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rAM f P? XlC
ELLO, Henry, I am going to
leave you today. I've Bold my
ham Mcarcass again."
This remark by a big sailor to
a friend on the San Francisco
- water-front caused a landsman
to turn around and regard the
pair curiously. It was the tenth
time that ho had hoard that re
mark in the courso of an hour
-as he loitered about the wharves
watching the whalers preparing
for their season in northern
seas. Hie had seen big, hard
A sted men boarding the vessels or sitting about on
ixes on the docks chatting wvith friends until
dhey should be tiummuoned on board for the cruise.
LAnd always, as the sailors would greot a now comn
sanion, camne that remark, "I've sold my carcass."
,It puzzled tho landsmnan. lie did not under
tstand, but fIgured out that it was seome rough
Opleasantry. lie did not know that every man who
iails out of an American port in a deep-sea vessel
;andor the stami and stripes must literally sell his
body and soul into a servitude as abject and as
'debasing as that of the black man on the southern
iantation before the 10mancipation Proclamation
'For the American wbo sails the high seas
'under the stars and stripes is a slave. Hio is a
taiavo under the law. True, ho cannot be put upon
(the auction block by his master and sold to the
Whighiest bidder. llut lhe must surrender his Amer
lican birthrlght--.freedom of contract; lie must
seign away his right to his pay when it falls due.
~A.nd ho cannot be a sailor without signing themi
away. And lie cinnot run away fromn his bargain
land his master. If ho tries it, he 'is arrestedl and
~ken back, no matter in what quarter of thu
~globo his vessel is anchored. For, by the opera
ioen of treaties with all the mnaritirno powers of
~o world, the United States agi eens to arrest and
~returni foreign sailor-slaves, in return, for which
thle foreign countries have agremil to ar-rest andi
tiiturn to AUlmorican ships America's, chattel slaves.
No man is ever a slavo unditer theo law unless
ceondlitions are such that it is necessary for his
tastors to hold him legally in serviudo in order
~r?etain his services. Every hand Is full of indus
/1-lai slaves who cannot desert their mnaster's if
ithcey would, because there is nothing else for themi
fio do but to submit or starve. Hlut the occupation
'ef a sailor carries him to foreign lands where the
IUhre of untried conditions is forever bockoniing,
aind It would he comparatively easy for htim to
lesert his master. But here the law steps in, anid
ofear of tho foreign dungeon and the certain
lieturn to his ship in irons holds im to his coni
hiract. And even wvith the fear of certain re-en
ialavemnent staring him in the face, the sailor un
kler the stars and stripes is far too of ten a de
serter. It is Idle to argue that it is in the nature
hlf the sailor to wander, to desert one master for
aenother, and that therefore laws are necessary to
j)revent the disorganization of the merchant ma
jue, Every occupation has its devotee. to whom
~calls in an insistent voice, and there are thou
ands of men who follow the sea from choice. The
swer to the question, why is the sailor legally a
~aae, must be found in an inquiry into the condi
ans from which he seeks to run away. if he
kes to follow the sea there is no reason why he
hwould forever try to leave it or to leave his
aster and his flag except that the conditions
Sndecr which he is forced to work are intolerable.
nid here lies the answer.
) o earliest kcnowni facts about the condition
ztthe laborer at sea take us back to the ancient
kws of the Norseman and to the code that gov
srned the sailors of the ancient cities on the
hores of the Mediterraniean. In the north the
~borer en land and at sea wasn a free man. Trhe
pallor had the same status aboard his vessel that
sbd brother had in the Norse towns. He had the
Isame freedom of contract and the same voice in
Rihe laws regulating the conduct of his companions
iand himself. The laborer of the south was a chat
tel slave on land and on sea. Hie was usually a
prisoner of war and his body and soul belonged to
Ihis master. He was chained to his seat in the gal.
t toy andi larhed to his task. Manual labor of all
Ikinds was considered to be ddbasing and per
Rormedl only by slaves.
The Island of Rhodes gave to the Meditor
iranean its maritime law, and the Roman cede was
|patterned after that of Rhodes. When Rome con
quercyl tihe countries of the porth, she gave them
ker laws for the regulation of labor on the sea as
twell as on land. The all-pervading idea of Roman
civilization was that labor is Oebaaing, and the
mal arer on land was a serf and on the sea he was
a s'avo. The maritime power of medieval Europe,
!Whic~h was expressed through the laws of flarce
Riona anid later through the all-powerful Hianneatic
iLeaguie of cities, was maintained through Roman
anaritime law. It gradually overpowered and ob
lterated the law of the north, and the free sailor
eased to exist. Since that day the sailor has
bieen a chattel slave.
When sailing vessels replaced the galley, it be
leamo necessary that thle sailor'e status as a slave
~o maintained by rigid laws against desertion.
~neediom of aotion was necessary for the operation
haf a sailing vessel, but it was still necessary to
Acp the sailor bound to the ship because injury
might come to the vessel through his desertion.
(And so his status as a slave was maintained by
paw on the "principle of common hazard." All the
Rlaw. of the Hlansoatic League stipulate that if any
harm come to a vessel, while any sailor is absent
from shipboard, the absent sailor shall pay the
damage, The safety of the vessel and her cargo
was in the hands of every man on board while
he vessel was at sea or in foreign ports.
~The progress of civilizati has relieved the
shiXp-owner and the master of the hazard of the
sea. Maritime insurance has been devised to pay
S- Gor lose through acts of God- If a ship sinks at
sea, o on lose butthe ilorand is io n
chlden ThKrpryi ai o ytecm
suranoe one p~idf but the st and iowandie
cAlrn. soTheol prinple 18 comoazad frthasom
beeniy abynoe yo ar by th o ire shif-wnrsn
cere thofgh f the atouofdmrifte inu
anciduand tothsuderslawf Bth o munti. te
fethowticigo e has wokdtnrese thhaabne
tubathes re paForery the statesownr locldintie
lAd hs vso the arnpero comin hazarud hat
been abandoneg sofarled tme shitoower salorn,
cernue through nt opanton ofs aitiroety.sNow
ane d odcrn; lasrance wi itak careth the
hortis a wredeai to increale the hazard bone
Loed his veooelatoittle dangr cloeint o woue odt
risk eoythe skils ocuptin ortfw hailorsn
ecauveh did ot athi oe-kodge opeawy, aNoen
hendoent cAe; inane will tae veryeclearhy
howsts, ondtidea afes otk ol the sainor pbut
Ltusn loo a livery orclsyinother mrcncndi
biefcaon of the ocupations tha hsibard
andmernAd thercnfa wit canse ver clel
flags of other nations will explain why the Anmeri
can boy does not go to sea, and why it Is neces
sary to keep the American sailor a chattel slave
by law of congress. Tio begin with, the American
sailor wvho would ship over the high seas is com
pelled to seek his employment through a "crimp."
The crimp is the runner for the notorious sailor's
"boarding-houses" which furnish crews for all
deep-sea-going vessels, lHe is the absolute master
of the sailor's employment. All deep-sea captains
ship their crews through the crimp. The crimp
Is paid out of the unearned wages of the sailor.
It is called "advance money" which the law per
mits the sailor to sign away and which the system
compels him to sign away. The sailors call it
"blood money." The money is paid by the captain
directly to the crimp. In fact all the negotiations
are carried on directly bdtween the captain and
the crimp. The sailor is not consulted at all.
More often than not, he Is taken on board after
having bee~n liberally treated to "third rail" or
"doctor," a erfkik that robs him of all conscious
ness. The pu1-ctice smacks very much of the old
practice ed 'Wianghaing." The act of December
21, 1898, prevents the payment of this blood
money, called "allotment to original creditor" in
the domestic trade (coastwise shipping and the
trade to nearby foreign countries). But it is per
mitted in the deep-sea trade, and no sailor ever
obtains employment on a deep-sea-going vessel
without having visited the crimp. The crimp
exists because the law permits him to exist, by
permitting the assignment of "advance money."
One stat., oregon, actually recognized the system
by a statute limiting the amount of blood-money
to thirty dollars. The crimp ceased to exist in
the domestic trade when congress aboliehed the
"allotment to original creditor" in 1898.
When the sailor gets aboard he is compelled to
live in a space 6i feet long by 8 feet high and 2
feet wide. This is the legal forecastle space (72
cubic feet) except in setiling vessels built or re
built after June 30, 1898. The sailors call it the
"dog hole," to distinguish it from the "fire hole"
(ifemen's quarters). and the "gllory hole" (tew-m
ard's quarters). Here the men must live, cat,
sleep and keep their clothing. It has been de
scribed as "too large for a colln and too smnall for
a grave." It is unsanitary, dark, and dirty.
The American sailor L9 compelled to sign away
in the foreign trade his right to part of the wages
due him at ports of call. Consular agents have de
clared this to be the most prolific cause of deser
tions from American ships. The act of December
21, 1898, gives the sailor a right to half the wages
that may be due him at any port of call, but add
"'unless the contrary be expressly stipulated In the
contract." The ship-owners see to it that this
stipulation Is always made.
The sailor must compete with the unskilled
stadd e001o, f skil insae.- No . stnar hf il
cinyha ensupid ylw Tesiponr
ard's hequartris Hre ltfe becausthe lveseats
underm and andp uhkirullotig.I ad because
inti opeiinwt the foreignerad his rgtt ato h wages
due ai mal aors th cal. Consular chaest have de
clared tfhis tovese mosd hercannot caue eog deer
tiosarom Anrianora ships. TeActo eembegr
21,r189, iv hes to ailrn a decet ovelfhood gow
thtmaber. m i tayprto al u d
conrat. Buseshipones seep to it thar ths
stpulaose if malways mae.,ntfrteproeo
carryilgordst ompetewt tohae unskiledr
apostfiuteng all niidns an rater beauthe
lawense th ciienpws arepeledup ino64 mandtea
opeatiost o ate ioruorntoyouandume. t
wodtanar o wa cargoi seae No proviadeo deent
ivengy quars fo suppiedoryslan heoad ahponerss
mayrgmeanho hey dpvleasndTooa as me seo
anspetor ilzet them Thnerei from sitandargo
guide theispcoroas. Andsote foodlore musnd
theduskilled mn' alorcost moea beae there
foret be dosnesan, there is not conepelsed to doakt
Often hecaust is hrpris ibese theuss se
ofthis. compeitosmuh theapreer, oiru wesl
wit ofhsvess l therefoe Bcga sn ess eot
mlarrvne lvs.ora ie.A esesgo
largeryhis Aeorn comerce lieiodgrcon
can over-sess coeceinvAesi ships being th
prpe ao oakny hameica fowr hepurose oha
arngte natoon fom thlace tof plae; glore the r
poechantpmin are diiend o tteratnsen
eteejrteo divieriandsme are piespn atterg at
theat on. to then salo orusto ouie and me.ur
woudo tke away earspe tus prvem toeren
livin quatesfrios onder-manndes, adlessn
cadr conians ss dives Torloadn Amesseln from
ase sea.iTiaize that cnernfro ushiftndgi con-o
means ls arg ls.lttrfodyor.e
asiplsed alcs morte mntey, tadtero
fiorer ofg usnesavicionot opllto every
hrisk beAuserican proertyiinsuedeusfe tone
thindred tns fore, t seven chear, torn averae
every hunde; thfore egig siemes employr
o hunlye ios Americane omeeod, ng averag
dute bny 1.8hvel flyng foreignu fas butr hundri
cAnmer-nseagcoingmee Amera sity ios bein
anthertin oer n eae of 4.13 globe btenh
grsteach ymajrydu of the amte numbercan
mrchnt meaine sare mpse of oher fnfty ons And
thes majority ol America seamer. esiinb
coende the flags the situatonais othan
toherabw. STheUnte Strut oriessoner or
ngodson the hihreport weerust899 tge 20, foe
seae: "lves o urmane sesp living
Japnde conippedn thatfore drvAmericannus fro
foreintiors pulhed the Uslnted Sads car.
Anmise conaitionshgownta woue onftedeoy
bof t 2,n24 h ate ltacyeranthtotf
W&LB1R a N
MY pa he took me fishin' sesterday
'Cause when I got my bran' now pole
IHe'll take me to the river soon. he say,
When it look like the fishin' will be
So yesterday we start, an' pa he let
Me carry my now pole, an' say 'at we
Will show folks what a snap it Is to get
As big a flsh as there is in the sea.
An' we clumb over Mister Timmons's gate
With my pole anl' my line an' my bait.
Non when we're at th' river pa he take
My pole an' line an' he fix up the hook
An' tell mie that I imiusn't even make
Th' leastes' noise, but just to sit an'
While he would show me how to catch
An' non ho throw the line in. an' I
Right there beside him, an' just wish an'
That I could hold my fnshpole in my
An' pa lie stand an' wait an' wait an'
With my pole an' my line an' my bait.
Non party soon my pa he get a bite.
An' yanked real quick, an' somepin
whizzed up high
That shined like silver 'eause it was so
An' plitinked down 'fore you'd ever wink
An' pa lie hollered that I must keep still
(When I ain't sayin' not a thing at all!)
An' pa he shake just like he has a chill.
An' purty soon he slip an' in he fall!
An' non I think it's lost as sure as fate
Is Iny line an' my pole an' my bait.
Nen he clumb out an' lie was wet as wet!
An' lie says we must go home now at
An' when I want to stay, why, lie won't
Me by myself, an' say that I'm a dunce!
So we go home, an' pa he says if he
Couldit just go nshin' like he used to do
Vithout no boy to bother him like-e *
He'd catch a string o' (18h, he's tellin'
I'll go my'self, an' nen It will be great
With my pole an' my line an' miy bait!
"Hlow's ye' all feel dis mawnin'?"
asks 'Lipalet Green of 'Rastus Wash
ington, the day after the celebration
of something or other in the rooms of
the Bllacktown Social and Goodfellow
ship Uplifting club.
"How's I reel ?" moans Rastus. "Say,
man, I feel as if ma head 'uz all wool
an' a yahd wide."
"Hear about that literary club pass.
ing a set of resolutions denouncing
Migglesbury?" asks the man with the
"No. What did Migglesbury do?"
asks the man with the undecided eye
"He copies some stanzas off of
comic valentines, had them printed
in sequence, signedl them 'Alfred Aus
tin' and sent thenm to the secretary
of the club for discussion at their
poets' evening. They analyzed and
dissected the poem and five of the
members had written magazine ar
ticles praising or denouncing it be
fore they discovered the hoax."
"Did you hear about the unique way
In which old Titespuds decorated his
new home?" asks our friend.
We confess ignorance as well as a
~. thirst for information.
"Instead of spending monley for pic
tures and bric-a-brae he wrote checks
for the amount that each thing would
cost him, stopped payment on the
checks, and put them on1 the walls
Same With Him.
"I'll sell you de dog for fiye dollars."
"But I wouldn't keep the dog haifa
"An' I wouldn't keep do five dat
Mrs. Chapman, of Bra-chiland,
Tells About Her Serious Troubles
and How Cardui Helped Her.
Branchland, W. Va.-In a letter
from this place, Mrs. Elizabeth Chap
man says: "I suffered from womanly
trouble for nearly five years. I tried
all the doctors in the country, but
they did me no good. I can say that
I certainly do believe that Cardul
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I have gained 15 pounds, and feel
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I hope all who suffer from any kind
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I will continue to recommend this
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You may be sure, that if Cardui will
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Whether seriously sick, or simply
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In the past fifty years, Cardul has
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Why not test it for your troubles?
N. D.-Write tot Ladies' Advisory
Dept., Chattanoogn Meldicine Co., Chat
tanoogn, Tenn., for Special Instructions
and 0-page book, "Home Trentuent
for Wonen," sent in plain wrapper, on
The husband of a fashionable wom
an, whose gowns are at once the ad
miration and despair of her feminine
acquaintances, was discussing the
cost of living with a friend at the
Union League the other night.
"By the way," ventured the friend,
"f-er--don't you have a good deal of
trouble keeping your wife dressed in
the height of style?"
The woman's husband smiled and
then shook his head, emphatically.
"Oh, no," he said, "nothing to speak
of. Nothing-nothing to the trouble
I'd have if I didn't."
It is a great thing to be trusted,
but it is a far higher thing to be
worthy of trust.-Henry Lee.
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