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One of Hie I'eiv Very Great lien
of 1!ie l,nst Half of (lie Nine
'Tis coming up tlie stoop of lime,
And this old world is showing brighter."
"Long may thy name remembered be,
Thy story tokl from sea to sea.
Till man with man for man unite,
Thy vision be the common light.
Then hope in every heart shall reign,
And truth break every sailing: chain:
Then 'Looking Backward' all shall see
Thy dream fulfilled, 'Equality.'
BELLAMY was born in
a house on East street, in the
village of Chicopcc Falls, in the
town, now city, of Chicopee, Common
wealth of Massachusetts, March 2f,
IS50. Later the family moved to a
house on Church street, where the
widow of Edward Bellamy lives with
her two children, a son and a daug-ht
er. Bellamy's father was a clergyman.
Edward was the third of four broth
As a youth Ed warn was fond of
boyish sports. He was an expert
skater and swimmer, a skillful hunts
man, and a remarkable pood shot,
lie loved comradeship, and the Bell
amy homestead and grounds were
a great haunt for the boys of the vil
lage. As he grew o.lder he became re
tiring- and reserved. His time was
passed in meditation, study, and writ
ing. lie developed a remarkable pre
cocity. When he was eighteen his
articles found place as editorials in
the New York Evening- Post, whose
editor at the time was (America's
greatest poet, William Cullen Bryant.
At twenty he became an editorial
writer on the Springfield Union, where
he continued for eight years. While
in this position he began the composi
tion of stories for magazines, and
about this time he wrote his first
book, considered by some his master
"(ju-cG in romance, '"Dr. Heidenhofif's
Mr. Bellamy did not obtain a college
education. He learned what he could
in the schools of Chicopee, and then
went to Union College for one term
but evidently college, methods were
too slow for hint. He came home,
and by himself learned three or four
modern languages, read an immense,
amount of literature and history, and
secured much more tlian the college
could give him. He was able to mas
ter whatever he undertook, and had a
wonderfully retentive memory. He
also found time during these busy
years to study law and gain admis
sion to the bar, although he never
practiced his profession. His travels
included a trip to the Hawaiian Is
lands and to Europe.
The Iterarv style of Mr. Bellamy has
been pronounced "perfect'' by gooil
judges. If this term overstates it. it
would be hard to find another that
docs not, equally understate it.
If any one thinks otherwise, let him
attempt to improve it. His iiterary
nictliod forms ail interesting study,
lie was a most laborious, painstaking
writer. Mis style was not an inspir
ation, but I lie result of the severest
application. His first, draft was never
satisfactory, llis early books were
written in his father's study at his
father's desk. As lie wrote lie would
drop the finished sheets on the tloor.
One after another they would rapidly
ft until the tloor was nearly cover
ed: then 011 his knees he would gather
tlieui up and arrange tlicin. After
this followed the sternest criticism.
The manuscript was ,:-terTined, cross
ed out, sometimes entirely destroyed,
and till done over again. Four, six,
eight, and even ten times lie revised
I he work, reversing the order of sen
tences. rearranging paragraphs,
changing words, searching- for days
for the exact term, until at length
lie was satisfied. With him genius
meant the hardest, most conscientious
labor. This method he continued to
There is but one person in American
literature with whom to compare Hel
lamy the romancer, anil that is Haw
To say a writer resembled Haw
thorne is lo pay a very great compli
ment iut in sonic particulars l!el
lamp surpassed 1 law tiiorue. We must
it member that Hellamy died at the
age of only IS. liel'ore lie was ,'iO he
urole "Dr. llcidenholV's Process." a
greater work than Hawthorne had
produced at an equal age. Then fol
lowed ".Miss Ludiiigtoti's Sister," an
other work which shows greater
marks of genius than Hawthorne dis
played before he reached the ag'e of
Hawthorne's masterpiece was
written in the maturity of his powers,
and is greater than anything that Bel
lamy ever prod need because Bellamy
spent 10 or more years of his. life as re
former, denying himself romance for
the sake of his fellow men. It was a
ease of love struggling with genius,
and love conquering and using- genius
as its servant, to help humanity. It
was a sublime sacrifice on the part of
Bellamy, and one that is not made
enough of in the estimates of his char
When "Equality" was finally finish
ed, the author felt free to return to
romance. If he oouTtT only have
strength, hs felt certain that he could
write the greatest book of his life
but it was too late. "Equality" had
been finished in great weakness and
pain. The effort to correct the proofs
exhausted all his strength, and the
task of sending them off was left to
his wife. There is 110 more heroic
and pathetic struggle recorded, and
yet the book is no sooner on the mar
ket than he turns to new tasks. He
did not live fully to outline, much
less to finish, his contemplated work.
In "Dr. Heidenhoff's Process" Made
line Brand is a beautiful and proud
young woman who, rejecting her real
lover, Henry Burr, for a heartless fop,
is betrayed and abandoned. In shame
she leaves her home and attempts to
hide in Boston but her old lover,
Burr, finds her, and without a mo
ment's hesitation asks her to become
his wife. I11 a daze of bewilderment
she seems to assent. In time a real
love is awakened in her heart for
Henry, who is one of the noblest, most
ideal characters of fiction but now
Madeline, burdened with the memory
of her shame, feels that she cannot
marry him. Meanwhile he dreams of
a certain Dr. Heidenhoff, who has a
marvelous process for removing' disa
greeable things from the memory.
This process is applied to Madeline,
and seems to succeed. The wedding
day is appointed, and the bride, with
all memory of her shame blotted out,
orders her trousseau. In the midst of
all this happiness and splendor, Burr
awakes to find it nothing but a dream.
There is 110 Dr. Heidenhoff, no pro
cess to blot out an evil memory but,
instead, remorse and shame are tri
umphant, and Madeline is a suicide.
The story as told is a iine work of
art, is true to life—that is, to one kind
of life—and the style is delightful.
There is 110 artistic reason why it
should not come out as it does, but
there is a moral reason. The author
leaves the impression that death is the
only means by which a sense of shame
and guilt can be blotted out of the
memory, or be made tolerable. Now,
that suicide is a meart* often employ
ed is true, but that it is necessary
is not true. If there is no Heidenhoff
process, there is a divine one or, if
you do not like the term divine, there
is a natural one, for the really natur
al is the truly divine. There is 110
need that any soul should despair.
Whatever be the circumstances of life,
the law of compensation applies, if
not a full, at least a partial compensa
tion, and the soul is sustained. It is
the duty of the novelist to bring out
this fact. In later yenrs iiellamy
thoroughly understood it, but this
story was written in his youth. In
this one point the mature Haw'thorne
great ly excels him.
Madeline lira ml had at most made
a sad mistake. She had Intended no
evil. She had trusted, and been be
trayed. But. Hawthorne's Hester
I'yrnne had knowingly done wrong.
She violated her marriage vows, she
had sinned against the laws of God
and man. and yet the great artist in
his masterpiece has her redeemed. The
symbol of her shame becomes trans
figured. glorified. To quote from "The
Scarlet Letter:" "In the lapse of the
toilsome, thoughful. and self-devoted
years that made up Hester's life, the
scarlet letter ceased to be a stigma
which attracted the world's scorn and
bitterness, and became a type of
somethim to be sorrowed o\er, and
looked upon willi awe. yet with rever
ence too. And as Hester I'rynne had
110 seltish ends, nor li\ed in any mea
sure for her own profit and enjoy
ment. people brought all their sor
rows and perplexities, itnd besought
her counsel as one who had herself
gone through a mighty trouble."
Here is a moral truly sublime, while
the art is not impaired, but heighten
ed. Sin repented of and forg-iveu may
expand the heart in a charity more
Continued on 1'agc
VOL. 4, No. 44. DULUTH AND SUPERIOR, SATURDAY. MARCH 4, 1899.
Down in Kansas!
Not To lie Muffed—The Viirin
rrs Fitflat the Trnsls with Tlicir
». E. Hill.
Kansas state legislature, by
recent enactment, has decided to
have the inmates of their state
prison engage in the manufacture of
binding twine for the benefit of the
state. Their excuse for this daring
act of paternalism is that the farmers
are being oppressed by a twine trust.
Ordinarily for the government to en
gage thus in manufacturing would
be regarded as a flagrant violation of
private rights, but the reputation of
the trusts has become so odious the
people will submit to anything for the
sake of downing them.
O O O
The far reaching influence of this
new government enterprise there is no
estimating. If it is advisable for the
government to manufacture binding
twine for the relief of farmers that
they may escape the' high prices of
the twine trust it is equally important
that the state prison convicts make
school books for the farmers that they
may escape the oppression of the
school book trust.
Why not? Is it not just as impor
tant that the children of farmers have
cheap books as that their fathers shall
have cheap binding twine?
Of course an exceedingly loud pro
test will at once come Tip from the
manufacturers of twine, and they will
induce their employes to sign a re
monstrance against the government
engaging thus in opposition to pri
vate enterprise, but the indignation
felt throughout the country concern
ing trusts will outweigh all the re
monstrance which will come from
Not only will the twine makers
arouse themselves in opposition to
the government going into the manu
facturing business but they will sound
the alarm to manufacturers in general.
Then the manufacturers will coax and
cajole their workmen into signing pe
titions to state legislatures and to
congress asking the government to
cease competition w.ith legitimate in
Then every stockholder in every en
terprise fearful that his stock will de
crease in value from government com
petition, will rouse himself in opposi
tion to what they will claim is the
destruction of private enterprise.
But their remonstrances will not
avail. It will be so perfectly evident
that they are actuated by motives of
selfishness they will get no sympathy,
more especially from the further fact
that they are in a combine whicn pur
poses to crush out competition and
raise the cost of production to the
O O O
The free supply of school books to
the children of the public schools is
one of the near certainties. That it
will dawn upon the legislators to
manufacture these books in the state
prisons there is 110 doubt. Why not?
Shall sentiment stand in the way of
manufacturing books as cheaply as
possible for the use of the people.
While the government will obtain rev
enue from the different boards of edu
cation sufficient to pay the prison ex
Will sentiment against government
ownership cause people to desire to
pay a large price to a school booiv
trust when the same books could be
produced by the government at a
greatly less price and the taxpayers
of the country be that much the gain
Is it not probable that the prisons
of the country may be converted into
publishing houses tor the benefit of
the peop'e who want school books?
If the services of the prisoners can be
thus profitably employed and books
be produced as good in quality and
vastly cheaper, why not?
Anil now that we have let the oars
down and the government has ac
tuallv gone into tin1 manufacturing
business in the production of twine
let us forecast tile outcome.
tjuite likely the government wnl
run up against a 11 list which may
control the growing of hemp. In that
event it will be but a short step to the
establishment of a government hemp
farm and another governmental in
dustry will come into existence.
I11 the printing of school books the
authorities will run 011 to a gigantic
THE LABOR WORLD.
paper trust. Short work will be made
of this trust which now7 defies the
newspapers and the publishers of the
country. The government paper mills
will soon become as much of a fixed
fact as are the navy yards and armor
ies under government control in the
United States today.
The public printer at Washington
will have his sub-offices in many of
the stiite prisons of the country and
the criminals at Sing Sing will no
longer become insane from having
nothing to do.
O O O
If it is for the Interest of farmers
to utilize prison inmates in the mak
ing of twine it would certainly be to
their interest to use prison labor in the
making of boots and shoes. Many of
the prisons of the land are fitted with
modern appliances and the best of
machinery for shoemaking, shoes hav
ing always heretofore been made for
private parties. As sureTy as they
make twine for the farmer so certain
ly they will make boots and shoes
and they will make books. Where
will this governmental ownership and
We are close upon the time when
all the foods will be under the con
trol of the trust. It will determine
the price which everybody shall pay
The purpose of the trust,beit under
stood. is to make money. It begins
by exercising the most rigid economy.
This consists in the putting in of lab
or saving machinery and discharging
workmen. The next process consists
of raising the price of what they have
to sell. The Federal 1 Steel company,
to illustrate, received it one time, un
der competition. $1* a ton for iron.
Under the trust they are now charging
$20 a ton and expect to get $25 not
far off in the future.
The iron trust will try to conceal
its purpose by temporarily advancing
the wages of the meu whom they re
tain in employment, out human na
ture is the same throughout the world.
The manufacturers of iron will run
their business for the profit there is
in.-it. To get profit they will pay as
little as jjossible and charge as high
as they can.
The business of the trust will be
conducted for the benefit of the few
stockholders in the corporation. The
officers of the trust will receive salar
ies in proportion to their value to the
trust. The value will be in propor
tion to the per cent in profit, which
is paid on the stock.
To pay large dividends and retain
their positions at large salaries the
trust officers will make it a rule to
buy low and sell high. This is exactly
opposed to the general interests of the
The government, on the contrary,
having no individual interest in the
dividends which the manufactory
pays, will be pleased to pay the opera
tive as much as possible, will be glad
to shorten the hours so that more em
ployes can find work and will be
happy to sell.as low as possible in
the interest of all who buy.
O O O
The trust is very properly regarded
as a menace to the welfare of the peo
ple. It means the crushing out of the
small competitor, it means the whole
sale discharge of labor and the put
ting in of machinery for the sake of
economy. It means higher prices for
the goods which are sold, it means
a greater tax on the consumers and
less money paid to labor. It means
the destruction of competition, enor
mous profits to the stockholders and
the yet more rapid making of multo
Ilut let us be hopeful. All is not
lost yet. The trust is the means of
arousing the people to some plan of
escape from the great combinations
that are closing down upon us.
Belief is coming beyond in govern
ment ownership. The way may be
dark just now, but the dawn is break
ing. The first distinct ray of light
comes from the direction of Kansas
iu government manufacture to over
come the oppression of a trust. Watch
now for tlie rapid coming of general
manufacture by the government, bet
ter opportunities for everybody to get
work and greater prosperity for all
JIAV I'lVHT l\ MOXTAYV.
XKW YORK, March U.-Dave Holland,
who is receiving bids for tile t'itzsimmons
Jc'fri's light today received the folio.v
inu it lesrani:
"Unite. Mont.. March Li—Uox law passed
ub guarantees Wj.'HU purse. Signed!
"1*. J. DON'AllL'E."
Holland wired back that a $.oiiu deposit
was necessary to secure consideration of
tile bid and received a reply that check
for the amount had been forwarded.
The Swell Brigade
II the Municipal Poet
"The candy business in this country
is assuming constantly increasing- pro
portions.'' Mr. Lowney said. "Taken
all in all, about $100,000,000 capital is
invested in this branch of manufac
ture alone, and it has been said that
Americans spend more money each
year on candies and other sweets than
on beer, wines and liquors combined."
Half a league, half a league,
Half a league onward.
All in the valley of death
Chawed the four hundred.
Candy to right of them,
Candy to left of them.
Candy inside of tljem
Volleved and thundered.
Stormed at with caramel
Till teeth decayed and fell,
Livers became quite "swell."
Foetid the fitful breath.
Jaws like the jaws of death,
Mouths like the mouths of hell!
When shall their color .fade?
O the wry face they macfe.
Pity the ice cream "blade,"
Pity the chocolate jacte,
Pity the swell brigade.
Sieklv four hundred!
"When the late Ward McAllister re
vised the social list and limited metro
politan society to 400, it smarted ter
ribly under the shock, but the decision
of Mrs. Van Bensselaer. has come up
on social leaders as a thunderbolt.
She has written a book in which she
is said to argue that the four hundred
is a thing of the past and that the
blue bloods of society number only
So if vou're a Vanderbilt. Astor or
Or even a Iloek'feller, out you'll be
Should Gotham be treated like ancient
And Sodom, 'twould raise a terrible
For smaller and smaller the number
Till not even one true "blue blood"
could they show.
And though old Diogenes rose from
.«i'd iel with his lanttru the city to
By searching- all nooks in each palace
The hunt would be futile, would fizzle
The fact is, this blue-blooded fad is a
For our constitution all equal doth
If ilrs. Van Whatyoucall keeps on,
That the self-styled "blue bloods" are
the curse of mankind.
We've got quite a dose of them here
And if you will study, you'll iind this
The srob, the degenerate and the
Do more to drive capital out of the
And ruin the city of tlie sea that's
Than all other causes of hard times
Tied vviih a little ribbon,
Treasured with tender care.
Locked in a rosewood casket.
Like the costliest jewels rare:
Is a package of old letters
Loved for the name they bear.
To the heart those letters are dearer,
Than all earth's silver or sold,
More lovely ihan ali the beauty,
When nature can unfold.
For they tell of a heart's fond etidear
Of love that can never grow old.
But who will treasure those letters
When sac who reads tiie.Ti today,
Is lowered ::i her flowery casket,
lSeneath the mouldering clay'.'
Will some one kindly keep them,
Or, valueless, throw them away'.'
—Myrtle It. Stewart.
oki'ici \ia.v vci\o\vi,i i:i)
ltOMK, March t!.—Ill the chamber of
deputies tuduy Admiral Du Canevaro,
minister of foreign affairs, repl.vin
question on the subject, confirmed the re
port that the government is taking steps
at Pekfti to secure a lease on San Mttn
Bay, province of Chekiang. Ohina. and
has given notice of its intention to the
other nations interested of China, all of
whom, the minister said, were friendly to
the government's project.
Ilet'ore (lie Day.
We walked at the dawning, but we never
saw the day:
And we spoke our little prologue, but we
never reached the play.
Oh! our love was sweet and certain till
gray sorrow dropt the curtain,
Ay. we wakened at the dawning, but we
never saw the day.
There, were buds within our garden, but
they never came to llower:
There were birds among the hushes, but
they only sang an hour.
And we laughed to see the swallow, but
the summer did not follow:
There were buds within our garden, but
they never came to flower.
'Tis a"garment white and silken,
white and misty veil,
'Tis a pair of little slippers—O dear love!
so white and frail.
Is the manhood in me dying that I'm
sitting here and crying
O'er a sarment and a slipper and a never
Dear, the world is empty—empty as the
g^mless golden band.
The token I had fingerfiU anrt that never
found your hand.
They've been telling me the story of an
But you were the only preacher I could
Ah, we wakened at the dawning, but we
never saw the day:
And we spoke our little prologue, but wo
never reached the play.
But our love was sweet and certain till
gray sorrow dropt the curtain.
Hark! a single bell is calling and
this should have been the day.
Wisdom From Kansas.
Some people have a good lime, but it
is in a fool way.
A woman who cries a great deal is
usually a great kisser.
Xo one who is compelled to buy it is
very fond of champagne.
A good figure in youth becomes
flabby fat in middle age.
The husband of a club woman is an
understudy for Cinderella.
A11 awfully poor player can play an
acceptable wedding march.
ff you must have your picture taken,
for heaven's sake don't pose.
An old maid with money is the only
genuine fairy godmother.
How easy it is to collect a crowd!
How people love to rubberneck!
An Atchison woman carries a pistol
when she goes to church at night.
Every man carries a penknife, but
not one in twenty carries a good one.
Atchison is in it again: A woman
lives in Atchison who is named Mary
We never hear a man hum a tune in
an office that we (lou't wish he would
A man who owes everybody was
worrying 011 the streets today about
Soon after a man passes -10 lie be
gins to lose interest in the Fourth of
There is about as much interest in
the average friend's letter as there is in
a colleae veil.
Sad Hut True.
The prodigal son may return but
how about the prodigal daughter? As
far as the world is concerned, there is
no mercy for the prodigal daughter.
Tin son may wallow in the mire ami
filth of polution. feed upon infamy, and
if he will come back' in becoming rai
nii nt. and knock' at lie door of society.
lie is eagerly receiver I within its porta!*
marriageable daughters simper I
smile sweetly anil their fond mamas
are very kind and gracious in feeling
it their womanly duty to encourage the
fellow to do better now that lie has
sew 11 his wild (Kits, liut tiie prodigal
daughter, ail, hush, breathe not her
name within the precincts of society.
Keep her out. push er to a suicide's
gia\c. appeasing- your righteous indig
nation, return to petting and cares.-
ing the "dear boy" who lias made a
start to go back to the path of recti
I'tde. Ten to one lie never comes back,
he knows he can sin and still keep his
place ill society.—Jordan Independent.
\*selx Someivlint Small.
IMTTSBURG, March 2.—George l.eoffert
At Sons, lumber dealers Sharpsburg,
I'a.. have filed a petition ill bankruptcy.
Liabilities. $l-iJ.0tW assets, $G,0U'J, prinoipal
ly open accounts.
Their Curse and Cure.
My D. A. Pctrc.
HE age of trusts and combina
tions is the subject talk today
among a vast number of the
American people, who believe them to
be serious menace to industry, and
without doubt an apparently sound
conclusion. It would take up too
much time and space 16 mention the
hundreds of combinations which have
been formed in the United States dur
ing late years, besides the average
reader is well informed of the situa
We all admit the evil from a com
mercial point of view but when we
leave the field of trade and discover
that measures are 011 foot to control
the education of our youth, the last
measure of wickedness has been added
to the already overflowing bowl of
trustification. I refer to a bill before
the Illinois state legislature which
aims to put the public school teachers
of Chicago under the control of tae
Bockefeller University, of which Mr.
Harper is president, From a political
and economic standpoint the average
reader can readily grasp the field of
thought which surrounds and gov
erns this gentleman, and we can infer
from his past teachings in this parti
cular, what the result would be should
the public school teachers of Chicago'
be trained to educate after his way of
thinking. Another source would pre
vent the organization of any new col
lege without an endowment of at least
$100,000. It is liarldy possible, how
ever, to conceive that such a vicious
measure could ever be passed by any
legislature which had the least idea
as to the result effect, it would have
on the rising generation. The prop
osition now before the people—of
trusts anar Meh«s to Society—
is how to remedy the evil, it is al
ways an easy proposition to condemn
existing conditions, but it remains fct
those to come forward and suggest a
cure, without which the vague utter
ances of the discontent may even
prove worse than the disease itself.
Recently a suggestion was promul
gated through the United States su
preme court that the remedy against
trusts laid with the several states to
solve but another outline for a cure
was not set forth, and thus, so far as
the court's advice is concerned, we
must still grope in the dark, and con
tinue in the uneven tenor of our ways.
But there are possibly remedies which
in the writers opinion might tend to
stay the progress of monopoly, though
the plan is by no means original.
Atchison Globe: It is very easy
insult a hungry man.
The easier a woman cries the less it
It is easier to sell a farm than it is
to sell a piano.
An Atchison woman still makes
One process would be through a
graduated income tax (which accoru
ing to the courts under the constitu
tion cannot be made valid—though
entirely correct in 1862, when an in
come tax law provided for taxing ail
incomes over $(500 but perhaps an
other plan might meet with better
and surer success, and that would be,
to leave the proposition to work out
its own wreckage. It is an old motto
which says, "that the best way to
change a bad law is to strictly enforce
it." Perhaps Under this ruling there
fore, it would be well to let the system
of trusts and monopoly gain the
length of their tether, when the whole
public will be so utterly surprised and
awed that they will speedily rise with
one voice and subdue by wise means
a condition of society which is fast
pauperising the nation notwithstand
ing its enormous productive wealth.
liAHTIKirAKES AT CAVITK.
Arsenal and \«ivy Yard There Were
WASHINGTON', March 3.—Through the
courtesy of a Spanish resident at Manila,
the navy department has secured a con
cise history of the navy yard and arsenal
a: Cavile. It appears this was started in
1JJ, just a hundred years ago, by the
Spanish Admiral M. De Alava, the mat-J
:uis being provided from Sail Bias, Cui
ia. The arsenal developed greatly
during the command of Gen. Eririle in
I ". 1. when a large frigate, the St. Esper
a..u. was launched there. A great part
ot the building were destroyed by earth
quakes in l&B and in 1SC5. The arsenal
and navy yard cover 71.61 square miles,
srid is it represented the yard can be made
me of the best naval stations in the far
l-'i'drral Steel Dividend.
NliW VUIIK, March a.—The directors of
the Federal Steel company have declared
a dividend of 1% per cent on the preferred
stock. No action was taken on the com