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VOL. XXVIOTCE99 TUSA.NVMBE42 98
B PPoV. WMaZAN R. HANO,
U1Ivers, ot south Carolias.
Paper Nunber Nine.
The High School Situation,-Count
-ag the incresed facilities added this
.Year, it is easily demonstratdd by fig
'uea that the public high schools of
Ahe State, aided and unaided, 1have in
-eased in effieiency more than twen
ty-Eve per cent since January 1,
1907. In more than one-fourth of
th3em the effi6iency has been doubled
within that time. Tle chief increase
i in the quantity and q4ulity of the
rteaching force, thus giving longer
recitation periods, a wider range of
.-studies, and lengthened courses of
.study. The State appropriation of
$50,000 has been the, chief instru
'ment by which these improvements
'have been brought about, but it must
'be admitted that even with this lever
it has been a task of magnitude to
Vecure this increased efficiency. It
Abas required courage and watchful
mes on the part of the State High
:8chool Board to prevent the schools
from taking the State aid for the
-high school, then turning it into the
0qmmon school department without
'one particle of increase of effleiency
in the high school.
The introductory statement might
'lead the uninformed to think that our
high schools are xpw satisfactory.
Far from it. There are not far from
140 public schools coming within the
ninimum definition of a high school
under the present high school law
-one teacher giving all his time to not
'er than fifteen pupils above. the
enth grade or seventh school year.
these 140 schools, 25 have one
h school teacher each, 80 schools
.-e two teachers edch, and the re
-..ining ones morp thah-Wo teachers
each. Only six schools have each the
full teaching time of five teachers or
In nearly all the one--teacher high
-schools the recitation periods have
been advanced to 30 minutes, each,
mothing less than 20 minutes. being.
accepted in the aided schoGls. In
those with two or more high school
teachers, fully three-fourths have
40 and 45-minute periods, while a fen
have one hour periods. In an aided
school of this class nothing less than
30 minutes is accepted. The great
-est single gain has been this length
'-ening of the recitation periods, and
upon the whole the situation in this
respect is satisfactory.
Some notlevable improvement in
the competency of- the teachers has
been -made, but in this respect condi
tions are far from satisfactory. Many
places are willing to pay from $1,200
to'$1,500 for a supervising princinall
'but give him cheap assistants. It ii
utterly useless to talk about getting
a competent ind experienced woman,
- fitted- to do high school teaching, at
140 a month, or a man who has
-shown himself qualified, at $60. It
is painful to mte to say this, for. among
just such teachers are some' 'of my
best personal friends. But I "know
-only too well that the standard of
'the high schools depends upon the
-standard of their teaching force. Let
inc tell some things I have seen -and
heard. I have seen more than one
'high school teacher wrestle a half
'hour with ant ordinary' problem in
Wentworth 's Practical Arithmetie, a
~book usually completed in the eighth
grade. In Tarr's Physical Geography
'a book really too -.difficult for . the
'eighth grade where it is usually
lgund, I have seen teachers cover
-enough gronmd in one 30-minute reci
tation to have given profitable work
'for three such periodls. In one his
-tory recitation I have seen the class
resad the text like a fourth reader 'for'
-one-half the time, then listened to the
teacher asik twenty to thirty wvholly
*q lgei egetions each suggestive
ft ansdei- expected. Day after
day I see teachers vainly attemniing
iteach English Grammar and Pune
inuation from the rules and the few
examples givens in <the textbook, and
seemingly .oblivious to the fact that
every text the child uses is full of the
'very ill'ustt-atioqa. 'needed. Latin is
usually referred' to as a dead lang
uage; it might with "propriety be
'eulled deadly in some instances. Not
1a few high school pupils,after two
years"of'Latin -study are i e to
aeparatp..a ,o4 l#t its *e's. or
In translation it is no uncommon
thing to hear such as this: "Galiia
Gaul, est-is, omnis-all, divisa-divided;
in-in, partes-parts, tres-three," etc.
As a .specimen product of the vigor
of the Latin gr4fted upon the fiexibi
lity of the English, note this: "The
army having been drawn up more as
the nature of the place and the slope
of the hill and the nece#sity of the
time than as the order and plan of
military things demanded, since the
different legions some in one part and
vome another were resisting the en
emy and the thick hedges having been
cast down," etc. (See Caesar's Gal
lie War, Book II, chapter 22.) The
teacher who accepted this jagron holds
a college diploma, and is exempt fron
examination of fitness to teach. On
my desk are some specimens of spell
ing in the handwriting of high school
teachers--all but one college gradu
.ates: Ceasar (thus by three teachers),
latin, litnrature, Enock Arden. Bau
er's Grammar has- been in constant
use in this State eight years, ind
Myers' Histories more than fifteen
years. Here are some of the varia
tions: Mver's, Meyers', Meyer's;
Beubler (five teachers), Beulah (three
teachers), Beulah (two teachers'
Beublar (one teacher). A tifteen
hundred dollar principal can not
make bricks without straw.
Only a few high schools are (on
tent to offer a: two-year course, al
though one of the best schools in the
State has but two years. Nine-tenths
of the high schools offer a three-ycar
course, no matter how many nor how
few teachers. Last year there were
but four public high schools in the
State with a standard four-year
course and epomgh teachers to teach
it. The report- for 1908-9 will show
perhaps eight standard four-years
schools. Tv be sure more than fmur
schools claim a four-year course. Sev.
eral schools claiming a four-year
course were credited with fewer units
of work than are required for a
standard three-year course and one
school claiming four _ears fell.bielow
the rgquirements for a standard two
ear course The standard applied
o the high schools was that generally
accepted by the colleges of the State,
and is below that .used by the Corne
gie Foundation Board. The error in.,
to which most o fthese schools have
fallen is to divide their pupils into
four classes with six and -seven moth
intervals of advancement between
each two, then call each division a
year in the courqe. That the reader
may see the validity of 'some of these
claims, some courses are here outlin
ed: This is the fourth year's Work
in one school: The first half of My
ers' General- Hist'6ry, *Comercial Ari
thmetic flve tiJne a week, three books
of Plane *eometry, and forty-five
hours during the year in Tappan's
'History'of Literature. Another four
year iehool gets through the Seeond
Book of Caesar's Gallic War, four
books of Plane Geometry, and Top
pan's Literature. Numbers of these
courses show that the third year and
the fourth year elassesw#re together in
more than one study.' One must not
be misled by the term literature in
many of these schools. It is nothing
more than reading about the a%thor
of literature a little biography, if the
truth must be told.
The poverty of some of these four
year courses is mo're than offset by
some of the . plethorie three-year
courses, some of which are formid
able affairs. At random I take one
year's work from one of those
courses: Arithmetic, Algebra, Rheto
ric, Literature, Latin (reading, gram
mar, and prose composition). Physi
cal Georgraphy,g~istory and Business
Methods ('an innocent little text.)
In this year's work every pupil takes
everything prescribed, and each pupil
is on recitation practically everyv pe
riod during the day. Several schools
have A rithmate, Algebra and Geomne
try in the une -year's Vork, and a
rew have P eicaf %igraphy- anid
Physics in t same 'year', with pt-ac
tically no other seienee in the entire
he niajonty'o ' 2'bhN oe-eaclM'
high schools -undertake the impossible
-to teach a full fogr-year course.
One such school has clatssba\in Arith
metic, Algebra, Geometr.V, English
Grammear, English Composition', Liter
ature, Physical Geography, U. 8. SJis
tory, S. C. History, General Hlistory,
Beginner's Latin, Caesar, .and Ovid.
One teacher may teach a few sub.ie0ts
through a four-year course, and 4o
it well, but on such course as the
one 'just given a teachdr I. wasting his
lpme and energy. ThAgrutest evilli
t.pupil. His time and-egort aa,
vrded ig among so many subje--ts
that he pursues none of them lopg
enough or-far enough to get any train
ing or knowledge out of them. In
even tke bEtter schools the average
pupil gets but little out of such sub
ject as Jhykical, Geography, Physics,
and CJii; because they are not Stu
died lon enotgh to benefit the pupil.
TOe higz schools, like the conmmon
sth6oi, suffei from the endless chang
ing of teaIers. A comparison of
this year's schedule with that of lost
year show,that the whole course has
been overhauled and reorganized, and
in some cases the new course seems to
be given ovir to reviewing past work.
Perhaps such course is necessary, but
it shows a fearful waste of energy
somewhere. In at least two cases
the now teachers.have taken the pu
pils out - of last year's eighth and
ninth grades, added a few recruits,
and made a four-year school. Pre
sumbly .this Is progress.
Atlanta Court Fixes Weight Georgia
Mule May Haul.
Atlanta, Ga., Special.-TI)ere is a
limit to the.weight a Georgia -nule
should be made to haul and this lipilit
was fixed by Judge 11,oyles in police
court at 2,500 pounds. Judge Broyles
fined C. B. Walket $5.75 because Wal
ker's mule was eaught by in enter
prising policeman in tbe act of lauul
ing a load of 4,032 pounds.
Prominent Georgia4 Woman Dead.
Columbus, Ga., Special.-Emma
Moffett Typg, aged 62 years, died
here -Monday. Mrs. Tyng was an ex
tensive traveler in both the new and
old worlds and her lecture on the
Holy Grail was received with much
appreciation in various Southe,
cities. She spent nearly -all of the,
past few years of- her life in New
York. She was the aufthor of one
novel and was .4. frequent magazine
Prank of EKlowlsa evleratar
CauM Costly rire in Tu"a Tow&
Belton, Texasr Special.-Fire start
e& by Hallowe'en roisterers Satur
day night destroyed the Belton com
press and 10,600 bales of cotton. The
damage. is $250,000, covered by in
suranpe. Twenty residences were
danaed by fire and - water, and -170.
loafd. freight cars burned.
Receivers For Southern Life and Ac
Norfolk, Va., Special.-Ug8en .,%Pit
filed in the - United States'- Circuit
Court here by Charles L. Hilgartner,
R. E. Hilgartner and Addition E.
Mtillikin, citizens of Maryland, for
the appointment of receivers, in Vir
ginia, for the Southern Life and Acci
dent Insurance Company, Judge Wad
dill cited the defendant company to
.ppear here November 16th and show
cause why a receiver should not be
Mill Employes Get Full Work.
Pawtucket, R. 1, Special.-The
thread mills of the J. & P. Coats
Company, in this city, employing 2,
500 hands, resumed a full time work
ing schedule on Sattadlay, according
to an annonetent .posted in the
mills. The mills have been. running
on short time since the financial die
pression of last fall.
World's Visible Cotton Supply.
New Orleans, Special.-Secretary
Hester's statement of the world's vis
ible supply of cotton issued Saturday
shows the total visible is 3,617.900
against 3,230,124 last week and 3,
371,958 last year. Of this the total
of American cotten is 3,Q92,0000
against 2,741.124 last week -and 2.
565.082 last year all other Inds in
eluding Egypt, Br-azil. Itidia, etc..
525.000 against 530,000 last week and
800,876 last yenrI.
A MEAN SLUR.
"The -laundrymen are thinking
,about formIng an exchange.''
"Good idea. I suppose you can go
there and trade the collars you get
for your own -wash, eht"-LouisYllle
VCourier-Jotitnui. -,* --
MR TAFT'S RELIGION
President Roosevelt Says it is
His Own Private Concern
PEOPLE SHOULD NOT INTERFERE
The President-Elect's Religious Be
lief, Declares the Presidlent, Is
Purely His Own Private Concern;
a matter Por Which He Is Re
sponsible Solely to His Maker, and
Not a Subject for General Dis
cussion or Political Discrimination.
Taft's religious faith is purely his
own private concern and not a matter
for general discussion and political
discrimination,'' says President
Roosevelt in a letter he made public
in which lie answers numerous cor
respondents. The President says lie
deferred the publication of the lettei
until now to avoid any agitation
likely to influence the election. The
November 6, 1908.
My Dear Sir: I have received youy
letter running in part as follows:
"While it is claimed almost 9ni
versally that religion should not enter
into politics, yet there is 'no denying
that it does, and the .mass of the
voters that are not Cbholics will not
suppot a man for any office, es
pecially for Presidbnt of the United
States, who is a-Roman Catholic.
"'Since Taft has been nominated
tor President by the Republican par
ty, it is being circulated and is con
estantly urged as a reason for not vot
ing for Taft that he is an infidel (Un
itarian) and wife and brother Roman
Catholics. * * * If his feelings
are in sympathy with the Roman
Catholic Church on account- of his
'wit&d bro.tbqr, b6ing Catholics,
that would be objectionable to a sffli
cient number of voters to defeat him.
On the other hand, if he is an infidel,
that would be sure to mean defeat.
* * * I am writing this letter
for the sole purpose of giving Mr.
Taft all opportunity to let the world
know what his religious belief is."
I received many such letters as
yours during the campaign, express.
ing dissatisfaction with Mr. Taft on
religious grounds;; some of them on
the ground that he was a Unitarian,
,nd others on the ground that he
was suspected to be in sympathy with
Catholics. I did not answer any of
these letters during the campaign
because I regarded it as an outrage
even to agitate such a question as a
man's religious convictions, with the
purpose f influencing a political
election. lAut now that the campaign
is over, when there is opportunity for
men calmly to consider whither such
propositions 'as those you make in
your -letter would*,lead, I wish to - in.
vite them to consider them, and ]
have selected your letter to ansvwer
because you advance both the ob.
jections commonly urged against Mr.
Taft, namely: that he is a Unitarian
and also that he is suspected -of sym
pathy with the Catholics.
You ask that M*t. Taft shall ''let
the world know what his religious
belief i.s.'' This is purely his own
private concern, and it is a matter be
tweeii'him and his Maker, a matter
for his own conscience; and( to re
quite it to be iade publie under pen
alty of political discrimination is to
negative the first principles of our
government, which guarantee com
plete religous liberty, and the right to
each man to act in religious affairs
as his own conscience dictates. Mr.
Taft never asked rmy advice in the
matter, but if 'he had asked it, I
should have emphatically advised
inm against thus stating publicly his
religious belief. The dlemandi for a
statement of a candidate's religious
hief can have no meaning except
(fidf there rayr.be -discriinton :for
or against him because of that be
lief. D)iscrimination against the
hhlde.r of one faith means retaliatory
'discrimination against men of othem
faiths. The inevitable result of en
tering upon such a practice would be
an abanonment of our real' freedom
of conscience and a reversion to the
dreadful o nditions of religions dis
sensionis wvhich in so many lands have
proved fatal, to true liberty. to true
'religion and to* all advanced in civili.
To disrimingo adain
ly upright citizon 0ee : h
to some parti6ola I
cause, like Abraham' '
not avowed his- all'iai
Churfh, is Imn outfage a
liberty of conscienoe- --i
of the found tina 'oCAru
You are entifled to know. wh(t '4
man ;sepking your sufre Iu'i.
of clean and up'rght life, .b
in all his dealings with his flla
and fit by. qualificati.on nd puI'.d
to do. well in the great of 411)
which he. is a candidatW; but you
not entitled to 'knoi matters wM
Ike purely between himself and -4
Maker. If it .is proper or legitimau
to oppose a moo for being a tt.
tarian, as was John Quinny Ada*_
for instance, 10 is the Reverend Ed.
ward Everek Hale, at tho* preseit
moment chaplain of the Senate, aixE
an Amerisan. of whose life all, ood
Americans are proud-then it Woul
be equally proper to support or op.
pose a ran because of his views or
jfiatifif0ion by faith, or the metbod
of administering the sacrament o thes
gospel of salvation by works. If you'
onoe enter on such a career there it
absolutely no limil at which you carl
. So much for your objeetions to Mr'
Taft because he is a Unitarian. No V
for your ob.ections to him becaus.
you think his wife and brother to bi
Roman Catholits. As it happeneo4'
thiey are not; but if they were, or it
he were a Roma, Catholic, himself, If
ought not to afYict in the slightesi
degree any man's supporting him fot
the position of President.
I believe that this republic will et4
dure for many centuries. If Ao therf
will doubtless be among its' Presf
dents Protestants and Catholies 4t$'
very probably at some time, Jewr
I have constantly tried while Px
dent to act in relation to my fellO*
Americans of Catholic faith as I hope
that any future President who hap
pens to be a Catholic will act to
wArds his fellow Americans 9f
Protestant faith. Had I followed
othiercourse I should have felt that
I was unfit to represent the Amqr'.
In my cabinet at the present =o6
ment there sit side by. Ride Catholie,
and Protestant, Christian and Jew.
each man chosen because in my bei
lief he is peculiarly ft to e.ercise o6
behalf of all our people the-duties of
the office to which I :hAVe appointed
him. In no ease does the ian%a re
ligious belief in any'way iriihejnde
his discharge of his duties, save is it
makes him more eager to. act justly
and uprightly in his relations to all
men. The same principles that have
obtained in appointing the niembevV
of my Cabinet, the highest officiali
under me, the officials to whrn i
entrusted the work of carrying oit
all the important policies of my adl
ministration, are the principles upor
which all good Americans should got
in choosing, whether by election,,or
appointmept, the tpen to. fill any -
-flee, from the highest to the lowest
ir the land.
Mr.. J. C. Martin,
Seagulls of Auchmithle,
In the fishing village of Auchmithte
you may friequently witaess seegulls
flying into the houses of the fisher
men and partaking of food from their
'iands. One of these sea birds was
in the habi't of' staying in * fisher
mnan's house all the year round .ex
cept 'at the 'breeding sesWon, when' l9
left. About a fortnight ago, while
the gull was away, thre fisherman re.
moved his home some -three and a
half miles from the former place.
The fisherman never expected to
me his old friend the gull again.
it was therefore, mutch to hi. aston
lwh.ment that he .beheld on a receit
Sunday the sea bird come walking
into his 'new residence with stately'
steps to 'resume his old familiar'tlgg
andl household sways.-! !nden Speet
Remarks the Baltimore News,. It;t'
felt That little head way can be mad
in stayIng the prpgross cf tubprculo~4
until 'nen and women who come
contact with those who sufferfo '
are brought to know the eo
extent of the -plague and realIse
they miUet assist in preWep2ting