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HOLARLY SUNDAY SERMON BY
ject: Tio Prerogatives and re
onsibilitIes of Moral Freedom.
altimoro, Md.-Sunday morning
dinal Gibbons preached his regu
monthly sermon to a large audi
e, at the cathedral. His subject
s "The Prerogatives and Responsi
ties of Moral Freedom." The text
s from St. Luke 18:31-43: "Jesus
manded the blind man to be
ought to Him, and He asked him,
ying: What wilt thou that I do
r thee? And he said: Lord, that I
ay receive my sight." The cardinal
Is not he stone blind who is entire
engrossed by the desire for earthly
hes and shu.ts his eyes to the pearl
great price? Is not he blind who
wallowing in the mire of sin, who
leading a life of sensuality which
ds to melancholy and despair? Is
t he blind who is bending all his
ergies to the acquisition of honor
d fame, and when he acquires it, it
Is to satisfy the cravings of his
rt? Is not he blind who looks up
heaven and con.templates the
rks of creation, but discerns not
e existence of a Creator? Is not he
Iind who sees the hands moving on
e clock-work of time, but fails to
cognize the invisible Hand which
eps these works in motion? Is not
blind who counts the days of his
ars as they flow by, but does not
zsider the ocean of eternity that
-s before him?
Now, Christ says to each of you
.t He said to the blind man: What
will? What wilt thou that I
sublime is the faculty of free
It Is a gift which distinguishes
g the brute creation; for man
e om*,,venture on earth that en
moral freedom. It is a preroga
which you possess in common
h the ange!s and which makes you
to God Himself. God and the
els and man are the only beings
t have free will.
t is the exercise of the will that
tinguishes the saint from the sin
the martyr from the apostate,
hero from the coward, the tem
te man from the drunkard, the
volent ruler from the capricious
t. If we are destined to be of
their freedom should be enlled
estion: "We are the seed of
i," they exclaimed, "and have
been slaves to any man." But
ir Lo d repliod that though children
Abraman, they were in bondage as
ng as ,they were in sin. "Amen, I
y to y6p: Whosoever committeth
is the slave of sin."
Do not Aiericans sometimes talk
this way? We are freeborn citi
ms and yield to no despotic power.
4t what will it profit us to enjoy
e blessings of civil freedom, if we
Sno.t enjoy the glorious .liberty of
ildren of God, by which we are res
ted from ignorance -and can trample
n sin? What will it avail us to be
ecognized in the public walks of life
a free and independent citizens, if in
e circle of our family, and in the
nctuary of our hearts, we are lashed
s slaves by the demon of passion; if
e are slaves to a p)etulant temper,
ayes .to lust, to intemperance, pride
nd vainglory; slaves to public opin
n, the most cap)ricious of all
Jesus Christ is the highest ideal of
bristian perfection. He is "the way
nd the truth and the life." He came
oteach us by word and by example.
ow, if there is any one virtuc our
aviour inculcates more forcibly than
nother. 'It is this: That our heart
nd wvill shoul be ini harmony with
ed's wvill. "I came down from
eaven," He says. "not to do My own
Ill, bu.t the will of Hlimi that sent
e. My food is to do the will of Him
hat sent Me that I may finish His
In exhorting us to make the will of
God the supreme rule of our actions,
ur Lord is echoing the voice of His
eernal Father. "My son., says Al
mghty God, "give Me thy hen,rt." HIe
des not say: Give Mo thy riches,
ty lands and thy possessions, for
tese belong to Him already. "The
erth is the Lord's and the fullness
tereof, .the world and all that dwell
terein." He does not say: My son,
gve the service of thy body, for that
aso belongs to Him. "Thy hands,"
ays the p)rophet, "'have made and
fshionedl me." And besides we read
iybestow the service of our brain
ad hands on one who has already
gined our affections. But He says:
ive Me thy hear.t and the affections
ofthy wvill, for this is all that you
cn call your own; this is the only
ree, unmortgaged property you can
You should discern the hand of
God in the daily occurrences of life.
* egard all the events hap
p u, such as poverty andi
a'ei aess and health, life and
.1;, the afflictions and perse
t ing. from the malice sif
a ~ iooald regard all these, I
tecidents and real evils,
.......tions controlled and di
ThW are liiiks in the chain of your
immortal destiny; they are so many
gems in the diadem of your glory.
This is the teaching of the apostle,
who says that "to them that love God
all things. work together unto good."
I consider the recognition of this
truth thd highest Christian philos
ophy and the practice of it the only
substantial basis of genuine peace.
You will never enjoy solid tranquillity
till you accept with composure and
equanimity all the visitations which
come from His loving hand.
Our Saviour insinuates .the same
comforting doctrine. ' When He is
arrested in the garden before His
crucifixion, Peter draws a sword in
His defense. Our Lord thus rebukes
him:- "Put thy sword into its scab
bard. The chalice which My Father
hath 'given Me, shall I not drink it?"
He does not say: The chalice which
Judas and Calaphas and Herod and
the Jews have givcn Me. No. He
regards them all a. the unconscious
instruments of God in the work of
man's redemption. God used these
vile instruments for the -sacriflee and
glorification of His Son, just as a
father uses a scourge to chastise his
child and then throws it into the fire.
"Do you not know," says Pilitte to
Christ, "tha.t I have the power of life
and death over you?" "You would
have no power over Me," replies our
Lord, "if it were not given thee from
Blessed is the man who in every
occurrence of life preserves in his
heart an unalterable adhesion to
God's will, through honor and dis
honor, through evil report and good
report, in sickness and in health. in
prosperity and adversity. Blessed is
he who hears the paternal voice of
God in the thunder of tribulations
that resound over his head. Happy
is he who has this short but compre
hensive prayer often in his heart and
on his lips: "Thy will, 0 Lo: 1, be
done!" Thrice happy are they who
can say with the confidence of the
apostle: "Who shall separate us from
the love of Christ," and a loyal at
tachment to His will. "Shall tribu
lation or distress, or danger or perse
cution or the sword? I am sure that
neither death nor life nor angels nor
principalities nor powers, nor things
present nor things to come, nor
height nor might nor any other crea
ture shall be able to separate us from
the charity of God."
HOPING AGAINST HOPE.
By the REV. P. A. HALPIN,
St. Angela's College. New Rochelle,
N. Y. *
Who against hope believed in hope.
The most wretched of his species is
the man without hope. He is more
than wretched, he is inexcusably
criminal, because an offender against
a divine law which the apostle em
phasized in his masterly appeal to
To hope and to hope always is a con
mand so stringent that against hope
we must believe in hope. The words
of St. Paul suggest a picture in which
hone is portrayed sunine and gasping,
while ministering faith bends over it
and arouses it into'life and strength
and commanding beauty. A miracle
truly this, but within the power of
religion and attested by reason and
That such marvel may be per
formed-nay, that it is not beyond
the reach of any soul-is solace un
speakable. It means that any one
may bar forever against himself the
gates of despair. It is a triimpet call
for highest courage and achevement.
It implies a command which if uin
uittered by the Creator would pass by
unheeded. But God wills it. there
fore it can be obeyed. Though it
calls for a fight of hope against itself,
it is not a contradiction nor a para
dox, but carried .to its ultimate conse
quences It means triumph, it is uni
versal In its application, bars no man
from its sway and eliminates no comn
bination of circumstances. It en.joins
upon one absolute refusal to surren
der save to the inevitable doom of us
Moreover, it finds a resnonse in
man's heart. "Never say die!" is a
cry as old as the race. All the myth
ologies reflect it. Christianityv con
secrates it. rho Old World felt its
truth; to the New it was given to
understand it. On .sea and land, on
every battle field since .the dawn of
history, has It been heard.
There has never been a mandate
to despair. No matter what the en
vironment, how dlark the outlook,
over and above all is the inspiration
of hope. What man's vcice prevails
against the utterance of faith? When
a man says there is no hope, where is
his guarantee? The physician says:
"The man wvill die with the dawn"
the man lives yet. A man is in the
clutches of ad.versity; he has lost his
all; lo! on the fragments of his for
tune he builds a colossal independ
History has not chronicled every
hopeful deedl. Ships a-many de
spaired of have come to p)or.t; fr.om
many "last ditches" have b)een uin
furled flags of victory.
The hope that Paul speaks of is not
supine but active. It puts heart in a
man as nothing else does. It is the
mother of resurrection. Giod the aui
thor and finisher of hope he praised!
For from Him conmes the confidence
which says: "There is a way out; if
I cannot find it I will make it."
This hope, heaven descended, ap
proved by reason and sanctioned b)y
experience, cannot be baffled. To
hope against hope is the basis of char
acter. The .truest test of a man is to
hope against hope and to p)luck suc
cess out of the very heart oi' failure.
T1he motive of human progress has
ever been a belief in spiritual reality.
Whenever that motive has been
superseded, progress has ceased, dis
integration has set in. whether ini the
nation or n the int iindual.
WI CdVER A CONTINENT
conen on Called to Met Is Wash
ington Febuary 18.
Washington, Special. - Announce
ment was made at the White House
Sunday of a proposed plan for a con
ference looking toward the eonserva
tion of the natural resources of
North America, to be held at the
White House February 18 next.
Letters suggesting the plan have
been addressed by President Roose
velt to the Governor-General and to
the Premier of Canada and to Presi
dent Diaz, of Mexico. They will be
delivered to the officials in person by
Gifford Pinchot, chairman of the Nat
ional Conservation Commission and
Chief Forester of the United States.
whom President Roosevelt has chosen
as his personal representative to con
vey the invitations and to confei with
the authorities of the two Govern
ments. Mr. Pinehot will first visit
Canada, leaving Monday. He will
then carry the invitation to President
Diaz at Mexico City.
The proposed North American con
ference is the outgrowth of the two
conservation conferences held in
Washington, in which the Governors
of the States and Territories were
the principal conferees. At the see
and conference, on December 8, rep
resentatives of the Canadian Goveri
!nent were present and expressed their
interest in the movement. Out of this
grew the idea of a North American
conference "to consider mutual in
terests involved in the conservation of
natural resources and to deliberate
apon the practicability of preparing
a general plan adapted to promote the
welfare of the nations concerned.
The representatives designated by
the Canadian and Mexican Govern
inents will, under the proposed plan,
'onsult with representatives of the
State .and other departments of this
Government and with the National
Conservation Commission. The main
object of the conferere, as announe.
ed will be to point out that natural
resources are not limited by the
boundary lines which separate na
tions, to develop a better know%:ledge
of the natural resources of each na
tion on the part of the railroads and
to invite suggestions for concurrent
action for the protection of mutual
interests related to conservation.
College Building Burned.
Front Royal, Va., Special.-Th'
bandsome three-story brick building
-f Eastern College, containing the
recitation rooms, art studio and dor
mitories, was totally destroyed by
fire Christmas afternoon. The orig
in of the fire is supposed to have
been from the overheating of a stove
on the third floor. On account of
lack of water, the nearest pIlg be
ing fully a quarter of a mile from
the building, the firemen could only
.ave the contents. The loss is par
tially covered by insurance. I. P.
Mather, dean of the faculty, stated
that in spite of the fire the 'iistern
College would open after vacation as
if nothing had happened. Already
plans are under wvay to rebuild at
once, as the building destroyed wvas
only one of the four. Practically no
interruption will result.
To Caal Cuban Congress Togethecr.
Wasington, Special.-The War De.
partment Saturday cabled Governor
Magoon authority to call the newC
ban Congress together for organir.a
tion at any time prior to .January
28th. It is stated that the Congress
probably will be assembled soon after
New Year's Day. The Congress after
receiving the electoral college, the
credentials of Senators and Repre
sentativyes, considering possible con
tests, and other dletails for (organiza
lion, provided for by the Cuban eon
titution, will take a recess until
Did the Wrong Killing.
Hopkinsville, Ky., Special.-r-ood
ing over the fancied disgrace to his
family because his father h&rn been
whipped by night-riders, Roy Roge'rs.
the 20-year-old son of P'reiarey Rog
ers, a prominent.planter, 'omnmitted
suicide on Monday. The m-ol lier on
returning from a visit fgund ihe boy
dead with a revolver by his side.
"Sugar fling'' Dead.
San Franeisco, Special. - Claus
Spreckels, widely known as the
''Sugar King'' of the Pacifie coast,
died at 4:30 a. m. Saturday at his
home in this cit.y in his eightieth
year. The immediate cause of (death
wvas an attack of pneumonia which
had developed with alarming symip
toms during the past. fewv depys. D)e
spite his advanced age. Mr'. Spreckels
had appearedl before the wvays alnd
means committee of the House of
Representatives in Washington as ani
authority on thle subjer-t of sugal
-Cartoon by Davenport, in the New York Mail.
Mn.any Ttousands Killed in Prev ous Disasters.
Losses of life in previous big earthquakes were as follows:
Island of Yeddo, Japan, 1703; 190,000 lives lost.
Lisbon, November 1, 1755; 50,000 lives lost; damage, $100,
Island of Krakatoa, August 26, 1883; 50,000 lives lost.
Charleston, S. C., August 31, ISS; 50 lives lost; damage,
.Tapan, June 15. 1896; 30,000 lives lost.
St. Pierre, Martinique. May 8, 1902; 25,000 lives lost.
Calabria, September 8, 1905; 3000 people killed, 30 towns
Mount Vesuvius, April 5, 1906; 500 believed to have per
San Francisco, April 18. 1906; earthquake and fire, 500
killed: damage, $500,000.000.
Valparaiso. Chile, August 17, 1906; 1000 killed; 140 small
Kingston, Jamaica. January 14. 1907; 1500estimatedkilled.
+ Calabria. October, 1907: 600 estimated killed.
* Karatagh. Russian Turkestan, October, 1907; 14,000 killed
: there and in adjoining villages.
HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE
Rr-GION IN ITALY DEVASTATED DY
EARTHQUAKES AND TIDAL WAVES
Messincr, the Ruined City, is 2700 Years Old and IT. Uad
Many Masters and Catastrophes
Studied with maps and accounts of 152,000. Next to Palermo, it is the
the more recent of the great earth- chief commercial town of Sicily and
quake disasters of Italy, it is seen its harbor, which is formed by a
that in the latest catastrophe the dis- Ieninsula. is the busiest in Italy from
turbance reached the surface on the the stand0Oit of steamhoat traffic.
northern border, close to Swiss terri- The principal object of interest to
tory. Bomodossolo is among the tourists, apart from the scenic attrac
Alps, and the mountain range seb'ms tionis of' the laZce, is the cathedral,
to have been the route of the earth- wvhicth was begun in 1098. at the time
quake. It passed to the southward, of Norman occupation or the islIand,.
following the Apen'iines. There Is a i and parts of whiiich are still stand ig f
twenty minutes diffe'rnce between ias originally constructed wih the ex-'
the time of the shocks reported in|ception of thle evidlences of damage
upner and lower Italy, I roughjjt by the frequent earthquakes.
In Calabria, which has be~en laid j he- town is one of great anitiquity,
wvaste again and again by such dis-| and derived its first known name'~~
turbances, this earthquake first I Zanoale t a sickle), from the shape of
touched the surface with its full the harbi'lor. it was founded by Cu..
effect. Lofty signal posts of disaister mnaon pirates and Ciralcidianis in 732
marked its way, for it struck with I . C., and was governed by the lawa
full force at the extinct volcano of of Chiarondas.
San Giovanni, spread its devastation In :396 Ii. C. thle town was de.
across the Strait of' Messina to Sicily stroyed b)y tire Carthiaginians, hut n as
and rolled up another score of death Irebilit a few y'ears later by Dionysius
andl ruin all about the slopes of jof1 Syracuse. only to fall again in to
Mount Etna, reducing to ruins the the bands of the Carthaginins under
ancient and famuous ('ity' of Messina Il an nihal in 269. 'The flrs't Punic
and tumbling thebuoildin gs of Catania, wvar. however, left the pla1ce in the
fifty-nine mile fa rthe'r sou th,i only hands of the Rloma:ns, and thle plact,
to again overwhelm -the busy port was ol I:nportancee second only to that
soon afterward w;ith a great 1 idal of Syracuse an'l i,ilyhaeurm ini Sicthy
wave. dunrig a per:od 01f llomnr:n ocupatlion
The spr'ead of the ea'rthqiouake :n last;nig for several cenature
Sicily arid Southern Italy, according jIn 8 1 A. D. the town wras takcen
to the cable dispiatchles, was through Iby the Sa racens, bunt in 1 06 1 it wa
very much the sa1mm area as that of taken from them by thle Normnan.s
the earthquake of 1 873, wvhich was The c-ity prrospered greatly during thir
the most destr'uctive in the history Crusr~ades. hinrg a fa vor'lte renrdezvoius
of Italy. Then, as now, the carthI- for soldilers from Itie cont ient OIn
(uake cauisedl enormnous damage on rou to to the 110oly L.and. In thle Mid
both sides of the Strait of Messitna, dlie A ges als1o iil becamne a tiou rishim-~
which separates the toe of the no- commercial city.
cal led "hoot" of Italy from Sicily. IIts commeat rciaII r importan me ds -~jp
'Ihe hiistoric disaster comnp1letely pea red afteor a bitter0 s;truggle bet ween
wr'ecked the popiulous sea port of' Men- the aristocrat ic factlion, or MerlI, anid
sina in Sicily near the nor'thern end thbe dlemocratit' farti oar Ma vizzi, In
of the str'ait and destr'oyed many 1 674. ThIe dem'tO(rs .a fact ionap
smaller cities andI towns in Southiern penh-d to t he FrenIchl ti,d the oIlher t
Italy and Sicily. thre Span iar'ds. The formner faction
The loss of life in thris disaster' of were at first victor-ions, hurt Eventu'l
1783 was estimated at 60,000, Mes- hy wi-r' dlOeeted- by thre 1'ren:ch the
sina, a city which is for the mo t pantrityD was takeni by t he Span iards, and
but little above thle level of the sra, wh'n tihein straggle wvas over the poini
suffering terribjly--then , as now, fr'om Iat ion wvas reduced fromi 1 20.000 to
a tIdal wave. The region to the ab'ouit a tenth of thait n urmber.
south of Messinia has also been often Th'le town never folly recovored
overwhelmredr hry erunt ions fr'omi fr'omn this di kaster. W ha tever recov
Mount Etna. ''hie sout heasternand1( er'y wvas made was neoutral i".ed in the
eastern p,ortIion of the ihuirnd has bieen 'i ghteenth century ~3 by a ser-ies of dis
namiaged time anid again by erupltionrsiaster's. In 1 7.1 )0 about 40O,0)00 persons
of Etna arid very little by carth- dlied of the pila gue, anld in 1 783 the
quakes, while thle nor'theasterrn por- town was almotst euntir'ely overthroiwn
tion has surstained heav loss et' life by the gr'eat (-arthqutake of t hat yeagr
and prioperty~ from earl tluakes awrl Gr'eat dIamna o was caursedl by born
ver'y little fromi volcanrric c'rupht ioni. b)ardlmen t in Sep)temb er, 1848iS Th
Messina. wvhich ars in 1 78i suff-:rd cholera caririe'd off no fewer than i16.
the gre(atest loss of life and propertvy 000) vict imis in I 854 a ml (ar'thquake
fr-orm this ear'thquake, is a city anrd in 1 894 and 1 906 ai, eauisedh lOof
seapor't of uipwardsm (if 80,000 hahm- life and1( propor-ty- 1 n 1890S thre tow
iCants, while in the commun re em- was occu p1d by G aiibald I it ne
bracing tire city, suiburb s and( ad ieeent e'nne a jiart of 'untitreli taly the fol