing?the historic colonial mace, and the
bs' same officer of the Senate, bearing: the
K equally historic sword of State. Then
Kthe band struck up a lively march.
RPresident pro tem. of the Senate, John
Harrison, who was in the chair orw?red
the members to rise. Then came
Kiief Justice Mclver and Associate
|fctice Pope together, followed by AsWjate
Jutsice Gary and Circuit Judge
Ifet, all wearing their official
B. Judge Norton and Mr. Robert >f
the committee, followed, and
Bfcame Dr. J. A. Rice, the officiat HBainister,
on che arm of Senator- -
|?ny Mr. Weston and Dr. James
Htorow came next, and then Dr.
BBMPPiKiEerman on the arm of a commit T^eeman.
The Governor-elect came in
on the arm of Senator McCalla. Gov V"
ernor Tillman followed on the arm of
Senator Dennis. The other State officers
and solicitors followed.
The party mounted the Speakers
stand and most of them took seats.
| Speaker Jones stood at the elbow of
President Harrison,who forthwith announced
that the Governor-elect was
ready to take the oath of office. The
exercises were then opened with prayer
by the Rev. Dr. Jonn A. Rice. The
prayer was a most beautiful and most
L appropriate one*- The Governor-elect
| ^ stcxxljust behind the minister. He
asked God's blessing on the outgoing
j administration. He prayed that all
their deeds might redound to God's
glorv. He invoked in choice language
fiie t>ivine blessing on the incoming
administration, and prayed that the
T wrmlrJ (mint nntn th? nftW ruler
^ wisdom from on high, and a mind
I. keen to discover the trutiu-ilf all his
i f that all his
to all condiBayed
that in the
^Ppe young men of
^Rnplified the religion
to the end that rightt^Osess
and peace might kiss each
other in South Carolina.
At the inclusion of the prayer
President Harrison Announced "The
. Honorable John Gary Evans, Governor-elect,
is present And ready to take
the oath of office." He picked up a
very handsome new bible and holaing
I it out Mr. Evans and Chief Justice
I Mclver also grasped it The chief
justice then administered the required
bb oath. When he ceased speaking Mr.
^ - Evans turned bisJiPAd tqlhajau&gpce |
ana aeciarea in a ringing tone, ? uu
?and then he was Governor. Mr.
Harrison then released the chair and
Mr. Evans stepped to the elevation,
proceeding at once to deliver his inL
augural message. He was listened to
.? with the closest attention all the way
through, and many were surprised at
the expressed tone of the effort. Mr.
Evans spoke as follows, delivering the
address with great deliberation.
THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS.
L " Gentlemen of the General Assembly:
After obtaining the will of the poople
in three separate elections. I might say,
I am here today to assume the governorship
of the proudest people on the
globe-^-the Governorship of South
. Carolina. Ten years ago the elevation
>. of a man of my age to the highest
" honor in the gift of the people would
have been regarded almost as unconstitutional.
A youn^ man in South
K^fe&^Qrp^na would not have dared aspire
Wg s honorable position for fear of
rf <jig tlie uuiuiu ui iu?i, vxoao *> uu
J ^ oth. by reason of age or inheritiwoe.,
considered the offices as their
particular property without regard to
the popular will. There are some who
still regard the political revolution of
1890, which gave to us an aristocracy
of brains instead of land and money,
as an hallucination, a dream of youth
filled with iconoclasts and as the reign
of the demagogue. This gentle slumber
will result in good, and the Rip
rVan Winkles of the State will awaken
to find themselves monuments of
antiquity.surrounded by young scions
of modern progress and development,
who have nothing but love and reverence
It is a matter of congratulation to
the people that the effort to stay the
course of Reform by an appeal to the
ajLl UilU UUlViiCWWVAV > VIV 11UO
been rebuked the second time in a
manner unmistakable in terms, and
let us hope that in the future there
will be found in the State no man so
ignoble as to dare threaten us with a
return of the dark days from 1S6S to
L1S76. It is unfortunate indeed that the
foundation of our social and political
institutions is the unity of the white
people. This condition was thrust
upon us by the emancipation and enfranchisement,
with one stroke, of an
. unfortunate, ignorant race, unfit to
govern themselves. Placed in power
^^Sy the bayonet, forced to govern their
H^iiprmer masters, we thus witnessed a
^ spectacle seldom recorded in history.
fa government 01 ignorance, vice anu
corruption, over wisdom, virtue and
honesty. Such a condition of affairs
was not expected to be perpetuated,
and it -was no surprise to wise and
thoughtful statesmen that a reversal
was had at the very first opportunity.
The result has been to limit our political
affairs to the control of but one
partv, to wit: ''The White Man's
This was necessary for the preservation
of our institutions. "Times
change and men change with them."
The fear of Radicalism has been dying
out year by year on account of the inactivity
of our foes, differences of
opinion have, arisen naturally as to the
^^usanunistration of our government, un- J
Wt tB^uufclly some of our citizens have 1
foolishly taken the frozen viper to
their bosom only to receive its deadly
Is it necessary for me to warn the
youn? men of our State of the ('.angers
that threaten ns? Must I picture South
Carolina prostrate, struggling in the
days of reconstruction? Must I, the
son, of a Confederate soldier, ask his
comrades to pause and consider? Will
the sun turn upon his mother and
pierce her through the heart with the
same blade that smote her traducer? j
I cannot believe it. nor will I do it, I
nor will those who follow me. I say
here and now upon the threshold of
my administration to those -who oppose
me: ''Come, let us reason together."
There is no room in South
Carolina for divided hearts. If the
invitation is refused, remembey,South
Carolina shall not suffer. I.et the
blow fall upon the heads of those who
seek to rule or ruin; I do not iear the
It has been truly said that of all the
States of the Union, the citizens of
South Carolina are possessed of more
characteristic individuality. It is ex- j
pressed by an iiinglish instorian m
these words: "Tney are first South
Carolinians, next Southerners, and
lastly Americans." This is tine; we
are South Carolinians from birth and
choice, Southerners from principle,
and Americans from force ot circumstances.
We cannot compromise principle,
we will not surrender one birthright,
and we must make the best of
our surrounding1 circumstances. Let
us then, in adjusting our differences,
remember that we are South Carolinians,
and the only plane upon which
we can meet is that of equality, guided
by wisdom, justice and moderation.
Never in the history of our country
was more patriotic action needed on
the part of our citizens. The crisis j
which confronts us threatens the very I
life of ouj>institutions and industries. !
w e are an agricultural people?i<um-1
ers, if you please?dependent upon the j
products of the soil for '"istence; as
they prosper, so prospers, the State.
Cotton raising and cotton manufacturing
will ever be the chief industries
of our State. God has made it so, and
-we cannot change it. We are today
the leaders in cotton manufacturing in
the South; our laws are more favorable
and our water powers grander and
cheaper than elsewhere in the Union;
strikes are unknown among ov.r operatives,
and the greatest harmony and
good Trill exists" between employer and
employed. Our mills have continued
to work to their utmost capacity even
in time of panic, where Northern mills
were forced to shut down: they-have,
fp-cv PYOMitions. declared divi
dends ranging from 6 fo 15 per cent,
upon the capital invested, besides in
many instances.doubling their capacity
from fhe surplus profits.
While all this is encouraging, and
this industry should be fostered by
every means in the power of our General
Assembly, I regret to say the condition
of the cfiiton producer is positively-alarming.
Wiiile the demand
for cotton goods has increased and the
price remains comparatively steady,
we find the price of the raw' material'
lower than ever in the history of our
country in times of peace; yer., even
lower than the cost of production. In
seeking for the cause of so abnormal
a fact we are told that over-production
and want of economy at home
axe the reasons. Our farmers are advised
to raise less cotton and practice
more rigid economy at home and
leave the government alono. We
are contemptuously told to- plow on.
Be not deceived. I'his is the voice of
usurers and hypocrites. While overproduction,
according to the law of
supply and demand, does tend to decrease
the price of products, the deUiiie-ftlilJtlld
always be in proportion
to the surplus stock. Such has not
been the caseswith our products, and
we must look Elsewhere for relief.
We have been -the victims since the
civil war of the mo?t infamous: system
of robbery under the guise of Republican
government kn6wn to the world.
Our crops are now sold before they
are planted and the price vis f xed by
gamblers and speculators^ a year in
advance. The currency of our country
is allowed to be restricted or inflated
at the caprice of the ba:Jc !rs ancT
bondholders, and it is invariably restricted
; indeed to such an extent until
now a dollar buvs almost cne hun"*
* ? ii ir ...
oral per cent, more cotton ma n 11 cua
two years ago. By the imposition of
an unconstitutional tariff and unconscionable
pensions the fixed charges
upon our farms have almost been
doubled, until bankruptcy now stares
us in the face. We are fast losing our
position as an independent State, and
are becoming to the North what Ireland
is to England, a dependent province.
Our large plantations are being
bought up and converted into hunting
preserves by the rich barons who
reap fhe profits of honest labor under
a protective government. We welcome
capital to our St^te in any shape
or form, but we cannoc but deplore
xl. - T ^
Hie Juarusuip vi uui unu pcvpir, vniv
are forced to part with their homes
under circumstances that should not
exist. It is indeed painful to me to
picture to you this gloomy outlook,
but the time has come when the South
and the agricultural classes of the nation
must strike for their preservation
and existence. The agricultural armies
must move and must- be led.
The party which has been true to us
in the past and to which we must look
in future has suffered defeat from one
extreme of the nation to the othei*.
My prediction to you has been fulfilled,
and there is nota Democratic State
north of ALason ana uixon sune. me
Northeast seems to be deaf to our appeals,
and the ray of light -vhich we
had hoped to see in tne West has
proved to be as fickle as an aurora
borealis. South Carolina has led in
every great moral, social and political
reform, and it remains for us now to
set the pace for the nation which will
ultimatelv bring- relief to our entire
people. You snould encourage the
organization of every interest in the
State; bv this means alone can the
will of the concurrent majority bo obtained
and an ideal government be
established. The only intelligent
mouthpiece of any class is an organi
zation composed of individuals -who
constitute it. ' When these organizations
are complete it will be an easy
matter to marshal them under one
banner bearing the motto: "Equal
rights to all and special privileges to
We of the South are powerless, but
we must not allow shackles to be
placed upon us without an earnest and
solemn protest. It is the duty of the
General Assembly to set fortS in unmistakable
terms that the world may
read South Carolina's ordinance
against the oppression of her people
and the efforts of plutocrats to centralize
government and convert the
republic into a tyranical. depotism for
the protection of hoarded millions. I
will not presume "liere to suggest a
plan for the organization of the agricultural
and industrial interests of the
nation. I can assure you. however,
from the history of past nations, that
no emergency has ever arisen, however
great, that some bold leader did
not come forth equal to the occasion.
Let your memorial be prepared by
those who feel what they sa^ and the
messengers of peace will bear it to the
sympathetic hearts and hands of the
nation. A victory grander than that
by force of arms will thus be won
peaceably at the ballot box. Community
of interests must unite the South
and the West, and agriculture will be
rescued from slavery.
I desire to call you attention to the
State Agricultural ana Mechanical Society,
better known as our State Fair
Association. This organization has received
aid from the State until a few
years past.-when its management made
the mistake of intorducing politics into
it. On this account the societv has languished
and almost died. \vou must
rescue it. Nothing is so beneficial to
society and good government as the assembling
of the people to indulge in
friendly rivalry in the arts of peace.
This fair has become an annual volksfest,
where our people meet and know
each other, where the black eves meet
the blue, and the State becomes for the
time being one happy family, with no
thought but for the common welfare
of South Carolina. I know of no State
in the Union where a similar organization
is maintained and this in a great
measure is responsible for the maintenance
of our striking individuality. A
small appropriation is all that is needed
to rescure the societv from death
- ? v iiv-_.nl
unci I am sure tne money win oe wen
invested and no true citizen will begrudge
it. I would suggest that the
societv be incorporated, and that the
Governor and State olTicers be made
ex ofKcio directors, so that it may become
a quasi State institution and at
the same time give the people a guarantee
that the money appropriated
will be directed to the proper uses.
I congratulate the people upon the
fact that a Constitutional convention 1
is at last to be called in response to
their desire expressed at the ballot box.
This is a victory which means more
than I shall express to you. It is the
most important matter which you will
have to deal with, and should recieve
your earnest though and attention. It
should be called at time a most convenient
to our farmers. Remember the
stringency of money and the proverty
of our people and limit the number of
delegates to the number of the General <
Assembly. None but patriots should be
members of this convention, and the
pay of delegates should be so small as
not to make it an inducement lor can- didacy.
Two dollars a day and the
same mileage as allowed members of
the General Assembly is sufficient.
Less than this amount would not support
a delegate in the city of Columbia.
I see no reason why the session
of the convention should iast over forty
days. If this plan is adopted the cost
of the convention should not exceed
$25,000, a small pittance indeed to pay
for eternal liberty and white supremacy.
has been truly said that the best
educated people are the happiest and
easiest governed. This principle has
always oeen recognized by our State.
We spend more money today for public (
education, in proportion to our wealth, 1
than any State in the Union. Our
higher institutions of learning equal !
those of any State, and in Clemson Col- ;
lege and the W;inthrop Normal and Industrial
College for girls, the system
will be completed. Clemson College is
the poor boys' institution and its doors
should not be closed to a single one ;
who knocks for admission. If its capacity
is too limited, enlarge it at once.
Economy in this respect is unjust and '
nigorardlv, f0r the State recieves hundreds
of clollars in return for every one
invested in training the brains of her
children. The South Carolina College, ;
which is our higher classical institu- ;
tion, should be opened to young women
from the freshmen to the senior class.
If our women desire to enter
they should not be given the advantages
of our highest literary institutions
and not be compelled to leave
the State on accont of a foolish, antiquated
sentiment. Co-education has
proved a success in the civilized nations
of the world and the best and
highest institutions of learning, both in
Europe and America, arc now open
to young men and women alike.
Gambetta has truly said'That in order
to make hearts beat together souls
must be brought together." The pres- ,
ent law of allowing women onl\ in
the junior and senior classos is absurd
and ridiculous, and, while intended to
satisfy a demand for such education,
it is a makeshift and amounts to prohibition.
The brig] it est jewels of any
State are her literary and intelligent
women and they should not be deprived
of the State's bounty. .
Our common school system is far
from satisfactory, but under our present
Constitution it is impossible to improve
upon it. It is encoruaging,
however, to note that under the operation
of our separate school district law.
the average free school term for the
State has been incrased from two and
a half months to a fraction over four.
We have performed our duty to the.
negro, possibly too liberally, asa study
of the reports will show. There are
nearly 15,000 more negro children than
whites now enjoying the public school
fund. This is a stinging rebuke to
those who criticize our treatment of
this unfortunate race. Our General Assembly
has done all in its power for
the nrotection and elevation of the
negro, and while lynch law lias not
been entirely stamped out, it remains
for the Constitutional convention to
provide suitable courts for the speedy
trialand punishment of criminals who
are invariably the victims of this menace
to civil government. Under the
present system of trials, it is absolutely
impossible to restrain the people. This
comes from an honest conviction on
the part of our people that it is for the
best interests of society that the victim
of the brute should be spared the humiliation
of testifying i:i a criminal
court, where herre'intd sensibilities are
lacerated by vulgar cross examination,
required from the nature of the case,
ana from being the cynosure of the
eyes of the blackguards who attend
such trials and from the further notoriety
of modern newspapers enterprise.
This may be an erroneous view, but it
has grown up with our civilization and
* * xT? i
springs irom mat nigu regtu\iiu ? uita
South Carolinians have ever held the
innocence, virtue and purity of their
women. There is no difference in
principle between the lyncher and
mm Who violates anv other law upon
our statute books. "The poor wretch.
- w; ,.4 * > - ' r_ r*
who converts his house into a barroom
and gambling hell, to evade the law
and seduce our youths is far worse.
I am thoroughly satisfied, after an
active canvass of the entire State, that
the dispensary law is now -written on
the hearts of the people. Fully S5 per
cent, of our people uphold and respect
the law and it is my duty, and shall
be my pleasure, to see that the remainder
do respect and obey it. There are
certain municipalities which have refused
to co-operate with the State authorities
in enforcing this law, but this
comes from the fact that they have regarded
themselves as sovereign powers
and actually in one instance have
openly defied the State. It may be important
rust here to know what is a
munir.lml eornoration and its relation
to the totate government. Mr. Dillard
in his w^rkon municipal corporations <
thus defines it: A municipal corporation
in its strict and proper sense is
the body politic and corporate, constituted
by the incorporation of the inhabitants
of a city or a town for the purposes
of local government thereof.
Municipal corporations, as they exist i
in this country, are bodies politic and :
corporate of the genei-al character
above described, established by law, <
partly as an agency of the State, to as- <
sits in civil government of the country; '
but chiefly to regulate and administer :
the local or internal affairs of the city; ;
town or district which is incorporat- '
ed.M " i
The principle of local self-govern- 1
ment is peculiar to our republic and
is the very foundation of our constitu- :
tion. State and national; but it must :
not be contended that, in forming subordinate
powers and agents, the State !
releases entirely to such subordinates j
the right to say what laws shall be en- ;
forced within their limits and what 1
shall- not be. They would in such cases (
no longer be the agent* of the State to
assist in civil government of the coun
try, but absolute enemies 6f the State. ]
4,The usefulness.'' says this learned '
author, ''of our municipal corporations '
has been impaired by evils that are '
either inherent in them or that have '
frequently accompanied tiieir woric- '
ings. Some of these may be briefly in- ]
dicated: " ^
1. Men, the best fitted by their in- ]
telligence, business experience, capaci- .
ty and moral character for local governors
or counsellors, are not always i
feared, and it might be added, are not
generally chosen. This is especially so ,
of populous cities.
2. Those chosen are too apt to merge \
their individual conscience, if they *
have any, in their corporate capacity.
Under the shield of their corporate ,
character, men but too often do acts '
which they would never do as individ- (
uals. The influences brought to bear
upon the elections for mayors and al- ,
derman have heretofore been most corrupt
and degrading. In fact the decent ^
property holding and intelligent voter
is avoided, as without influence, while ,
the barkeepers, paupers and ignorant ,
negroes are catered to.. They control
elections and* thereby secure pledges
to use the successful candidates to see
that Sunday laws and liquor laws are ,
-?* -i (
not ciuorueu. <jc ujj.ucuj.cu. <hc v?aiutu f
not to interfere with these favorites of %
the municipal government, under the ,
severe penalty of losing their official
heads. The recent exposures in the metropolis
of the nation of such practices
are sufficient to open the eyes of our ,
legislators of what is transpiring in t
our cities. For example: One of our .
cities elected three years ago what -was ,
termed a reform administration. As
soon as its officers were installed they I
revived certain ordinances calculated .
to enforce a stricter observance of
the Sabbath, and such was the result.
Yet I am informed that such great
stress was brought to bear upon the
city fathers by old offenders, babbath
breakers of all classes, and ward politicians,
that the ordinances were repealed.
Is this the agency of the State contemplated
by a city charter? Is the <
State to stand aside and say that we ]
are paralyzed because, forsooth, our (
agents are corrupt? Shall the sub- (
ordinate power dictate to and rule its j
creator? What encouragementisgiven ,
the honest law-abiding citizens of the \
rcho risk their lives to eaforce ^
the law wheirhi^c.-breakers in the cities ]
go unpunished by ilr* failure of police ]
to arrest, ana or cut gran^^uries even |
to find true bills? This has beC^ttie ]
greatest factor to create a sentimeirtp *
if any there be, of country against ,
town. You are the doctors. The rem- \
edy is simple, and you must apply it, ]
if law and order are to apply in (
South Carolina. f
The power to enforce the law must 1
be taken from the hands of the muni- i
cipal politicians and placed beyond 1
their control. It must be placed strong (
enough to guarantee equal justice to
the rich and poor, the high and low. f
You will be met by the cry of inter-11
fercnce with local self-government. It ;
is false and a mere pretense to hood- '
wink honest Legislators. No lawyer ]
of ability will deny the proposition* ]
that a police officer is not simply a
municipal officer, but he is an officer ]
of the State. Therefore his first alle- :
fiance is to the laws of the State and <
lie should be appointed by the author- j
ities of the State, if necessary.
In speaking of the relations of mun- 1
icipal corporations to the State the Su- <
preme Court of Louisiana in the case ;
of Police Jury vs. Shrevport uses this :
language: "The government of police
jury of counties formed one of the sub- :
divisions of the internal administration <
/-vP fVi/\ Qiaia irtrl ic ahcnln+Al V linflfir '
vj. liuv utaov hjuv* ?'j .
the control of the Legislature." This :
same doctrine is affirmed by nearly <
every State in the Union -where no ex- i
press constitutional provision exists, i
Mr. Dillon observes in this connection i
respecting the authority of the Leglsla
iure over municipal offices and officers: i
"It is important to bear in mind the !
distinction between State officers, that
is, officers whose duties concern the
State at large or the general public, al- ;
though exercised within defined terri- i
torial limits, and municipal officers :
whose functions relate exclusively to :
r>nnr>m'TH! The administration of
justice, the preservation of the public i
peace and the like, although confided 1
to local agencies, are essentially mat
ters of puolic concern. The Supreme j
Court of Michigan in a well consider- :
ed case, held that the Legislature had
a right to appoint a board of police j
commissioners as such board -was not 1
municipal; so in New York, Kansas, i
Maryland, Florida, Illinois, Colorado, ;
Kentucky, Georgia, Indiana; and, in '
fact, nearly every State Supreme Court
has held that the Legislature'may take :
from a municipal corporation its char- <
ter powers respecting the police and ;
their appointment, and, by statute, it- !
self directly provide for a permanent i
police for the corporation under the <
control of a board of police commissioners,
not appointecf or elected by <
the corporate authoritieSj but consist-j
_ . W
ing of commissioners named and appointed
by the Legislature or Governor.
"Police officers are in fact State or
public officers and not private or corporate
officers and a provision in such
a law transferring to such commissioners
for.the purpose of the new police
the use of the police telegraph, station
houses, watch ooxes. etc., provided by
the city, is valid, since it only takes
city propertv dedicated to a particular
use and applies it to the same* purposes
changing only the agency by which
the use is directed, the property is still
the city's." Hundreds'of cases could
be cited going to show that police officers
are in fact State officers and not
municipal, aitnougn a parucuiur uity
or town be taken to pav them. The
office of police was unlniown to the
criminal law. It is enacted by statute.
He as an officer of the State in which
he exercises his office. Bulk vs. Hardwick,
30th East. 24.
The Supreme Court of Connecticut
uses this language: "A policeman of a
city is a public officer, holding his office
as a trusf'from the State ana not as a
matter of contract between himself and
the citv." Having thus shown conclusively
that policemen are State
officers,"it remains for you to provide
the necessary machinery for compelling
them to do their duty. It is impossible
to enforce any law in the cities
peaceably and quietly unless the police
i.T*A in svmna,thv with it. and in order
to make them so, they must not be dependent
for their appointment upon
mayors and aldermen elected by opponents
of the law.
In some of our towns ex-barkeepers
ire made policemen for the expressed
purpose of protecting their former associates
with whom they are partners
in the illicit liquor traffic. If this recommendation
for metropolitan police
were an innovation, there would be
some grounds for objection, but it has
t>een tried successfully in nearly every
State in the Union and there is no reason
why it should not be done in our
)wn State. It is no longer a question
}f expediency, but of absolute necessity.
The pride of the patriotic lawnoVor.
cVim-ild fViAPnantrnftntof such
laws as will secure the greatest happiness
to the greatest number of people
svithout regard to the welfare of politicians.
This is an age of corporations and '
laws should be passed carefully guarding
the interests of individuals against '
;lie encroachments necessarily attend- <
mt upon the growth of artificial per- i
sons and the oppressions of corporate ;
wealth. One of the greatest evils of tAe ;
lay is this desire to incorporate any 1
md everything. The merchant who
Jerires to avoid liability to his credit- <
)rs beyond the capital invested finds an ;
escape" in the chartered company. Selish
neighborhoods desiring to tax the :
ralues of farm products, who compete j
vith them find a way in the incorpo- 1
nmoc i-z-vorl HPl-m orrpatftst nrotmp
uxvim i ??- ?-, ^ j_ ?
ion of the time our General Assem- ]
>ly is taken up chartering all manner i
)f wildest schemes and country vil- j
ages and school districts. All of these
:ompanies can be chartered under 1
general laws and they should not be 1
illowed to enter the General Assemby. !
Siine^B^s out of ten the State is put 1
expense than is e^er real- j
zea from the company.
The practice of usury by our bank- 1
ng institutions is becoming alarming, '
mcl is unjust to both borrower and '
ender. While our farmers are growng'poorer
from five eents cotton, the "
)anks continue te dcclare dividends (
*mr,rrir,rr fwim ClorVif fft fiftAPTI TtfTCfiTit. 1
"vm -" ft? ? ?
It is a matter of congratulation that
>ur banks -withstood the late panic
vithout a failure and -we shoula en:ourage
them, but an honest banker :
^ho is satisfied with what the law alows
him has no desire to be compared <
,vith the shylock, who, by foulest usury,
is enabled to make a better showng
of profits. Our legal rate is high .
inough, only three States in the Tin- j
on having a higher one, and our laws .
should be amended so as to allow only .
r per cent, by special contract, and J
;ause the lender who practices usury (
jo forfiet both interest and debt. Un
fortunate debtors will acree to pay >
my rate of interest in order to save 3
themselves and to keep the wolf from i
;he door. No agricultural people can :
live with usurious creditors. From
Moses to the present time usury has ,
oeen forbidden, and laciius gives as a
mson for the decay of Rome, the evasion
of the interest laws. When uslry'lorded
among them, Rome dates
;he beginning-^ of her downfall,
[t is not only * practiced by pur bankers,
but among our merchanis and facers.
It remains for you to protect
;he borrowers by more stringent regulations,
at the same time giving to
;he honest lender full and ample se;urity
under the law.
Almost every department of the State
government having been reformed
;here is one which has not received
pour attention?the State's prisoners,
riicse unfortunate creatures are com nitted
to our State penitentiary for
punishment and not depredation.
While, of course, there can be no such
punishment without degradation, still
it is the province of government and of
Christianity to rescue the fallen, and
if possible to restore them to society.
There are 206 prisoners in the penitentiary
of the class known as "juvenile
offenders." Boys under the a<*e ef 20
vears should not be punished along
side of men of matured habits, with
wicked and abandoned hearts. # The
result of such treatment is invariably
degradation and ruin of the younger
mind, and when discharged from confinement
they re-enter society with diseased
minds and hearts, only to return
to prison for the commission of more
??TH-. om rnnnff nffon r?
Ui XiilUO. XUOOV J vxi.v*Av?w*w
should at least be isolated, furnished
Frith different garbs and given good
and wholesome instruction until our
State is able to build reformatories for
The practice of leasing convicts to
private parties is repulsive to our institutions,
results in cruelty and should
not be allowed by law. Under our
new county government law it is to be
hoped that our convicts will be put
upon our public highways and give us
that greatest boon?good roads. I
wouid suggest that this road law be
amended by requiring all convicts
sentenced for a period of five yeais or
under to be placed upon the chaingangs
instead of limiting this service
to those sentenced to two years. It is
as easy to protect and guard the one
as the other, and a larger force will
thus be given our road supervisors.
It is not my desire in this address to
review every reform that has suggested
itself to me. I simply call these to
of+ontinn as of crave irrTDortance.
? shall, from time to time, as the Constitution
requires me to do, communicate
vritlj you by special messages.
In assuming the duties of the office
of Governor I cannot expect to fill it
with the brilliant ability which has
characterized my predecessor. I am
conscious of the heavy responsibilities
resting upon rae and of my human
weaknesses, but I am reassured by
knowing myself sufficiently well to
enable me to offer my people a heart
which beats alone for their happiness,
and a hand ever ready to strike for
their interest and liberties. I am
powerless as an executive without
your co-operation and I feel assured
that this you will freely give me.
Your responsibility is as great as mine
and all I ask is that in your deliberations
you shall be governed by those
principles which wul cause you to enact
such laws as will secure the happiness
of the greatest number of onr
I now take my commission, thanking
the people for the confidence reposed
in me. In doing so, I pray
that the God of nations will be with
me and sustain me, and when I shall
have returned my commission to those
who gave it to me, may it be as pure
and spotless as when I received it. If
I can then say?Behold a happy people
in peace, love and unity?my reward
will indeed he great and sufficient.
Asking the support of my friends,
the charity of my enemies, and the
help of God, I now dedicate my head,
my hand and my heart to the service
of mv State.
When Mr. Evans ceased speaking
and took his seat great appleause ana
cheering came from the floor of the
House. Then the band played "Dixie"
and every one Cheered. Several bouquets
were carried up to Governor
Mr. Harrison stepped to the elevation
and made the same . announcement
as to the Lieutenant Governor.
Slowly Dr. Timmerman rose and just
as soon as he arose a titter began. In
a fer moments it was a chuckle and
then a subdued laugh. It was the
campaign experience over again. It
was what carried Dr. Timmerman
A VS 4-"U
blxlUUgll, ttliU JLLC W do JUL
nor pained. The Doctor was attired in
a long wine-colored Prince Albert,
ffis thin hand grasped the Bible and
he took the oath, making his response
in rather a husky voice. He gave
the Bible a good kiss and then slipped
to the elevation and had a few words
to say, thanking the members for the
high honor they had conferred upon
him, and asking them to bear his
thanks and expressions of appreciation
to their contituents. He promised to
do all in, his power to discharge the
duties of his office to the best of his :
ability, and would do all he could to
aid the chief executive in upholding
the pride of his State.
Dr. Timmerman, as the presiding
Dfficerof the Senate then declared the 1
joint assem bly dissolved.
a . . rn nrvn z n ~
-as ex-ijovernor jmuuian anu \jrover- u
nor Evans came down, the latter having
a handsome bouquet in his hand,
many admirers shook their hands.
they were going out the band
played "Over the Waves." Thus the 1
>hip of State started on another voyige.
Governor Evans went to the executive
chamber, where many crowded
to pay their respects. About 2 o'clock
ill had gone. Governor Evans' very
Srst official act was to appoint Chief ;
Liquor Constable M. T. Holley of '
cdken a notary public. His next was
to sign the commission of D. H.
Fompldns as Secretary of State. This .
"N - 1 XI. _ f? 4. J
was tne omciai wont 01 ine jultsi. uay.
Last night an impromptu reception i
was tendered the Governor at the ex- :
jcutive mansion by ex-Governor Tillman.
ADDRESS TO DEMOCRATS.
Son-Partisan Constitutional Convention
Advocated Its Importance Set Forth.
To the Democratic Voters of South .
In the progress of the eform movement
we have reached a critical peri- !
od in the history of the State. All of ;
the essential demands of that movement
may properly be regarded as ac3?mplished
facts, and having been ac- ;
septed by the people should no longer '
ko o noiico r\f i-rrifa/Mrtn snH fliesA'nsiftri
The constitutional convention alone
remains to be acted upon by the people,
and it is unfortunate- that they
are in such a state of mind as to prevent
manv of them from seeing the
situation from an impartial and non- :
partisan standpoint. As it is useless
to discuss the cause or causes which ;
led to this state of affairs we will look '
only to the future and leave the dead
past to bury its dead.
Every intelligent mind ->vhich is ca- '
E" able of realizing the gx>d that can
e accompMsBed. and the great harm
that may be done"~to~-Q.ur State and
1. s? _ :?KWv ^
peopie vy a sovereign juux^ <*
constitutional convention; every.one
who sees and feels the necessity anil" importance
of securing the unity of
our people and white supremacy bv a
well regulated suffrage, without clis- >
franchising a white voter; every patriotic
citizen who is aware of t&e ills
and evils afflicting and threatening
the bodv politic, whether of a social,
political, financial or industrial character,
will readily admit that something
ought to be done to correct the
evils briefly alluded to and to secure
the good so easily within our reach.
Therefore, we, the undersigned Eeformers,
having only these ends in
view, and desiring nothing but the
unity and harmony of our people, the
highest and best interests of our State,
the progress and development of her
social, industrial and political interests,
do hereby call upon all of our
pemocratic citizens who sympathize
with these views and are willing to
abide the results of the Reform movement
to earnestly consider the importance
of a non-partisan convention,
composed of the wisest and best men
of both factions, and to take such action
as is deemed best to secure it.
(Signed:) J. Townes Robertson, A.
C, Fuller, D. K. Norris, J. E. Pettigrew,
Thos. J. Kirkland, T. P. Mitchell.
J. E. Tindal, L. M. Ragin, W. C.
Davis, J. W. Kennedy. T. S. Price,
John R. Harrison, B. F. Miller, J. M.
Hough, J. T. Douglass, C. R. D. Burns,
John T. Bramlett. J. E. Ellerbe, John
G. Williams, J. B. Suddath, P. B.
Waters, J. W. Ashley, J. M. Whitmire,
J. F. Lay, S. Y. Stribling, Zerah
Hammett, C. E. Wallace, H. P.
Goodwin, A. T. Newell, John B. Leverett,
T. B. Stackhouse, W. B. Love,
Gopfrey B. Fowler. J. T. Duncan, W,
W. Smith, !>- M. Shuman, J. D. Sullivan,
L. M. Wilson, J. R. Earle, D.
Poisoned her Children,
Galveston, Tex., Dec. 6.?Mrs.
Louis Alberfst, wife of a well known
butcher, was arrested yesterday at the
instance of her relatives on the charge
of insanity. Her arrest is the resxut
of the poisoning of her five children
by her hand. Four of the children
are dead. The fifth, a girl of 16 years,
may recover. ? 1
ELECTIONS BY THE LEGISLATURE.
Col. Joseph H. Earle is Made a Circuit
Columblv S. C., Dec. 5.?Electious
were held in the general assembly
today for superintendent of the penitentiary,
three directors of the penitentiary
and two judges, the third and
The main interest was in the election
for judge of the eighth circuit.
For superintendent of the penitentiary
W. A. Neal was nominated by J.
B. Watson. He received the whole
number of votes cast, 157.
T VA/ T /vf .T C!
Ashe, of York. S. J. Cunningham, of
Chester. J. M. Sprott, of Clarendon.
John Staubs, of Aiken, and J. C. Alexander,
of Oconee were nominated
for directors. The vote was, Cunningham
130, Lyles 10S, Sprott 89, Ashe 83,
Alexander 31, Staubs 30. Cunningham,
Lyles and Sprott were elected.
For judge of the Third circuit
Judge 1< razier was nominated by Senator
Moses and Attorney General Buchanan
by Senator Bvrd. The result
was Buclianan 125, Crazier 29. Buchanan
will resign as attorney general
tomorrow. The candidates for at;
torney general to succeed him are Assistant
Attorney General Barber, Solicitor
Bellinger and ex-Judge C. P.
There was much excitement over the
election of a judge of the Eighth circuit.
John E. Breazeale was nominated
by J. B. Watson, Joseph EL Earle
by M. B. McSweeny, of Hampton,
Judge Norton by Senator Watson, of
Edgefield. Rreazeale's and Earles
nominations were numerously second-i
ii - *?- _ n - A j.1. 4.*
ea. un trie nrst oauoi lug v<jlc ??k>
Earle 7S, Breazeale 53, Norton 27.
Necessary to a cboce 80. On the second
ballot it was Earle 100, Breazeale
49. Norton 8. The conservatives divided
on Earie and Norton. The Sumter
and Richland members voted for
Very little general legislation is
going on. Manning, of Sumter, has
introduced the same measure he urged
last year, the Australian ballot system.
Mower has introduced the same bill in
the senate. A bill to limit the profits
of the dispensary sales is to be introduced.
The limit is to be fixed at 25
per cent, by the State dispensary to
county dispensaries and 25 per cent,
by the latter to consumers. Another j
important bill will come up. It is to}
forbid the sale of drugs and medicines
by any except licensed druggists.
Columbia, S. C., Dec. 6?In the
House Mr. Patton, at 12:4c o'clock,
offered a concurrent resolution providing
for a joint session of the two bodies
at 1:30 o'clock for the purpose of electing
a successor to Hon. 0. W. Buchanan,
as Attorney General; for three
Trustees for the South Carolina
College and one Trustee of
Clemson College. The resolution
was adopted lay the House, sent
to the senate, and at once adopted
by that body, except that the hour was
fixed at 2 o'clock.
The jont session of the two bodies
convened, according to the resolution,
?+ O T.i aii ten ant (rrtwcnor
CLV fj V VXWix* ^-M,VV*W -v, v - - Timmerman
Nominations for Attorney General
being- first in order, Mr. Gaston, of.
Aiken nominated Solictor G. Duncan
Bellinger of Barnwell This was duly
seconded. Mr. Duncan of Newberry
nominated Assistant Attorney General
Barber of Chester, for promotion.
This was seconded on all sides. Tellers
were appointed on the part of the Sen-"
ate and House, and the election reresulted
as follows: Barber 99, Bellinger
The nominees for three trustees of
the South Carolina College were: Ira
B. Jones, J. William Stokes and D. E.
Finley, incumbents ;M. B. McSweeney
ofJBampton, and S. G. Mayfield, of
BarnwelL Mr. McSweeney attempted
to decline the nomination, but his
- 1 J. J ^
rrienas illhu.^ inm aio uunu, kj^juc*w.L
Mayfield withdrew in favor of Mr. McSweenev,
leaving ,four men in the
race. The ballot was taken viva voce,
as for Attorney General, and resulted
as follows: Jones. 13S; Stokes, 04;
Finley, 94; McSweeney, 101.
Before the vote was announced there
were changes from Finley to Stokes
and vice versa, the race for third place
between them being close. As it was
a*tie, however, a second race between
Stokes and Finley was called for. Before
the voting began the Orangeburg
delegation withdrew the name of
Stokes and left Finley the only man
i:i the race. Finley was elected.
For Trustee of Clemson College there
were two nominations?Gen. W. H.
Ellerbe, of Marion, aud Hon. J. T.
Duncan, of Newberry. The vote was
as follows: Ellerbe. 75; Duncan, 37.
" Tie'two "nouses aajuriiiiscLimmcdic
ately after the dissolution of the joint
? A aV1A/>1''
SeSblUlZ* \V ilJLUii vv ao ?%j. tw -x. \j wv/v^.
Refused a Gift of $300.
New \ ork, Dcc. 5.?A dispatch to
the Evening Post from Raleign, N.
C., says: Washington Duke of the
American Tobacco Company, and
President of the Duke Cigarette Works
at Durham, sent $300 to the North
Carolina Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South, which has
been in session at States ville, N. C.,
for a week past, towards defraying the
expenses of the conference. The Iter.
Mr. Ware of Reidsville, and some
other members of the conference, protested
against the acceptance of the
gift of which they termed "trust
money/' and at a meeting of the board
of stewards of his church, Mr. "Ware's
action was approved. It is claimed
that the trust having the only buyer
on the tobacco markets who buys cutters
used in the manufacture of cigarettes,
the price of that grade of tobacco
has been forced down so low that it's
impoverishing the farmers who grow
Newman, Ga., Dec. 3.?About midnight
Saturdava Negro named Joseph
^ i A T A
jsean went 10 me nuu.^e ui ^ucucigu,
a farmer, twelve miles from here and
told him one of his croppers was very
sick and wanted medicine. Leigh
went with the negro. Half an hour
later Bean returned and asked for Mr.
or Mrs. Leigh. The woman suspected
something was wron^ and her suspicions
were confirmed by Bean displaying
a revolver. Quick as a flash
Millie Leigh grabbed her father's shotgun
and ordered the negro out Bean
fired but missed. Millie fired but the
mirt Thp tipoto ran out and1
round to a window. Here the girl
fired at him and he again at her. Two
hours later the body of the father was
found, his skull crushed ar.C his body
stabbed in nine places. A search is
being made for the negro, who esczfh
ed and is suppossea to have gone
down the Chattahoehee River in a
boat. It is supposed he had an accomplice.
ARMENIANS BUTCHERED BY TURKS. - -ZM,
BLOOD-CURDLING ATROCITIES. -v- . ||
Details of Hellish Murders and Outrages >
on Helpless Women and Children?Fiend- V
ish Cruelties That Surpass Belief?Story .
Told by Sufferers Who Escaped^!
Athens Greece, Dec. 3.?The associated
Press exclusively lias been-able
to give to the world the facts of the
terrible atrocities perpetrated upon ,
Armenian Christians in Asia Minor,
and today a representative of the asso- ? \}?M
ciation succeeded in obtaining addi- .
tional details from twenty refugees
who have arrived here from Armenia, - . " ^
after a journey full of hardships and - . j&xgS
suffering. With every mark of norror
and indignation they told of the scenes
they had witnessed. This party is the
first that has escaped from the district
where the massacres have occurred,
an4 that even worse re- _.
mainsTo^ne tola as the. horrors re- ..... -?
corded are supposed to have lasted for
a long time after they fled from the '
blood-stained districts. ' .
This party escaped from Moosh, Bittis
and Passaun. making their wav
with the greatest difficulty to the Russian
Turkish frontier. Several Armenian
women escaped with the party,
but when near Ezeraum they died from
the effects of sabre wounds inflicted
before their escape. For about eighteen
months, the refugees say, the ..
province of Sassoun has oeen surround- < *
ed by Turkish troops and nobody has
been allowed to enter it or to leave.
About four months ago the Turkish .^^9
authorities learned that toe in habitants
of Vartemis, a village outside the
frontier of Sassoun, were sending for '
the necessaries of life to the village of
Dalvorig. Such communication between
the two villages being prohibited
the Turks massacred nearly all the
inhabitants of Vartmis. This was the
Dalveig, it appears, is the largest
village in the province of Sassoun and v^^fi
its iimabitants, when they learned of V ^
the horrors perpetrated by the Turks
at Vartemis, attacked the Turks on the - .
frontier. The Turkish commander
sent soldiers into Dalevig in order to
learn-what had occurred. The Arme- r|?fg|
nians filled with indignation at the
atrocities committed attacked the de
tachmentof soldiers and put them all
to death. When the Turkish commander
heard of the death, of his soldiers |
he determined upon avengrinffit in the
most bloody manner possible. A _
strong force of Turkish troops was sent
to the village with artillery and the
massacre began. ^ The guns keptup a
continuous fire upon JDalevig until
practically not one stone was left standing
upon another. '
Selo, the Bey of Initzoun. a Kurd,
with a detachment of Kurdish cavalry,
went with/the Turkish soldiers to
the vi sage of Semal and forcibly took .
the Armenian priest from his cntireh
after disgustingly defiling the sacred
vessels and the priests hands. Thev then
bound him on a donkey which
they drove a distance of a few yards.
The soldiers then fired at the priest
and killed frim and the beast he was
bound to. They entered an Armenian
hotise and "violated a -wom-m-a-nd'hex
daughter, the latter 14 years of- age,
and Selo took eight Armenian girls
and sent them to his harem at Initzoun.
m n -j
jp urmer airocmes were wmuiuwu
at the village of Keliehuzen. Before
day this place was surrounded by soldiers,
and while the inhabitants were
asleep, it was set on fire. The brutal - -*/
soldiers entered the residence of a ma-n
named Arkel, who was asleep with
his wife, and tortured them both internally
in a terrible manner with red - M
hot irons. ' *
At Keliehuzen the Armenian priest
Margosi, who with twenty other inmates
of a house, was burned to death,
the soldiers preventing any lx>dy from
escaping from the burning dwelling.
The chief of the village of Cheney 11
was captured, oy tne soiaiers ana- oounu
to his two daughters, all tliree were ?
then scalded to death with boiling ^31
water. A detachment of twenty -five * regulars
of the Turkish cavalry, after 3
committing inexpressible horrors at
the village of Seb^hank, went to the
village school ana ravished the girls 4
found there. The cavalrymen then
devastated the building. .
Ibo Bev, a notorious Kurd brigand
of the village of Dyibran, and a colonel
in the regular army, with adetachmentof
Turkish troops, collected the j|
female children of Bablon together, * _ I||
about 200 in all, and after ravishing
them they killed them all with guns
and swords. The Kurdish regular
troops from Kizan andBabran entered
t-he-"Arjn?man villages of Aliandzig
and Agnte|rHfcalkdr>t^^ - /
and wrecked their houses. The number
of villages devastated in this manner
is said to be over thirty-two. The
Armenians fled in every possible direc- 3
tion, but many of them were captured /;
bv the Turkish troops before they
could get away and were taken to prison.
Dr. G. Thomain, a well Icnown Armenian,
formerly Professor of the Armenian
College" has just received a >. /.'?
letter written on September 29, from _ ji*
Todowran, which says: "Mounted
robbers rode up to this village an hour
after sunset and immediately began an - ''/%
indiscriminate attack upon the Armenian
inhabitants. Over two hundred
shots were fired at the houses of the
Rev. Mr. Sookiss, pastor of the Protest
ant Community. Three balls struck
his wife in the face and she subsequent- .
ly died from the effects of her wounds.
TVarning to the Defeated.
Washington, Dec. 6.?1The Republican
Congressional committee has
sent out a significant letter in regard
to contested seats in the next Congress.
There are upwards of thirty districts ' wherein
defeated Republicans have
indicated their intention to filing contests.
The committee has addressed to ?
each of these contestants a statement
notifying him that he must not place
any reliance on the large Republican
majority- in the next Congress, but *
must rest his prospects for success on
the merits of tne claims he advances. . '
Probable contestants are advised not > . to
file their papers unless able to reinforce
them -with testimony of the most #unimpeachable
character. A- %
Columbia, s. C., JN ov, 30.?The Legislature
canvassed the vote for State
officers today. The result was: Evans ^ ^
3~,703; Pope, 16,703. Dr. Pope sent to
the Speaker a petition to be allowed to .
show alleged frauds, but the Speaker
said that he did not feel called upon
to read it unless presented by a member.
A member moved that it be read, s3j
but this was voted down. Evans will \<
be inaugurated Tuesday next