"The World is Governed Too Much."
luEBY L. BIOSAT, BnineM Manager. ALEXANDRIA, LOUISIANA, WEDNESDAY. MARCH 12, 1890. VOL. XL
TAKE IT NOW.
If you're waiting for a day
In the future-far away
When, with gold enough to spare,
You will rest from trial and care
And enjoyment find supreme,
Let me tell you-'tis a dream.
If you're slaving all for wealtt
At the cost of life and health,
And the present you reject
For the future you expect,
If your joys are yet to be
Pain, not pleasure, you will see.
If yoU're waiting to be old
E'ev you take the good of gold
And enjoy your rightful due
Of life's pleasures, sweet and true
You will find, alas, too late,
Woeful disappointment great.
Live life's journey by the way;
While the sun shines make your hay;
Now-now only you are sure
Of the pleasures that endure,
Pleasures that make memory bright
When life noon has turned to night.
0, the heart grows hard and cold
Piling up the yellow gold,
Throwing present good away,
Dreaming that afuture day
Never coming may bestow
Joys you now or never know,
Wait not till a life is spent
're you know its sweet content;
Take its pleasures, good and true,
While they still belong to you.
T'hen upon a future day,
'They, and more with you, will stay.
-H. C. Dodge, in Detroit Free Press.
MEN SKINNED ALIVE.
Horrors of War in the Wilds of
An Adventure with Pirates -How the
Cruel .Chinese Are Punlshed--The
Torture of a French Officer
I was lucky enough to get as far as the
actual frontier of Tongking and China,
In the very midst of the pirates and
Chinese freebooters, where fighting is
constant and bloody outrages com
Imon. M. Bavier-Chauffour, the man
aging director of the Tongking Coal
Mining Company, gave me the use of
his launch and accompanied me, with
one of his lieutenants, Mr. Avatts, a
man of huge build and fierce beard, a
much-traveled and charming compan
ion. The trip was of the greatest in
terest, and it is safe to say that hardly
an Englishman, except Mr. James Hart,
who helped to delimit the frontier, has
been near the spot before.
From Hatou, where the coal mines
are, we steamed due north along the
coast, entering almost at once the
unique scenery of Along Bay. On our
way odown we came across a fleet of
sampans, carrying one thousand wnod
cutters to their work, conveyed by a
gun-boat. The commander hailed us.
"I engage you to be cautious," he said;
"there is a well-armed band of pirates
reported on the coast. I would come a
little way with you, but I have just re
ceived telegraphic orders to stand by
these boats. However, keep a good
By the evening of the second day we
were close to our destination - the
mouth of the river separating Tongking
and China. It was very foggy inter
snittently, and the pilot had got about
tio the end of his knowledge. He be
lieved us, however, to be just off the
mouth of the river. So we held a
council of war on the bridge and decided
to anchor. The word was hardly out of
our host's mouth when - scrunch,
scrunch, under the keel told us it was
too late. We were high and dry, on a
falling tide. Then the fog lifted for a
moment, and we saw where we were
far beyond the mouth of the river, with
in a quarter of a mile of the mainland
of China, and in probably the very worst
spot for the very worst pirates in the
whole world. And in these seas there
is only one tide in the twenty-four
hours. Then Ivatts slowly rose to the
height of his six feet three inches, took
our wretched Annamite pilot by the
scruff of the neck, turned him round,
and solemnly administered a sound
The chastisement was deserved; it
was thorough and it was picturesque,
but it did not help us in the least. For
twenty hours we should be on the sand
bank, in two or three hours we could
walk round the launch. Never in their
lives would the pirates have had such a
chance at such a prize as the Fanny,
and they could come in any number
from the mainland. We tried to laugh
at our bad luck, but the situation was
decidedly unpleasant. Ivatts knew the
country very well and the natives, as he
speaks Annamese, but we all knew
enough to know on thing-namely, that
would never do to be taken alive. To
blow one's brains out, if necessary, is
one thing; to be skinned alive is anoth
er. So we made preparations for our
defense. 1o craft travels in these wa
ters without being armed; and we were
particularly well off.
After dinner we laid our revolvers on
the table and commenced an all-night
game--the second time in my life that I
have assisted at the unholy unison of
.poker and pistols. Once only were we
disturbed. About two o'clock the Sikh
in the bows shouted "Samnan!" In an
instant we were on deck, and there, sure
enough, was a big, black boat approach
ing from the sea. We waited till it was
within a couple hundred yards-long
enough to see that it was full of men,
and was being rowed in unusual silence,
then Ivatts shouted in Annamese: "If
you don't show a light instantly we shall
shoot." There was no answer, and still
the boat came on. He shouted again,
and the rifles were at our shoulders,
when the boat showed a lantern. Then
slowly it disappeared back into the
So ended our desperate affair with the
pirates. Their existence is no joke,
however. Numbers of native junks fall
into their hands, and within the last
two months several Europeans have
been~..murdered by them, and two or
three, with sums of money in their pos
esasion, have completely disappeared.
A fortnight or two ago two redoubtable
iat chiefs were captured, with two
red men with one hundred and
-loder, after aPn expedi
-i s~iiM(1dU~~ i~
one hundred killed and wounded. At a
place called Caobang they are still for
midable in the field, kept by their lead
ers under strict discipline and training,
and when hard pressed, says the Cour
ier d'Haiphong, make their escape across
the frontier into China, where the man
darins help them.
It is a long row up the river to the
little frontier town of Monkay. This is
or rather was-a very peculiar place.
It was built half on each side of the
little stream that forms the actual
frontier. I believe the two halves had
different names, the Tongking only be
ing called Monkay, but they were prac
tically one town. The reason for using
the past tense will be plain presently.
The town had no poor quarter; its
streets were mathematically laid out;
its houses were all of brick and stone,
with richly carved and ornamented lin
tels and eaves; their inhabitants were
all rich. In some way or another this
was the outcome of the alliance of pi
racy and smuggling.
When the French came they did not
interfere with the town on their side of
the stream, but on the top of a sugar
loaf hill three-quarters of a mile back
they began to build a little fort, and un
der its guns laid out a "citadel," inside
which to locate the barracks, officers'
quarters, magazines, etc.
Among the first to be sent there was a
civilian official named Haitce. One day
whilst out with a small party they were
attacked by a band of Chinese soldiers.
They fled, some were shot, some escaped.
Haitce only was captured. He was taken
back to a house in the principal street
of the model little town of Monkay, tied
down upon a table and skinned alive.
Now, at this time the famous Colonel
Dugenne was in command of the For
eign Legion of Tongking. Every body
knows what the Foreign Legion is
almost the only force in the world where
a sound man is enlisted instantly with
out a question being asked. No matter
what your nationality, what your color,
what your past, you are welcome in the
Foreign Legion. A man may even de
sert from the regular French army and
re-enlist, unquestioned, in this hetero
geneous force. In return for this pre
liminary indulgence, however, you must
put up with many inconveniences-the
worst climates, the hardest work, the
front line of the attack, the forlorn
hope and the most iron discipline. Once
out of civilized parts, and there is prac
tically only one punishment in the For
eign Legion-the punishment that can
o'ly be awarded once.
To keep such a body of men in order,
this is perhaps necessary, and the offi
cers to enforce it must be hard men
men with bodies of steel and hearts of
stone. And the hardest of them all was
Colonel Dugenne. When the author
ities heard of the outrage I have de
scribed, they understood that it was no
use to wipe it out with rosewater. So
they sent Colonel Dugenne and his chil
dren. He came and looked at the place.
"Burn it," said he. But it wouldn't
burn, being all brick and stone. "Blow
it up," said Colonel Dugenne. And they
did-they blew the whole town literally
to bits. Compared with Monkay, Pom
peii is in good preservation. You need
an alpenstock to get through the streets.
And the house where Haitce was tortured
is now a hole in the ground twenty feet
You are not long in discovering that
Monkay is not like other places. As we
were rowing up, a big red pheasant was
sitting in a tree not twenty rods away.
I picked up my rifle to try and shoot its
head off, as we do with partridges inthe
Maine woods. "Don't fire here," said
Ivatts, quickly; "the people at the fort
would think there was trouble, and
probably turn out a lot of men." The
Resident, M. Rustant, walked down to
meet us and take us to the residency.
This proved to be an old temple, or
pagode, as the French call all native
buildings, divided into rooms by board
partitions and very meagerly provided
with modern furniture. Outside, a six
foot moat was dug and lined with spikes
of bamboo so thick that a hen could
hardly walk about in it. On each side
of the moat was a stockade built of
heavy hamboo, eight feet high, and
sharpened to a spike at the top. At
each corner a lookout was built of sods
and bamboo in which a sentry stood
always with a loaded rifle. The front
of the residency faced the river, where
a little gun .boat lay at anchor. The
back of it looked towards the frontier,
and therefore the back entrance, with
the akitchen and offices, was further
protecteJ'with thick walls ,of sods, to
guprd against the bullets fired across at
it from long range. The resident's
guard consists of 120 native militia, un
der two European officers. But at night
as we sat at dinner in the cold bare cob
webbed, bat-tenanted central hall of the
former temple the door was pushed nois
ily open and a night guard of thirteen
men and sergeant of the foreign lega
tion tramped past our chairs to an ante
room and grounded their arms with a
crash on the stone floor. At midnight
we were awakened by the same tramp
and crash as the guard was changed.
And there is no "show-pigeon" about
this; all these men and their ball eart
ridges may be needed at any minute.
Next morning we went to pay our re
spects to the commanding officer, and
look round. First we climbed up to the
fortin on the top of the sugar-loaf hill,
where there are a half dozen light guns
and a small force of French artillery
men, into whioh no native is ever per
mitted to set foot. The frontier river
winds along like a silver thread three
quarters of a mile off; the citadel isjust
below, and the half dozen houses of the
foreign population; and through a glass
you can see the Chinese guns and sol
diers in their own fort, on a similar hill,
a couple of miles off, or less. All these
guns, of course, are trained straight at
Then we walked, always with an es
cort, through the ruins of the town down
to the river. The river, which consti
tutes the actual frontier, is only aboub
forty yards wide, and can bqeorded at
low tide. On the French side the bank
is high, while the Chinese town is b6t
almost.down to the water's edge. Acrs
the river, of course, not a soulPYenturea.
If a Frencbmhnia sbhould tihis head
culty, I bribed a Chinaman to take a
telegram across, addressed to Sir Robert
Hart, in Pekin, but they refused to dis
patch it, and sent it back. In faot, the
relations between the French and Chi
nese are just about as "strained" as
they can possibly be.
No wonder that a Chinaman who falls
into French hands here gets a very short
shrift-generally about as close as it
takes to pull a trigger. In fact, I be
lieve any Chinaman seen at Monkay at
night is shot on sight. The Chinese who
come across on these murdering exoodi
tions are not pirates at all, or "black
flags," or docoits, or any thing of that
kind; they are Chinese regulars, who
leave their yellow jackets behind and
resume them on their return. And, of
course, if the practice were not en
couraged, or at least winked at by the
Chinese officials, it could not go on.
The native troops are not very smart
soldiers. but they take kindly to the
loose French discipline, and on several
occasions they have fought very well in
deed. Their dress consists of dark
blue cotton knickerbockers and jacket,
a little pointed bamboo hat, and a sash.
They wear no shoes, and the only dif
ference between the militia or civil
guards and the regulars is that the sash
and hat of the former are blue and of
the latter red. At Monkay the total
strength is about 750 men-350 Euro
peans and 400 natives-not nearly
enough, and the commandant com
plained bitterly. Once as I stood with
him in the fort he showed me a valley
close by, and said: "There are 500 pi
rates over there. The day after to
morrow I am going out to say 'Bon jour'
to them. And two days after I got back
to HIongkong I read in the newspaper
that he had made his expedition, the
Chinese had attacked his camp during
the night and that he had been the first
man shot. "Don't forget to send me.
some of your photographs," he said to
me at the same time; "they will be very
dramatic."-Henry Norman, in North
THE PATIENT WIDOW.
A Childhood Legend Which Is as True as
It Is Pathetic.
"Mamma, will papa come to-night?"
"Not to-night, my. darling, but
Thus spoke Henrietta Caruthers, a
little eight years of ago, to her mother
as the candle was lighted and the bull
dog turned out doors to take care of
Seven years previous Mr. Caruthers
had come home one day looking sad and
hungry and said:
"Wife, I must go over to Jonesville
this afternoon and see Steve Smith
about them fourteen dollars he owes
me. I'm afraid he is going to skip the
country, and if he does what will be
come of us?"
The wife felt awfully sad to have him
go, as Jonesville was seven miles away,
but she dried her eyes as soon as possi
ble, plucked up her courage, and said:
"Go, my husband! I am not the one
to hold you back when duty calls."
And he went, and they never saw him
more. Some wives would have kicked
up a row about it and had every saloon
within forty miles carefully searched,
but Mrs. Caruthers was not that kind of
a graduate from Vassar College. She
knew that he would turn up sooner or
later, if not dead, and if dead he
couldn't turn up or down or any other
And the years went by. She thought
of him now and then, but most of her
time was put in looking sad and raising
Early Rose potatoes for the Schenectady
market. She was very patient and kind
and loving, and many a poor wayfarer
who called at her door was bitten in4
four different places by her dog before
he could get out of the yard again.
"So papa won't come?" queried Hen
rietta as she toyed with a hole in the
heel of her stocking.
'I'm afraid not," sighed the mother.
"However, let us-be good and patient,
and seek to bear in a cheerful manner
whatever Providence so wills."
The words were hardly spoken before
some one kicked in the door, and a deep,
bass voice called out in loving tones:
"Hey, old woman, your M'Ginty lhas
(hic) returned to thee at last, right side
up and solid as a brick!"
And it was he, sure enough, his nose
a little redder, his clothes the worse for
wear, and his eyes full of fond expect
ancy and lager berr. He explained that
he had become temporarily insane and
wandered oiff to Albany and become a
paving contractor, and that he had
come to his own true self only two days
before, after being hit on the head with
a dirt-pounder. And he was lovingly
welcomed, his explanations were ac
cepted without question, and he is now
talking horse in the corner grocery
while his dear wife takes in washing to
support the family.-Detroit Free Press.
Deaths of Peter and Paul.
Nothing is certainly known of the
last years of the life of St. Peter, and
the manner of his death is a matter of
conjecturae. From the last quarter of
the second century to the beginning of
the sixteenth century the commonly ac
cepted belief was that he ended his days
in Rome and met his death by being
cmrucified with his head downward. The
incident at Antioch (Galatians, ii) is
the last that we surely know of him.
Some of the early fathers, such ai
Dionysius, of Corinth, Irensus and
others, speak of Peter and Paul ai
founding the Church at Rome. From
that time forward until the sixteentb
century there was an unquestioned ac
ceptance of the traditions respecting
Peter and Paul,, more especially the
former, and to whose reputed early 1l
bors in Rome the leaders of the church
which derives its name from that cit3
have always related its beginning and
apostolic .succession. Whatever ha.
been written or said of the place anc
manner of the deaths of Paul and Petei
has, therefore, been in regard to mat
ters highly uncertain. In ~the- light o
intelligent scholarship and criticism
there is little reason to give credence t4
the Roman traditions of either of these
two well-known Christian leader-
-You doit .care how much a mai
thinka of htmuqWfi un oen i.e ibiu
PERSONAL AND LITERARY.
-George Bancroft, who is now eighty
hine years old, says he still remembers
his early literary days, when he received
two dollars for a long article, and was
very glad to get it.
- The collection of Corean books late
ly acquired by the British Museum pos
sesses considerable interest and impor
tance. It consists of Corean editions of
the Chinese classics, of native historical
works and of novels.
-The name of Pushkin is exceeding.
ly popular throughout Russia. Every
anniversary of the death of the poet, who
fell in an unfair duel fifty years ago, is
religiously observed, while the name of
his murderer is abhorred.
-Mrs. Frances Hodgson Burnett
wrote her four stories-"That- Lass o'
Lowrie's," "The Fire at Grantley Mills,"
"Pretty Polly Pemberton." and "The
Fortunes of Philippa Fairfax"-all
within less than a year and four months.
-Paul Du Chaillu, the author and
traveler, is a small, round-shouldered
man, about fifty-two years old. He is
far from good-looking, but has a vivaci
ty of manner and brightness in his con
versation which make the listener for
get his want of good looks.
-Marshall P. Wilder learns from his
London publishers that the copy of his
book, "People I've Smiled With," which
was presented to the Prince of Wales,
was bound in morocco and had the title
and presentation engraved in silver.
The cover tips were also silver. Mr.
Wilder and the Prince are great friends.
-John G. Nicolay, one of the writers
of the Century life of Lincoln, is the
son of German peasants and began his
career as a boy in a country store at
four dollars a month; he regarded him
self lucky when he was promoted from
that position to be printer's devil in the
office of the Pike County Free Press,
and gradually worked himself up to be
editor and proprietor; he is now Mar
shal of the Supreme Court of the United
-Anna Pratt, well known as one of
the earliest women botanists, is still
living at eighty-two. Her greatest
work, "Flowering Plants and Ferns of
Great Eritain," was begun in 1849, and
on its appearance took rank with stand
nrd authorities. She.revisod it in 1880,
her seventy-three years not disqualify
ing her for literary work. In later life
she was happily married to Mr. John
Pearloss, but she will be best remem
bered as Anna Pratt.
-A London gossip gives the follow
ing story as illustrative of Lord Tenny
son's "peculiar manners in society." In
his early days, when he had no greater
horror than that of being lionized, a
great lady wished to introduce to the
laureate a musician who had set some
of his songs to music. A party was
given for the occasion. The laureate
appeared, and the musician sang his
songs to him with every power of ex
pression that he knew how to produce.
At the end of the performance every
body waited the word of the poet.
There was a blank silence. The hostess
feared that the songs had not produced
a good impression. The silence became.
agonizing. At length, from the corner
where Tennyson sat came a voice chok
ing with emotion: "Do you not see that
I am weeping?"
-An article in an exchange is en
titled: "How to Live on $20,000 a Year."
We should think it might be done-if a
man had the $20,000.-Norristown Her
-George-"The ring doesn't seem to
fit very well, Clara. Hadn't I better
take it back and have it made smaller?"
Clara - "No, George; an engagement
ring is an engagement ring, even if I
have to wear it around my neck."
-In Court.-"Prisoner, have you any'
thing to say in your defense?" "Your
honor, I beg you to consider before pro
nouncing the sentence that the only rea
son I steal is so as not to be loafing
about the streets all day."-Fliegende
-Editor-- "We can't accept this
sketch-it isn't true to life-it repre
sents a messenger boy running." Artist
-"But he isn't carrying a message."
Editor-"Isn't he?" Artist-"No; he's
running to a fire." Editor-"Well, that
alters the case. Put in the fire and we'll
accept it."-Yankee Blade.
-City Cousin-"How's your- father,
James?" Country Cousin-"Father isn't
very well." City Cousin-"He must be
getting along in years." Country Cousin
-"Only eighty-nine last spring." City
Cousin-"What seems to be the matter
with him?" Country Cousin-"Can't just
say; I guess farming's beginning to tell
-White Citizen-"Well, Jackson,
what aregou doing for a living now?"
Colored 9stizen-"Ain't doin' nothin';
de ole woman takes in washin'." White
Citizen-"Ain't you ashamed of yourself
to allow your wife to support you by
washing?" Colored Citizen - "Well,
boss, my ole woman am a mighty igner
ent nigger, an' doan' know how to do
nuffn' else."-Munsey's Weekly.
-"Is that this year's maple sirup,
Mr. Slye," asked the customer. "Why,
of course, certainly, ma'am. All fresh.
ly-" "But you told my friend, Mrs.
Smith, who moved into this neighbor
hood yesterday, that it wasn't." "To
be sure I did," replied the grocer, con
fidingly, "but you see I was afraid she
would go and trade at Sanderus' if I
didn't-er--impress her, so to speak,
with my candid and upright methods.a-
-Financier - "You literary men
haven't the least idea about business.
Here you have about ten thousand man
nscripts piled up in this dark cupboard,
and you say they are all paid for?"
Editor'Great Magazine-"Years ago."
"Just think of it! Hasn't it eves oo
ourred to you, sir, that you are losing
the interest on all money you paid out
for those useless bundles?" "Huh! You
financiers haven't the least idea about
literature. Every one of those manu
scripts is from a different author, and
the w0le tena thbousand of them Wil1 ge
on buygnp mrinagazinles atf ashillint
eorpyftutl ~tt~t:j l~ O rp~.~
SCHOOL AND CHURCH.
-Dartmouth College is to receive
$40,000 through the will of the late Rev.
Cyrus W. Wallace, D. D., of Manches
ter, N. II
-At a recent meeting of the presby
tery of Chickasaw the sermon was
preached by a full-blooded Kiowa Indi
an, Joshua Given.
-One Episcopal church in San Fran
cisco is said to have a membership of
$75,000,000, and yet the missionary fund
of the diocese is in debt nearly $800.
-The German Methodists have 7
churches in New York, 11 in Chicago, 5
in Cincinnati, 5 in Milwaukee, 4 in Buf
falo, 4 in St. Louis, 4 in Brooklyn, 8 in
-A Lilliputian finger prayer-book
has been issued by the Oxford Univer
sity Press. It is only three and a half
inche3 long and one inch broad, weighs
three-quarters of an ounce and contains
-Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, of New York,
has made a gift of $10,000 to Harvard
University for the establishment of a
museum for the study of the iite}ature,
history and remains of the Semitic peo
-The United States has 361 colleges,
with 4,442 instructors and 70,024 stu
dents; 159 institutions for the higher
education of women, with 1,854 instruct
ors; 90 schools of science, 145 schools of
theology and 50 of laW.
-Along the valley of the Nile from
Alexandria to the first cataract are
70 mission stations and 70 Sunday
schools, numbering 4,017 scholars, while
the day and boarding-schools have over
5,000 pupils.-Religious Herald.
-In the statistics of the Protestant
Episcopal church in the United States
there is an increase in the number of
Sunday-school scholars for the year
1888-89 amounting to nearly 33,000,
nearly a quarter of the increase being
in the diocese of Pennsylvania.
-There is only one Methodist theo
logical seminary among the 250,000,000
of India. It was sounded in 1872 by the
gift of $20,000 from Rev. D. W. Thomas,
of the North India conference. It has
so far turned out 165 native missionaries
and 144 Christian teachers. - Western
-More than sixty years ago the
first churches of Disciples of Christ
were planted in Ohio. New churches
have been established annually to the
present date, so that the whole number
reaches 467 churches, with a member
ship of 47,500. The Ohio Christian Mis
sionary Society has assisted in planting
-At Barangar, Calcutta, a school for
girls has been conducted by Mr. and
Mrs. Sasipada Banerjee for more than
twenty-five years. It is now proposed to
add a boarding department for the pur
pose of training young women, and es
pecially Hindu widows, as teachers, and
thereby to do for this unfortunate class
in Bengal what Ramabai is doing for
them at Bombay.
Spgking before a meeting of the
Methodist ministers, Bishop Fowler
told of a new heathen temple in the
northern part of Japan. It is ,of enor
mous size, and the timbers were hauled
to and placed in their present position
by ropes made from the hair of the
women of the province. An edict went
forth calling for the long hair of the
women, and enough was obtained to
make two monster ropes-one seventeen
inches in circumference and fourteen
hundred feet long, and -the other ten to
eleven inches around and two thousand
feet long.-St. Louis Republic.
THE' MAN OF FASHION.
How His Tailor Should Fit Him Out for
Spring and Summer.
The three-button cutaway frock coat
will remain the popular semi-dress gar
ment. The single-breasted sack coat is
as popular as ever, especially with three
buttons instead of four, corners slight
ly rounded and cut away and a long,
narrow, shapely roll. The edges are
stitched rather wider than usual, in
some cases the stitching being as wide
as five-eighths of an inch, but the av
erage is about one-half an inch.
There will be a moderate number of
double-breasted sack coats worn, cs
secially in blue and black cheviots and
serges. The popular garment seems to
be a four-button, with a shapely Prince
In spring overcoats, the prevailing
garment will be the box coat. This
garment is about thirty-six inches long,
made with a handsome treble stitch or
plaited seam, with the back cut full and
shapely, the entire garment banging
gracefully from the shoulders. The
roll is long, and in beautifully modu
lated lines, with a buttonhole in the
left lapel especially arranged to hold
a boutonniere. The cuffs are stitched a
la Parisian, with three buttons fltted
into three hand-made button-holes,
making a pretty and novel effect.
Vests are cut five button, long, shape
ly roll, and not exposing too much shirt
front, with a neatly-notched collar. The
edges are stitched the same width~as
Trousers sae being out a trifle nar
rower than heretofore, slightly tapering
from the knee to the instep.
For quietly dressed and elderlygentlo-.
men, the single-breasted, one-button
cutaway, cut with flaps at the waist
line, and the regular length; single
breasted fly front, silked faced over
coat, hold their own as heretofore.
These garments are made in solid black
worsteds and cheviots, ecrkscrews and
diagonals, and many combinations of
modest mixtures.-Clothier and Fur
Amenities of Jou-naliam.
Dudish Reporter (in brand-new'suit)
-It does beat all. Ive jist been or
dered to make a tour of the liums and
write a column of scenes and incidents.
My clothes will be rni ...
T· ramp Reporter (in rags and tatters)
- am in just as bad a.fi. Ibave been
rasigned 'to Mrs. Nabob' ballu; and 'i:
haven'tow thing 't to wear,
THII~GS WORTH KNOWING.
Jeff Wellborn Reviews Some of the Things
He Learned in 1889.
In reviewing what I have gained in
point of agricultural knowledge during
1889, 1 feel like shouting, "Hurrah for
Dixie." I can seenothing but thedawn
ing of the greatest boom that has ever
been known in agriculture. Although
"the scales" are fast falling from our
eyes, our minds had become so be
numbed or led astray by mani fold "Jack
q,-anters" that it is hard for us to realize
what science and nature yoked together
can accomplish. Things have been
brought to light that have hitherto
been wrapped in mystery!. Aye even
things considered "unknowable" for all
What is it we have learned that is so
We have learned how to gather nitro
gen, the costliest of all fertilizers-and
carbonic acid gas, the combustible part
of plant life-both gases of the atmos
phere. Nitrogen, as we all known, is 79
per cent. of the atmosphere along the
earth's surface and always greatest in
low places, and when the atmosphere
becomes cold sinks into the soil It is
many times greater nearer the Gulf of
Mexico than it is near the Northern
lakes, although large quantities fre car
ried from the South to these 1orthern
climates, during the summer when it is
too warm to condense it, and blows
steady from the equator northward. As
all vapor is caused by the heat of the
sun, it must by necessity be condensed
by the opposite element-cold. While
in vapor it floats upon the
winds; when condensed it must
sink to the earth where it is
swallowed up, and plant life gathers
it up (where nature has not been inter
fered with by man), distils from it its
plant food and returns it to the atmos
phere, through the pores of the leaves,
pure air. Thus the two gases, nitrogen
and carbon, the great enemies ofanimal
life when they are in excess as they are
at the South, and especially in low
lands, are converted into animal food,
and the air made pure by their absence.
These two gases, although different,
emanate. from the same causes. 'Car
bonic acid gas is heavier, and in large
quantities more fatal to animal life,
yet, if possible, it is more essential to
It has been known for many years
that nine-tenths of all vegetable life is
formed from these two grases. Science
worked at the wrong end of the plants,
and therefore it seemed impossible to
handle these two gases. They could notbe
caught and held to the leaves until the
plants absorbed them through the pores,
which serve the function also of ridding
the plants of all excesses of air or gase.
How can the leaves take in these gases
while inviting others, for the plait can
not evaporate or throw off these gases
except when the surrounding atmos
phere is warm enough to evaporate the
plant food in the air? When the plant
is throwing off in greatest profusion the
atmosphere is fullest of these gases.
Can we exhale and inhale air at the
same time? If we can, then the plant
gathers this "nine-tenths" of its food
from the atmosphere through its leaves;
Yes, we know nine-tenths of all the
plant-food taken into plant life is gath
ered from the air, for we know that all
except the potash and phosphates (ashes
and lime) pass back into the atmosphere
when vegetable matter is burned or rots.
If it did not come from the air, it could
not return to air; besides if it was taken
from the soil and turned to nothing we
would soon burn up the earth. We see
that the earth does not'diminish in the
least; we see high places washed down
into low places, but while the high
places are being lowered the low places
are being elevated; so nothing can be
wasted; it only changes forms or locali
The carbonic acid gas and nitrogen
turned loose by burning a brush heap
floats in the air until condensed by cold
air, then it is driven backdown into the
soil to grow more brush; if the weather
is warm it is not likely to settle in the
vicinity of the burned brush heap. but
the wind will carry it in whateverdirec
tion it is blowing, although it must
eventually (when cooled), come back to
Every reader knows that for several
years past I have only claimed to be a
child of natutre; that I have never stud
ied chemistry, botany .or geology; that
I had no idea of what nitrogen; carbon,
potash or the phosphates were; I knew
the soil was dirt; I knew plants grew
but of this dirt; I knew that all the'food
the plant got came out of thisdirt; I
knew tha;t rich dirt was made by the
decaying of vegetable matter; I knew
that vegetable matter could not decay
without heat, moisture and air.
By watching I found that when the
soil was too loose to hold water the
plant roots ran very deep; when the soil
was compsot or full of water they come
to the surface. I found that iff the air
was shut of fromt tie roots by excess'of
tqr. or- paked soils the plantdled.
From these observations I colded
that plants coUld not feed below where
the air could not enter the, soi. I also
cxoncliuded that if a plant would give way
where even the ir was cet6 olff from the
roots, it could no take i Imuich nourish
ment from the leaes. I:also observed
that a .boart liying on the highest
-idge, as soon as itrainedso as tocement
around the edges so that: the~air ocild,
not get into the soil under the board, the
roots came up against it and ran outl
to the .e.ges wherO they ;cd lget-air.
In rainy' sipells rI nobtii·ed that the
plant .rbots o saturated, clean soils
same clear a -out of the rou:. d, ant
.hatallibrous r$ooes o-n thea e t rep
ning roite came back to"ewa the. . ur.
showed that i~4 ercoatlaed. four
·t~m~s muh I oei a hewes
surtace soil elsP the ::Bse `
gotten it. While I'ddl
this nitrogen came .fmir
not come from the iib
tap roots, or fomiI::
through the pores in thel
For the last four '
"gall" and the "n
the lion (science) in hst,1d
cultural press),,ai e
smoke me out onlydrove
man to the woods t9o' tur
I have never doiubt
doubt the knowledge ofi
scientists. For want
which end of the plant
For two years past
ural science with
Here it is in a '
nine-tenths of "
from the air. I
the soil by.
ing by the win
forms the best
surface will not
clear to the e
warms up the soli
tion the air is fl1
soil the same as wain
and only the pure
surface, howeve, i:.
,pores to come, through,
pass back into the a
whence they ca'me.:I'
We have flearned.t
gases with much m
Edison has electrif
the past was ins tryia h i
two gases in the;pla
If we wish :to °gro-y
should only loosen up
the surface, so as,
near the surface,. and
soil If the soil' ls oosii
will be carried to ie
plant needs them, des
If we wish to' *
such as cotton, swet
etc., the deeper -$h. p
can be opened u.. 4$/ .
early winter thee" be I
the surface Isstirre
usedup in' main
vines before r
face must be kep i'
pores can not ome- 'el
-Jeff Wellborn, -in
Cultivate Le"a X s
* . e.ttv.
The one thing to :
the cotton States :thf~
the world is to r...
cultivate less lan OItt
vatd it better; putt 'br A
grass, fruits and. p
crops. Be sure to m
to make home comfortsh
and tie flocks fat and
the cotton, two bales-i
half one is grown now,
taxes, buy the clothe an
sary articles. withL' se;
invest in better stockl, bettq"
better dwellings. . t e,
earth can produce cotte i
The whole face of ,the
tried by the lgni :v
tory results. The faeu B i
hold a monopolyv upn
est of all fiber plan, ad
low the spinners tanspoi
erpool to dictate thei
before the seed is plantI
fault lies with the cqtion .
keeps himself poor itryh
ton at English prices, to bu
himself and beast, ande 1 "
sell at the price flxedwhidtl
his own food and provenudb
cattle and hogs and horsesbe
his own rice or hold untiri'th
suited him. Americkan to
preme, and it is in the p
Southern people to. make, i
American gold mine. n-ti e
Farmers' Alliance anid I
there is greathope Idrthe
meut of such a result. |
ganisation and co-oprat
jects, and. throughi he"
breathe the hope ofi' l 1;
if the purposes are st
-Rural and Workman
HERE A ~N
cheese are vain. t ...i);.
-The man who b.
and gives them a
consistent, not tohitti
to the warm weather.,h
be injured thereby u6ed
wet. Rye provides
oan be had from no ohr
-Have .arow of h
garden It shouldbeln
mit .of properwo:ridut. #W:'
•plant tolerbly deeQp 4".:T
--Plant the pluti tree
try-house aiit gier the
among them: They*lUbt
oeth the treep an4 tbe*W
with oranycopl, Careh1
distribute evenly~ an
ly into thesoiisli m < 5a
nor calculated to:give
-lhine casehout of ~tuii
rlety offru ltwblpti O
givyen soil has ced
due to tb %
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