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The sentinel-journal. (Pickens, S.C.) 1906-1909, October 08, 1908, Image 1

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AIV ,
THE SENTINfl-.EL -JUNL
Entered April 23, 1.903, at Pickens, S. 0., as Second-Class Matter, Under Act* of Congress of March ~,1879.
VOL. XXXVIII, .PICKENS, S. C., THURSDAY,OTOBER 891908, N, 2
OUR SCHOOLS
]BY Pnor. WILLIAM H. HAND,
Univerjityv of Mouth Carolina.
Pper Number Four.
Too Many Little Half-Supported
Schools.-Sooner or later our people
are going to' have more comfortable
and commo(lious school houses. Be
fore the people put their money into 1
permanent improvements, would it I
not be vise to reduce the number ot
schools in a great many places? A
good four-room house costs less than
four one-room huoses of equal com
fort and convenience. Sixty pupils
in one building can be better taught
and more easily taught than fifteen
pupils each in four buildings. A
four-teacher , school will flourish
where four one-teacher schools would
struggle to keep alive.
In more than- half the counties in
the State are to be found dozens of
schools with 10 and 12 pupils- each.
Not many weeks ago I visted a ruial
school with an enrollment of 11 pu- 1
pils; three miles off was another
school with 13. pupils, and in anothcr
direction was a third school with 14
pMpils. The three teachers were paid
$35 each; each school house was cheap
and ill equipped. In some districts
six miles square are to be found a
many as three white schools, each
with a small number of pupils scat
tered from first reader to high school
grades. A good many of the incor
porated villages have school districts
co-extensive with the incorporate lim
its. An accurate school district map
of the State would look very much
like a crazy quilt.
What is the remedy I Take the
three schools cited above. Build' a
comfortable two-room house at a cen
tral point, and give the entire 3.8
pupils to two teachers. Each pupil
would then have his recitation time
doubled, for thcre would be in the
consolidated sehool more grades, or I
classes, than there were in the most
advanced of the three little schools. I
am at once reminded that some of <
these chil4}en would have too far t I
walk. (It is marvelous how much I
trouble a father who walked four
miles to school' and brags about,
makes over his child's walking one I
mile.) I grant that the consolidation
puts the school too far for some to
walk. What then? Take part of the a
money to transport these to the
school. Prof. W. K. Tate of the 1
Meminger Normal school, says, "Tt
is better and cheaper to transport the
distant children to the good school
than to bring a poor' school to the
distanet children." Yes, one good
school is immeasurably better than
three inferior schools.
The transporta ion of distant pu
pils is no new Tad. Several years
ago the Eastover district in Rich
land county threw five schools into
one. The district runs four wagon
ettes, made for the' purpose, to haul
the distant children. Another in
stance: Three adjoining districts in
Fairfleld county, with a combined en
rollment of 60 pupils, have consoli
dated their schools at Bethel, have'
erected a $2,600 school house and are
transporting all the children who live
-too far to walk. This consolidation
gives the school enough pupils to es
tablish a rural high school, with $300
of State aid.
State Superintendents McMahan
Sand Martain have zealonsly advocat
ed the consolidation of small schools.
Sueh a policy would encourage the
building of better roads, while the
transportation itself would protect
the eljildren in* bad weather, and
would protect the small children andi
the girls from insults or violence a+
the hands of tramps or thugs on the
loeycountry roads.
Neighborhood Jealousies and Quar
rels.-These twin evils have done
move to prevent and to destroy the
effiiency -of the common schools than
any other two agencies in the land. It,
is diffeult enough to maintain a good
school where everybody works in
harmony, and it is well nigh impossi
ble where.strife and division are. To
listen to the petty contention, the
shamp bickerings and the tales of disi
ard in some communities makes one
sarvel that a school can exist in such
* place. The petitions and the ap
peads which come before the various
school b'oards are enough to make onie
turn pesuimist. The worst of it all ig
that most of these contentional and4
bickerings are childish and groundle.%
Ind that they are usually begun and
kept alive by men who have at heart
but little interest in any school. In
;ettling most of these disputes, Sol
mon's jud'nmen between the two wo.
men claiming the child would be
ivholesome. -
It is to these jealousies and quarrels
that we owe two, three and even four
little starving schools where but one
ught to be. To them we owe the
ittle district unable to support a
aehool. Every influential local cele
wity wished to have a school house
it his front door or in ;is backyard.
Po these jealousies we owe most of
'he defeated loeal tax elections.
Tearly all the loc:l disputes over the
eacher have their origin in neigh- I
iorhood jealousies, and the baneful w
iabit of constant change of teachers S
as its roots embedded here.
A certain district school is support.
d by ten families. All is well, but o
he school house stands on the soutb 1
;ide of, a little creek which about d
)nce a year renehes a depth of four ]
eet. A and B suddenly conclude
hat this innocent stream is a men
ice to the lives of their children, and t]
etition for a new district. The next sc
;ession finds a little 20 by 20 foot T
iull of a school house on the north 1C
;ide of that creek. and a little life
ess school on each side of it. Or. e:
s bad boy is punished by the tencb- n
r; straightway C raises the flag of Ci
,ecession, and proceeds to have hiF ti
>wn little d-e-e-striec cut off. Or. M
me of the local economists gets tired ti
f paying a teacher $40 a month. ir
;ince his daughter would teach foi d:
30; the trustees will not yield te Ir
the economist; then the economist al
!nnvasses the district in the intero0 1
of a new set of trustees. w'th the 0
,%ronomist ns chnirman. Or. 1) arm1 c1
are rival physicians already at a
>dds; D says that Smith's boy has 8l
contagious disease, and must. be n
itopped from the school; E declares k
hat the disease is only infectious, r
and that it would be silly to stop t
3mith's boy; the quarrel rages, tlie t
>artisans, array themselves, and down
roes the local school tax proposed, ti
)y the only really interested patron d
>f the school. Or, X begins to dis- F
auss a new school house; Y says that fl
he old one is good eniough, and that a
( is trying to lead the district; no b
iew house is built, and the old one a
tradually rots down. Or, Miss i
3rown, the teacher, boards with the d,
Mniths; the Joneses feel neglectel, '
and begin to whisper it about that t<
he teacher cannot solve Sallie Jones' t<
woblems or parse Sallie's sentences; s
lie Smiths retaliate by asserting that g
he teacher is able to teach the whole ti
[ones family: result-the anti-Smith a
action's childre' are taught next u
;ession by Miss Sallie Jones herself. t
)nee more, Mr. Brown, with much 0
-cligious devotion to his church a
,reed, demands that the new teach- f
r shall be an X-ist; Perkins Y-ism b
it once .-begins to ferment while e
4tubbs declares that Z-ianism has
een outraged, since there has not tl
>een a X-ian teacher in the school a
n five years. When the now teach- t1
)r comes. is he to teach X-ist doe- il
rine, Y-ist doctrine, Z-inn doctrine, il
>r should he be a simple God-fearing si
nan whose daily life will be a re- 5
rrke to these clamorons Phariseesl s<
All this may sound like satire, but e<
t is a mask rehearsal of a play where il
he curtain never falls. Cannot some v
leighborhoods see themselves in the t
fi
Self Defense Established. d
Spartanburg, Special. -Raymonid a
'oster, col'ored, who shot and killed n~
ohn Garrett, also colored at Fair "
orest several weeks ago was tried C
n Court of Sessions on the charge of
aurder. The defendant proved self r
lefense and the jury wasn't long in a
'eturning a verdict of not guilty. e
'oster was represented by Spndlers -
br Depasis.e
s
r
Liquor Found in Beef Market- t
Spartanburg, Special.-The beei ~
market and restaurant of J. J. Spanr
located on Main street, was raidet
Saturday afternoon by the police anc
q barrel containing one hundred pints t
of liquor was found in the beef mar- 1
ket. Spann claims that he alon& E
with others ordered the stuff. This ia
the biggest haul the police have mad'
in some ti ec.
4ARCI Of SCIENC
'he President Address( , t
Tuberculosis Congress
'RAISES GREAT ACHIEVEMEN1
reat Mpeting of Scientists Adjour
to Assemble Next at Rome-Prei
dent Speaks.
Washington, D. C., Special.-T
iternational Tuberculosis Congre
hich has been in session here closi
aturday to meet next in Rome.
One of the most pleasalit surpirs
I the closing scenes of the congre
as the appearance for the first tir
uring its proceedjigs .of Freside
oosevelt. In a characteristic addre
resident Roosevelt, paid a notal
ibute to the assemblage of so mni
dentists of intenational reputatic
he President spoke -in part as f<
lws:
"It is difficult for us to realize t'
rtraordinary changes, the extraor<
ary progress, in certain lines of s
al endeavor during the last two
tree generations; and in no oth
anifestation of human activity ha
io changes been quite so far-reac
g as in the ability to grapple wi
isease. It is not so very .lon
Leasuring time by history, since t
titude of man towards a disca
ich as that of consumption was o
C helpless acquiescence in what
3isidered to be the . mandates
supernatural power. It is but
iort time since even the most gift
kembers of the medical professi
new as little as any layman of i
eal cause of a disease like this, a
lierefore necessarily of the remed
> be invoked to overcome it.
"Take, for instance, the work ti
le United States government is n<
cing in Panama. The Isthmus
anama, whieh was a by-word f
ital disease, has become well-ni
sanatorium; and it has become
ecause the investigations of certa
edical men which enabled them
nd out the real causes of certa
iseases. especially yellow fever an
alarial fever, and to take measur
> overcome them. The older dc
)rs here when they were medic
ndents would have treated the su
stion of regardinig mosquitos
ie prime source of disenes like th
; a subjert of mirth. These utter
nexpected results have followed p
ent laborious. dangerons and extr
rdinair skillful work that has e
bled the cause of the disease to
)and and the diseases themselves
a combatted with extraordinary sv
sq.
'At this moment in the middle
ie grent continent of Arfrien there
peenliarly fatal and terrible disna
le slpening sickness, a disease whi
' it had beon known to our ancesto
1 the middle nzes would have be
poken of as the black doath w
poken of in the middle ages-as
sourge of (Godl, poss5ibly as somethia
annected with a comet, or some sit
ar explanntion would have been a
anced. We all knowv that it is d
a the carrying of a small and dead
lood parasite by a species of bitil
y.
''And the chance to control th
isease lies in the wvork of just sun
ten as, and indeed, of some of t1
ten who, are assembled here. Y,
rho have come here, however, ha
omne to combat not a scourge confi
d to the tropics, but what is on t
rhole the most terrible scourge of t
eople throughont the world. B
few years ago hardly an intellige
ffort was made or could he made
rar against this peculiarly dead
nemy of the human race. The chan
necessfully to conduct that war
ose when the greatest experts
he medical world turned their trai
d intelligenco to the task. It r
tains for them to find out just wh
an ho done.
''I feel that no gathering cou
ike plaee fraught with greater ho
or the welfare of the people at lar
han this. I thank you all, men a
romen of this country, and you, o
uests, for what you have done ai
re doing. On hnhnlf of the nai
greet you, and T hope you will u
erstand how mutch we have appi
fated your coming here."
[THE GOV'T CROP REPORT
Condition is .69.7 and Number of
e Bales Ginned 2,282,000.
Washington, Special.-Crop condi
tion, 69.7; number of bales ginned,
2,282,000. These are the reports i3
S sued by the government Friday morn
iirg, the crop condition being based
is until September 20th and number of
bales ginned until September 25th.
Compared with the reports issued
on the same date last year the crop
condition is 2 per cent higher and the
" number of bales ginned one millioni
less. The reports had an inappreria
4 ble effect on the market.
The variance in the number of
es bales ginn9d this and last year is
ss' attributed to the fact that the weath
le er this fall has been much more fa
vorable to the gathering of the staple
It than at 'the same time last season.
ss In many sections of the country it is
le stated that a large part of the crop
y has been gathered.
n. Cotton Ginned During Year.
Washington, Special.-The census
bureau Friday announced that 2,582,
le 688 bales of cotton had been ginned
' from the growth of 1908 to Septen
0- ber 25th, as compared with 1,532,602
" to the corresponding date last year.
e The number of active ginneries re
porting is 23,650.
Ch Condition of Cotton Crop.
g, The crop reporting board of the bu
ai reau of statistics -of the department
Re of Agriculture, reports the average
ie condition of the crop on Septembei
le 25th at 69.7, as compared with 76.1
of on August 25th and 67.7 on Sep
a tember 25th, 1907. North Carolina
ed 69; South Carolina, 68; Georgia, 71
wn and Texas, 71.
he
nid New Georgia Railroad Opened.
s Valdosta, Ga., Special.-The Geor
at gia & Florida Railway, a newly con
structed line running from this plac<
of 100 miles northwest to H1azeburst
or was formally opened to the publij
bFriday. A special train brought 50(
o representative citizens from poinli
in along the line to this city. Work is
rapidly progressing with a view Ic
uniting the newly con'structed road
with other divisions now in opera
tion, which will give a new siort
ehne between Madison, Fla., and Au
al gusta, Ga.
Lincolnton Men Interested in New
York Corporation.
New York, Special.-According to
a- official report of the Secretary of
n- State "The Mutual Farm Commis
~ sion of New York City," capital
$10,000 has filed articles of incorpora.
tion with the Secretary of State et
'- Albany with permission to increahe
capital to $200,000. The directors
. chosen are named as Daniel E.
. Rhyne and James A. Ahernethy, of
Lincointon, North Carolina, and
Frank Guy .Hull, of 1644 Nineteentii
rs avenue, Brooklyn.
As To Extend Trolley Line.
i Spartanburg, S. C., Special.-The
'a. street car company will soon begin
ci- tihe work of extending its North]
i' Church trolley line to the fair
ly grounds. Preliminary work is now
ig under way and a larg- force of hands
will be put to work shortly anid thec
it laying of the rails wvili be rushed,
'h The county fair wvill open November
ac 3rd and continue until the fjth.
R11
'c Indictment of T. Jenkins Hains.
a- New YrSpecial.-DistrictA
,e torney, Dorrin appeared before the
at grand jury in queens county and de.
r1t manded the indictment of 'T. Jenkins~
oHains as accessory before the fact
yin the murder of William E. Annis,
e who was shot 'and killed by Peter C,
a- Rains. The principal witness againgl
nhmbefore the grand jury was Mrs
n- Annis, widow of the victim.
Tour Killed on Ohio Central.
HId Toledo, 0., Special.--Four personm
so Jare dead and two fatally and threet
to seriously injured as a result of
id wreck on the Ohio Central Railroa.
ir at Sugar Ridge, when an extra
id freight train plunged into the real
m of a special passenger train. Tha
n. deadc are George Gosler, Riehari
'e- Rideout, Thomasi Crane and Leslih
lullar.
WAR CLOUDS LOWER
Outlook is for Swift Beginning
of Mostilities
ONLY SMALL NATIONS INVOLVED -
London Hears News From Several
Bources That Two Crises Are Im
pending Which May Force Hostili
ties In the Near Future.
L'ondon, By Cable.-Events which
threaten to change the political face
of Europe are crystalizing with light-..
ning rapidity. Almost over night the
horizon of the Near East, which
seemed gradually to be assuming a
peaceful appearance, has become
crowded with war clouds.
ews has reached here from sev
eral sotirces that two definite strokes
are impending which cannot fail to
bring matters to a crisis, and perhaps
force an immediate war. One is the
proclamation by Prince Ferdinand,
of the independence of Bulgaria,
which will incuude Rumelia, taking
for himself the title of "Czar." The
other is an announcement of Austro-,
Hungary of the practical annexation
of the provinces of Bosnia and Her
zegovina as appendages of the Austro
Hungarian crown.
Either action will be equivalent to
the leasing up of the treaty of Berlin
while Prince Ferdinand's course
seems almost certain to precipitate
a war between Bulgaria and Turkey.
Before these possibilities the quar
rel over the East Rumelin section of
the Orient Railway sinks into insig
nifleance. Both armies are reported
to be quietly and swiftly mobilizing
near the borders. Bulgarians are
said to be buying munitions and
horses on an extensive scale.
Bulgarians have faith in their
army, which has reached a high state
of efficiency although it is perhaps
lacking in omfleers and the war, for
which Bulgaria has long been sus
peeted of preparing, could be fought
with more advantage for her now
than when the Turkish government
had time to reorganize its forces,
which have become enravelled by the
corruption and neglect of the old
regime.
The Emepror of Austria, it is un
derstood. has desontehed a letter to
the President of France, setting forth
his intentions regarding Bosnia and
Herzegovina, although - the contents
of the letter are kept secret, and be
is sending similar notes to the other
powers.
It seems incredible that Emperor
Francis Joseph, who always has been
a scrupulous observer of forms,
should reveal his plans to the rulers
of other nations before he has com
municated them to his own Parlia
ment. One explanation is that *tho
letter wvas not intended for delivery
until Tuesday. when identical notes
would be presented to the other
powers.
Austria is suspected of encouraga
ing the recent Bulgarian-Turkish
trouble for her own interests, but
the British government has made pro
posals to the two countries lookingr
to the settlement of the railway casa,
under which the other powers have
agreed to give support to the plan,
which contemplates the temporary
restoration of the way to Turkey "to
save her face,'' and then transfer
ence of the company to the Bulgarian
government.
The English press expresses sur
priae that Austria and Bulgaria
should plot against Turkey and asks
if the great powers will submit to
having obstacles placed in the way of
the regeneration of Turkey..
General Wright Selected.
Washington, Special.--President
Roosevelt will' designate General
Luke E. Wright, Secretary of War, as
the government 's official representa
tive at the Southern commercial con
i res, which will convene in this
ity December 7th and 8th .Just prior
otenational rivers and b sem
congress.

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