_ F SENTINEL=JuUP.
Entered April 23, 1903 at Piokons, 8. 0., as seoond olas matter, under sot of Congres of Maroh 8, 1879.
VOL. XXVIUl _iiCEEN, SOUTH CAROLINA, THURIDAY LY, 211938 -0
Don't make a practice of doping
If the wind blows the mulch off the
strawberry beds put it on again.
Give the sheep only as much clover
or mixed hay as they will eat up
The successful stock-raiser must
know how to feed, what to feed and
Now is the time to overhaul all the
farm machinery and put it in shape
for next season's work.
Stop guessing and use the scales
and the Babcock tester to find out
what your cows are doing.
The profit on a small flock well
kept is certain, while that on a large
flock poorly-kept is hard to find at all.
It takes judgment to buy feeding
stock, as many a man has discovered
after he has gotten a lot of feeders
that won't fatten.
Sprinkle the dusty hay with water
before Teeding to the horse. The dust
is very bad for his lungs and the lungs
are a vital part of the horlse.
You can't make a good furrow in
life while' the temper is ruffled.
Smooth out the kinks, got good
nature I and then at the work like a
The barn ought to be handy to the
house. Think of the amount of walk
iug you do in the course of a year
wlien the barn lies a quarter to half a
mHe from the house.
Extra good butter always commands,
a few cents more a pound than the
regular market price, but poor butter
Is ~always at the bottom. Which
'96de are you marketing?
'Many a man who uses a whip in
breaking the colt needs to apply the
whip to himself rather than to the
colt. lie who cannot control his own
temper capnot hope to gain control
over the unbroken colt.
When a horse is working he needs
enough febd to supply the energy do.
- manded of him plus the necessary
amount to keep him in good condi
tion. When he is idle he only needs
sufficient feed to keep him in fair con
Next to a good laying strain, the
best to start with is a healthy flock
of birds. Good healthy breeding stock
* -will produce with good, strong consti
tutions, birds that will not be liable
to disease, and these are the fowls we
'want to. put -into our pens both for
eggs and breeding.
Share your good thoughts with
others. When you discover a good
point in reference to farming methods
let your neighbor in on the good thing.
You will find if you do that he will in
turn be letting go some good pointer
that will help you. Too bad there is
not more interchange of thoughts
- tnong our farmers.
.. One full feed of hay a day is enough
for the horse, thinks a Canadian vet,
erinarlan, who reasons that because a
horse in the work season only gets
one full feed of hay,per day it should
be so in Winter, when the practice too
ofteh Is to allow the horse to stand
and munch hay all day. The horse to
be healthy should have Its stomach
empty two or three. hours before the
next meal is givens him.
Oats make a good teed for any of
the farm animals,-especially, of course,
the 4rlying and Wrork herses, Dozit be
stingy when feeding oats to calves or
colts. Some claim that crushed oats
are better to feed than the whole.
They may be for hogs or dairy cows
when oats are made only a part of the
ration, but for horses, colts and calves
feed them without crushing, and feed
good oats. In the absence of oats,
barley makes fine feed for colts or
Here is the way one of our success
ful dairymen figures out the advant
age of rearing his own cows. He says
a really good cow is worth from $60
to $60 in almost any dairying section
and at almost any time of the year.
In his opinion we can grow a heifer
up to the time she is two years old
for $40 and then she wilt pay her way
until she Is worth $50 or more, pro
viding, of course, nothing befalls her.
We have the thing we want reared
under our own eyes, and better for
ill practical purposes than anything
that we could buy for more money.
The convenience of having the eow
we want at hand without having te
look for her is important,
Waxing the Wires with a Brush ano
When full sheets of foundation are
uised in wired frames it is always de
siable to put the frames in use soon
after the imbedding is done, or the
wires are likely to cleave away from
the sheet of foundation, and this is
especially likely to occur when such
frames of foundation are hauled to
As the spur wire-imbedder -comes so
near to cutting the sheet of founda
tion in two, we have, in the past,
found it better to use the old 'Easter
day iocker wire-imbedder to avoid oc
casional trouble from the sheets
breaking or pulling apart where the
imbedding had been done.
Now we find it safe to use the spur
imbedder, and the sheet of foundation
will never pull apart at the wires. It
is now our practice to wax the wires
in place after imbedding them into
the sheet of foundation. This in
Brush and. Spoon Waxer.
sures that they will stay inbedded,
whether used this year or next; aids
in preventing sagging along the wires,
making that line (usually the weak
est) the strongest place in the sheet
of fouidation. Frames with sheets
of foundation so prepared are espe
cially good for hauling to outyards
and over bad roads.
Our older methods of waxing the
wires in place were faulty. With a
brush the brush would not carry
enough wax; with a sharpnosed tin
spoon with a small notch in the end
it was difficult to follow the wire and
to- regulate the flow of wax. During
the spring of 1906, writes E. F. At
water in Bee Culture, Mr. H. Ei. Crow
ther and myself originated the plan of
combining the spoon and brush, as iil
The sheet of foundation, with wires
imbedded, should be supported on a
slant,' then with the combined spoon
and brush it is an easy matter to wax
the wires in place; easy to follow the
wires; easy to regulate the flow of
wax, and the spoon easily carries
enough wax to finish one or more
wires without Btopping to dip again.
Don't imagine that an exceedingly
light coating of wax is required,
neither should it be used lavishly.
This little tool is easily made, and
should be on the -list of supplies. Per
haps the brush can be combined with
waxtube, though we prefer the point
ed spoon as shown.
Fig. 1 shows the complete spoon
and brush combined, ready for use.
Fig 2 shows the parts-.-the brush and
The spoon without the brush is the
simplest tool to use when we want
to attach eith~er starters or full sheets
of foundation to plain top-bars IL is
Onderdonk spoon," as describe(
in the American Bee Journal yeari
ago. It is also perhaps the best -too
to use when we fill sections witi
foundation fastened on three or foui
sides-a plan that I discarded aftei
years of trial and experiment.
CLEAN WATER VESSELS.
Do Not Contaminate Flock by Un
Water troughs or fountains tha
can easily be cleaned are the onl
kind that should be used in the poul
try yard. Wooden troughs often be
come slimy, especially in warm weath
er, though the Water in them appear
clear and clean.
A broom and soapsuds should b<
used on such troughs, afterwardi
rinsing thoroughly in clean water. IL
this task is attended to once a week
and the receptacles filled with fresl
water every morning, the hens wil
be amply supplied with all the freal
water they need, if it is kept out oi
It ducks are kept, wooden trougho
will be found the most convenient
and in using these slats of lath shouk
be nailed across the top to prevent thf
ducks wallowing in the water, render
ing it filthy and a creating a sloppy
muddy place in the yard.
To Get Eggs.
Among other things, it takes lime
protein and fat-producing materiah
to produce eggs and keep the hens ir
flesh. It Is estimatetd that a bushel
of corn will feed 160 hens one day
but it contains only lime and. proteir
enough to make 32 eggs, while it ba
fat-forming elements enough for twc
days' feed for 160 hens. This shows
the necessity of having a variety o
feed In which there is more lime anc
protein. Is it any wonder hens- d(
not lay in the winter wh'en they an
fed nothing but corn?
Because sheop are easily -cared to
do not neglect to salt and water ther
regularly. This is an absoluto nece:
sity if you wish to keep the flock f
the most healthv condition.
HILL LAND AND THE DAIRY.
Hills Too Steep to Cultivate Shouli
Be Turned into Graz;ng Grounds.
In the south today there are man:
hills being plowed that should be ii
grass. It is reported that an old negro
advertised bottom lanffor sale; anc
when the would-be buyer called ti
look at the land he found nothin!
but hill land'from which all the sol
had been wished off. He was indig
nait and exclaimed: "You advertise<
"Yas, sah," replied the agedf negro
"it shuah am. De top's all done gone
and dat leaves just do bottom land.
There are many thousands of acre
of that kind of bottom land on south
ern hills, and there will, be man:
thousands more If radical dhanges I,
farm practicos are not inaugurated
B1y gradually plowing deeper whill
gradually filling the soil with vege
table matter through the' use of ani
mal nmandiro and the turning undle
of soil-inproving crops, some of the
washing could be preveuled. 0:
course, terracing and hills 'e ditch
lng should be done in a large numbe:
of cases, so as to -carry, the watei
down gradeally and keep it fron
rushing down and carrying the sol
with it. But~ even if all these thingi
were done-and they are not one time
in twenty when they are needed
many lills would still be worth more
in pasture than in cultivated crops
Cultivated crops might do well for
short A'hne, but the heavy southerr
-rains would gradually carry off th4
best part of the land, till only the old
negro's kind of bott'om land remained
Then very poor cultivated crops could
be got; and the pasture that could
be got from the land in that condi
tion would be so poor that a dair3
cow would travel over so much land
trying to get enough to eat that sh(
could not give much milk,
Southern farming is suffering frnor
many drawbacks, but from none mor<
than from poor pastures in a sectior
that would grow luxuriant pasturagt
a large part of the year if the righi
pasture grasses were used-that is
grasses suited to the sell of the farm
to the climate, and to the shade o1
sunshine where the grasses wer ti
A good pasture on hill land, whethe
I wooded or free from timber, will b
good for one who has anything t
pasture; but the dairyman will b
one especially who can use such lan
so as to get good returns from I
Small patches of land that requir
one-third of the time spent in th
field to be used in turning and the
also have much waste land along th
borders of the small fields can not b
used for cultivated crops with muc
advantage. Southern farmers mu
manage in a way that bhows they al
preciate the fact that labor is expel
sive and must be used so as to brin
good returns for .the time spent. Thl
is impossible in small patches. L1
bor also costs too much to use it I
cultivating poor land. Large blocli
of land that are fertile is whex
money is made easily.
Cabbage, Onions and Peas.
Put out the cabbage plants, so yo
can have fine fresh cabbage, har
headed ones, early next spring. Ther
is no secret about putting them ou
Only, leave the land rich, and we
prepared. Have your rows (for earl
varieties) two and a half feet apar
Drill in the rows about 800 pound
per acre of a mixture of 8 per cer
phosphoric acid and 8 per cent potasl
no ammonia. Bed with two furrow
and set the plants from 15 to I
inches apart on the north side of 11
ridge, near the bottom of the ridge
say two-thirds of the way down tU
ridge. The ridge protects the plan
from the cold winds, and being on t1
north side they do not start to groi
i lng so readUy during warm days
be killed by the later cold.
Then there are onion sets that ca
be put out now, and toward the lai
of the month marrow-fat peas can I
sowed. There are many. things th:
can be done in the garden this mon1
that will add to the comfort of t
family next spring.
- Cause of Milk Fever.
. One of- the most general caiuses
1. milk fever which attacks cows fr<
a 6 to 48 hours after calving is t
Carelessness of many farmers a
dairymeu. in milking the cow's udt
out clean just before or after calvii
which allows the glands of the udd
to flop together, which irritates t
glands and causes the fever. Natu
places an abundance of milk in t:
udder at this time for the above pI
pose, and only a part of it should I
drawn at once, repeating It frequej
ly, as the milk serves to keep tl
udder distended and full, and ac
like tho air treatment does.-Cc
This is the month to plan for nc:
year's crops, unless you have alrea
done so. In your planning be sure 1
provide for enough feed for home co:
sumption before laying out for t:
cotton and other so-called monc
crops. With corn close to 90 cents ar
oats nsarly 70 cents per bushel, ar
hay in proportion, it is time for ti
southern farmers to grow these crol
in -abundance. If your fall-sown oal
are likely to be a failure, or if th
acreage was not large ono-igh, pr,
pare land now to sow sp lag oat
Whatever you do, or~ don't do, 1
sure that you plant only good ee
-''hi.t faot should be emphasized all tU
time. The reason tha-t the world
away behind in many plants is b)
cause there is little or no care exe
cised in the selection of seeds. The
.sailds of cortton raisers make no effor
to save the best seed for plantin
just as if they thought that any so
Iof old seed wouild produce a-s goi
stuff as those that~ are particularl
noted for productiveness.
The Journal Wants peace betwee
the landlord and the tenant as ind
viduals, so long as there must be lan
lords and tenants. But If meting oi
tustice to all men should cripple ti
privaite -interests of any one, by a
moans sacrifice the personal frien
ship of such a one rather than hi
der the course of justice, in oths
words, if he won't be your friend u
less you meekly consent to suffer I:
Justice, let him be your enemy. Sut
a friend should be spurned.-Farmer
The Philosopher of Folly.
"Ideal husbands," says the Philos
phor of Folly, "are not nocessarily pc
sessed of same tastes and instinci
Now I know two men who dutiful
and cheerfully accompany their wiyv
to all Wagner operas and sympho,
concerts. One is a music lover. Tl
other in stne daf."
"0 FARMERS' EDUCATIONAL
e CO-OPERATIVE UNION
~ F AMERICA a(112
The very busy man is generally the
i very happy one.
- Let no day pass without preaching
the gospel of good cheer.
Make another New Year swear, and
let it be that you will know what
n it going on at the school house.
e The busy hen has not yet heard of
the low price of cotton nor of the
financial Burry. Go to the hen and
While you are not too lazy, get out
and fix up those flower beds for the
girls. You won't have time a little
The forthcoming ensue will cost
t the people $14,000,000, and will be -
s worth-well, mighty little to the aveV
Life I too short to spend a day
.8 without doing some good deed that
e has helped some struggler to make a
- better Union man.
a Let the watchword for this year be:4
ke "Better packing and more ware
r. houses for cotton; and unto thi's add
,o large diversifloation."
.n Ask 'the prosperous farmer how It
A was done, and nine times out of ten
>e he will tell you that it was through
le I The late flurry has not hurt any
legitimate and sound business; the
farms are making as much stuff as
ever, and it tastes as good as it used
he The good Union man who has not
an split-log drag already has a good
li nized sapling picked out to make one
the very first rainy day that comes
h3, Take plenty of the cheap newspa
re pers that are now offered to the pub
o lic. This is a time when "cheap" re.
fers -to the price only; be sure you get
JO the quality.
1e Poultry and prosperity; peanuts and
ts prosperity; pigs and prosperity; and.
r. so the story goes along through the
whole gamut of the man who Is push
ing and persevering.
y Philosophl zing is a very good thing
o for one who has nothing else to do,
. but we will give a great deal to find
0 a man who has not a big lot of things'
that need doing that h.. ie been left
d over from last week.
The carloads of turkeys that are go
Ing out of Texas for the Fistern mar
kets is another evidence that the good'
seed of the Union is taking hold and
bearing fruit that will be the relief
from the cotton fiend.
Of course there are a lot of poll'
ticlans inside ofteUnionwhwod
be glad to run the whole thing In
as their own Interests. That is a mighty,
g ood signi that the thing is worth run
rning. Stick to the Union and weed.
out this sort of fellows as fast'as they
bob up; that's the way to do bus!
d Has your Union ever talked of a
yneighborahood cannery? Not one of
~those great big thinig that it takes
an army to run and a bankc to siitain,
n but a little quiet sort of a place *here
1- you and a few df your neighbors can
-take care of .the anplus frNM bn your
place flor future home use and -a little
to sell to the fe1lows 'you' now over.
0e In town. Talk it up It is a good
a- This is an. election year, but it 1s
ir decided by all the prophete that pigsy
a. poultry, peanuts and prosperity are
u. keeping step to the marchi of prog.
:hres, and that all Union men are put,
s' ting lots of stress on the diversifl.
i The reason for the cheapness of
cotton is found in the unpaid labor of
Swomen and children who put In from
Stwelve to sixteen hours a day raising
'- the stuff. Figured at the price which -
y labor ought to bring, the cotton~ crop
8 is a money-losing game. froid start to,
iy finish at anything like the price l6
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