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THE UNION.
CITY OF WASHINGTON.
TUE8DAY NIGHT, MAY 80, 1845.
ONCE MORE.
We must say that the statements in the "New
York Herald" of Monday last, so far aa they relate to
ua, are gratuitous and unfounded. That pa|>crdoes
not know our feelings for Mr. Calhoun. Wc ad.
mire this distinguished man too much to engage in
any design, or any intrigue, against him. We disclaim
all desire to "proscribe" him, as the "New
York Herald" ventured to assert the other day, or as
another press, in another quarter, hits insidiously
insinuated. In a word, we came here to "proscribe"
no man. We came here (in the spirit of our
prospectus) nol to divide, but unite our (tarty?to
conciliate, not lo offend any honorable republican.
Wc are no mnn'a man. We acout all contests about
the succession. We desire lo denounce none, and to
devote ourselves to no future aspirant. We know
no cliques, North or South. This is our true position,
and we mean to maintain it, at every hazard,
whoever may abuse, or whoever may court
us. We have just emerged from one tremendous
hurricane, which was calculated to shake the noble
jouynbers of the old republican ship. We desire to
Repair all damages in her hull, to refit her sails, to
unite and animate her crew, to put the gallant vessel
on the proper "republican tack," and to
irengthen all her bulwarks, by the time when the
winds will blow again, and the next tempest may
assail her bows. Such is the spirit in which we
came to Washington. We came, of course, to proscribe
no distinguished republican; lo give this administration
a lair, liberal, and efficient support, as
long as it deserves it; to support the principles of
the republican party; to advance the great interests
of our country, and to prepare against the war
which the federal party are preparing to make upon
the republicans at the next presidential election.
Putting all feeling aside, then, is it our policy to
proscribe a man like J. C. Calhoun? Or is it for us,
who keep aloof", us far ns man ran do, from all appointments?who
cheerfully leave this power ill the
hands where the conalitution has placed it,?ia it for
us, we say, to engage in any "strong opposition
(which the "New York Herald" alleges, and which
we do not believe) to have been made to the
selection of Mr. Calhoun for this mission by a certain
portion of the cabinet?" "The present government
editor, (ns he culls us,) Mr. Ritchie,"
denies, in the moat unqualified terms, that he
had any "lot or |>art" in such an opposition,
if any such existed.
He denied the fuct that Mr. Calhoun was to be
sent as a special minister to England, because these
rumors about special missions were only calculated
to produce a certain degree of alarm and disturbance
in the commercial world. He denied, in like manner,
that Mr. Van Duren had been requested to go
ns special minister. And he now denies, in like
manner, the last report of the New York Herald,
that a message has been despatched to Mr. Elmore,
of South Carolina, to oi' r the London mission to
him a second time, dec. Ac.
In connection with this same article in the New
York Herald, we ulso deny that we gave any hint
to the Richmond Enquirer to put forth the name of
Mr. Van Buren us a minister to England. We deny
that the editors of that "journal," intimately connected
as they arc to us by the dearest and strongest
lies, are "of course cognizant of all such state secrets
as may be contained in the mind of the Washington
organ," (as he calls "The Union.!') During
the twenty days that we have been in this city,
the Richmond Enquirer has jiot obtained one secret
from us, from which they have been able to weave
a single paragraph for its columns. "If this be
treason," let the New York Herald and the National
Intelligencer "make the most of it." But enough;
and a great deal too much, we believe. But we are
not likely to offend this way again. We had no
objection again to define our position here. We
shall leave such personal attacks to answer themselves
hereafter, unless some "whale," (to speak in
the language of Dean Swift,) more gigantic than the
rest, should arise up to spout his frothy foam upon
us.
THE EXIT AND THE ENTRANCE!
We trust we may be excused for Inying before
the readers of "The Union," the following valedictory
of its editor "To the people of Virginia, and to
the readers of the Richmond Enquirer," and the
salutatory address of those who succeed hiin at its
helm. He confesses that he wishes his own farewell
to be seen by as many Virginians as he can
reach; and "The Union" will furnish him with
some opportunities of addressing new readers in
Virginia. He desires also the readers of "The
Union" to understand that he has entirely disconnected
himself from the Richmond press, and means
to devote all his energies to "The Union itself."
He trusts to their liberality, also, for his excuse in
laying before them the opening address of the new
editors of the Enquirer?of explaining the views of
those in whose success he feelp a deep interest; particularly
as one portion of their programme embraces
a scheme which is not only particularly valuable
to the people of the State, but furnishes a
hint worthy of the imitation of other presses.
* >>^y jmfjiunc u? |?uuiibii a ncriw ui cesuys on UIC
great subject of agriculture; and if they had selected
a superintendent from the whole southern country,
they could not have obtained the assistance of one
who is so much distinguished for his knowledge of
the subject, as Edmund Ruffin, esq. He was the
the founder, and for many years the editor, of "The
Farmer's Register." He is the father of the murl
system, and the author of decidedly the best work
which has ever appeared on the use of calcareous
manures. His contributions will add great value
to the columns of the Enquirer, and will give it a
new claim upon the farmers of the State. If Mr.
Ruffin will, in this form, present the country with a
>!Htrra of agriculture in a connected scries, in the manner
of Colonel John Taylor's "Arator," which was
first commenced in u newspaper in Washington,
snd afterwards collected in a volume, he will deserve
the thanks of his country, and the Enquirer
her support. With these few remarks, we publish
the following papers. We are not likely to repeat the
transgression before the readers of "The Union."
Krom the Hiehmond F.nqnirer of Msjr 9
To the jtttrple of Virginia, and to the. readers of the
Richmond Enquirer in general.
On this day, foriy-one years ago, (9th May,
IH04,) I appeared before mv country 11a the editor
or the Richmond Enquirer The Name day of thr
month which brought ua together, i? about to separate
ua? not in my affection#?not in my principles,
but in my person nnd in the presa. My lot is
now east on a different theatre. The atar of my
destiny seems to point, at deaat for a time, in a different
direction', but I ran Yiever forget Virginia or
her principles. Sooner would my "right hnnd forgel
ita cunning;" sooner would my heart forget to
beat, than I cease to honor the time-honored Commonwealth?to
lore the soil where my cradle was
rocked, and my coffin will be deposited. She has
cherished me in her bosom?trusted me beyond my ;
deserts?and made me what I am. 1 should indeed
be unworthy of liearing the proud name of a Vir- j
ginian, if I did not carry with me a heart filled with
gratitude and overflowing with affection.
I should have remained with you altogether, if
the interests of thoae who nre dearer to me than life I
itself did not call me away from you. But, though
the sacrifice ia bitter enough?though to part with
thoaa friends who have been endeared to me for so
many yeats, be one of the bitterest sacrifices which
man can make, yrt it is imposed upon me by a
sense of duty whirh I cannot control. I shall try
not to add to it the sacrifice of the principles which
I imbibed almost with my mother's milk.
L It would have given me a pain which I hate not
words to describe, if I had left my political friends lion
amid disaster and defeat? if tlie sun of Virginia's Ilea
glory were at all eclipsed?if, ill any reaped, the of I
Old Dominion had been wrapped in sackcloth and vidi
ashes. Far different, however, is her condition. 1 crni
leave her in the midst of her triumphs. In Novem- 'I
ber last, she carried out her great principles, in the cinl
election of a republican President by u majority of Tin
near six thousand. During the last month, she has neg
followed up this victory by another, and one of the pro
most brilliant achievements which has ever graced the
her annals. The laurel is still green upon her vene- of1
ruble brow; and 1 can leave her without the slightest atlc
suspicion of treachery, or any taint of disgrace, jcot
Younger, but not more ctalous, heurts; stronger, nun
but not more eager arms, are ready to support her to v
banner. To their prudence, and to their firmness, 1 esls
commit that portion of the responsibility which hus E
hitherto fallen upon my shoulders. vot?
I leave the old ' Enquirer" with .feelings similar to the
those with which the veteran soldier surrenders his ricu
urms; but 1 have the consolation of reflecting, that I enci
not only leave my political associates in the proud farr
possession of the field of battle, but that 1 transfer skil
my sword to my own sons. 1 give it to them, in shal
charge to defend the post which their father ha? at- well
tempted to guard for forty-olio years?to main- hrai
tain your principles, and to uphold the char- hon
acter of Virginia. On my own account, us Viri
well us on theirs, I nsk of you to extend tiful
to them the same confidence and kindliest! hop
which you have uniformly given to inc. 1 know agri
they are deeply dyed in the wool of the republican exp
faith?anxious to serve their country?and 1 hope pmi
competent to discharge the commission which I V
now intrust to their hands. More 1 could not auk evei
of you, than to treat them as you have treated me. trov
In a political life of forty-one years, I have probu- prtt
bly made sonic few personal enemies?few, 1 trust, tasti
they are?perhaps as few as most men may have ject
made. I have brought, perhaps, some prejudices to c
around the Enquirer; but I ask, in ;thc name of exp
charity and of justice, visit not my political sins up- day
on my sons. life i
It is not necessary for me to recapitulate at this li
time the articles of my faith. They are your own. rer i
They are the same 1 have professed for so many tent
years. They are the same with those of the present imp
editors of dye Enquirer, and it is therefore with We
some confidence that I invoke on their behalf the outl
support of tho people. a w
Were I to venture to leave with you one piece of C
advice, of more importance than the resl, it would its 1
be to guard, with more than vestal vigilance, the pu- the
nly of the right of suffruge. It is the right conservative
of all the other rights. Let this precious
privilege be corrupted, and you poison liberty at her
very fountain. Destroy this corner-stone of the
building, and the whole structure of your political rj
.. .o........ Mio i j III uailgci 111 I lining 1IIIU IUIIIH.
Henceforth my own name will be stricken from I nl
the Arm of the Enquirer; and I leave it to my sons tent
to make the beat arrangements for your interests, as ^je]
well as their own.
Eight hours only separate me from my late abode; ",c
but 1 know not how long it will be before my press- a j:
ing engagements will enable me to breathe, even for gCn
a any, the air of Virginia. Yet 1 am happy to say, ^ (
that 1 find warm hearts on this side the Potomac as
on thai?not as many of them, perhaps. I have l'or
met with kindness and confidence in the few days
during which I have sojourned in this metropolis. w
There is full scope and verge enough for any man n?
who wishes to serve his country; great interests to clan
maintain in opposition to the claims of foreign na- by i
lions, und great power invested in the federal government,
for weal or for wo. I find men here gVic'i
willing, I honestly believe, and able, I know, to disc
maintain your rights arfd yotir tntercats?to "put "ew
the government on the republican tack," und to ad- *"""
minister the executive powtfrs under the constitu- *
tion, according to the Jenersonian standard. Iconic (he
here prepared to co-operate .with such men in the
support of such principles; and 1 trust, when the tucl
time of settling up their trusteeship shall arrive, you r??s
will not repent of bringing them into power, nor I
of exchanging Richmond for' Washington. I have '
political duties to discharge here, that may require the
nil my energies, and almost all my time. Besides, 8I,|,
. I do not meun to confine "The Union" altogether to .
politics. I should not properly employ the facili- r
ties which my position may give to me, if I did Col
not ut leust attempt to call around mc, for the clrei
benefit of the Union, most of the lights which wjp
may he in possession of the government, or
which may be obuiined through its enlightened son
agents in foreign parts. It will become the duty of l
, of the press to bring the people of the Slates (to OVe
whom this government belongs) well acquainted
with its transactions, as well as with the events, 1''
rrespects, and views of other countries. How far c"a
may he able to succeed in making the press here a Mr
"brief abstract and chronicle of the times," will de- ,pU|pend
upon circumstances, which I may not yet be
able to understand or to calculate. I will attempt,
however, to do my duty. And one thing more I res|
will Attempt to do, wlne,h is, it I do not elevate, I mu
will not debase, thedignity of the press?that "mirac- j
ulous organ," to which free government, on an cx-?
tended scale of empire, is so much indebted for its wni
creation and preservation. but
I cannot close this hasty valedictory, without c|ul
again expressing the sentiments of gratitude and affection^wilh
which I am so profoundly penetrated.
Yours, faithfully, Pro
TIIOMAS RITCHIE. deli
Washington, D. C. jjui
TO THE PUBLIC. wh
As will be seen by the above announcement, the
valued name of Thomas Ritchie has been removed nru
from the head of our columns, and the old Enquirer ?
will hereafter be conducted by the undersigned, un- t0 j
der the name and firm of "Wm. F. and Tiios. pj;,
Ritchie, jr." We arc fully conscious of the deep rj0I
regret which will be felt by the republican party of 8lu
Virginia, at losing the services of him who founded
the paper just 41 years ago, and, by his unremitted 0.)f
labor and unconquerable energies, haH brought it q e
saicly to his present position. Wc have reason to ma
appreciate the mighty and responsible trust which
is confided to our hands; anil we enter upon our orduous
duties with much diffidence as to our capacity to t
to do justice to our noble cause, but with a firm reso- (ani
lulion to do our duty, and our whole duly. The motto,
" Vcrilt sans Penr," which for near half a century has ?Hm
adorned the "broad pennant" of the Enquirer, and has the
defied "the battle and the breeze," still floats untar- C,'CI
nished at our mast-head. The principles maintained JJHj
in lbU4 by the Enquirer, in the "halcyon days" of we
(he republic, under the genial administration of Mr. mot
Jefferson, and at that time consecrated by the fathers
of the republican church?the principles based upon uic
a rigid construction of the constitution as it is teriltrn, yet
yielding to the fcdral head only the powers neccssa- I10"'
ry to carry out the limited though important purposes
of its creation, and reserving to the sovereign .
States an unlimited control over their internal
affairs, and over evory subject which is gr?<
not snciiallv delegated to the general govern- sori
ment?the principles which have stood the test of ,
time, and which experience has fully demonstrated
to be at once wise and salutary, and eminently con- *PP
servntive of the rights of the people and the States, pari
and of our blessed Union?in keeping safely, and ferg
without collision, within their separate orbits, the ^
different [tortious of our beautiful mechanism of free
government: in a word, the principles of the repnb- wn
ban party ahall find in the columns of the Enquirer sin;
of 1H45 as zealous and sincere, though far from as jgtrl
able and competent, ndvoeates, as in former days.
Those glorious principles are now in the zenith of JC(''
success, in Virginia at least; and we may reasona- ns t
| lilv look forward to the day?not distant, we hope? of a
| when the people of Virginia, with an almost unani- mm
I nanus sentiment, as n few years since, will return to
' iheir first love, and rally around the altar of her own *"r
i doctrines, because they urc the genuine offspring of any
I the eonstilution. The recent election, wherein the i|)e)
! issues between the two parties were boldlv and j
! clearly presented, has confirmed und strengthened,
by signs not to be misinterpreted, the republican * "'
faith. It is, therefore, with feelings of hope and ono
confidence that we are called upon, under the nres- lr, ?
ent brilliant prospects, to take upon our weak shoul- . .
ders the Herculean labor* of the Enquirer, so long "
a cherished favorite of the democratic part v, und so fBW
generously recognised as an humble, though honest, forr
advocate And exponent of Jcffersoninti principles. We es,?
assume our honorable, though laborious and weighty
I post, with doubt and min^iviiigs an to our competen-1 l'P?
| cy, but with buoyant spirits, w ith new industry, with objt
undiminished confidence in the justice of our cause, its i
[ nnd with a firm determination to do all that lies in ' g()c
our power to perpetuate our principles and to preserve
the republican party in the vigor and prosper- wl"
ity which it enjoys at the moment that we indieeo- to tl
lubly unite our destinies with its success or decay, the
With some slight experience in the politics of the (
State nnd the country ; with somo little knowledge
of human nature, acquired in h variety of interest- j su*l
log end exciting scenes; with nil immovable resolu- whi
tion to earn our bread by honorable labor and "the I rjor
sweat of our brow," we throw ourselves upon a : .
generous people for a continuance of the confidence i '
nnd support which they have hitherto bestowed I
upon the old Enquirer.
Our great struggle in Virginia having passed off,; E
and with such brilliant and deeiaive resulla, a politi- cjty
cal armistice may be expected for sliort time, and 1
we shall give more variety to our paper. We shall
occasionally cull a few flowers of literature, and lhe'
gather the fruits of science, to adorn end enrich our elso
columns. Rut while we shell ente.r less fully and 1 f jnn
wnrmly into party politics, we shall keep a strict
eye uisin the political movements of the day, and in
sounding, if need be, the signal of danger to our lb
principle*, and in explaining and enforcing their ae-l lian
i, wa shall endeavor to plant them <!?- i in the - QKCtNHOW HlSTORH Of OREGON pi
rts of the people; for, without the guiding policv AND CALIFORNIA."?NEW EDITION. tc
rue political principles,aicither state* nor indl- . . . , ?. ,Atl , '
lal. an enjoy the ampR blessings of a free gov- , Tl' 8 Tolun>*. UIW" *h,ch *" ^ ^ 7"
merit. l"iy l"c favorable opiniop of the 14 New York Eve- jx
'he Enquirer will attend more closely to cotnmer- hing Post," hafl been compiled with great cat*, and in
matters, and to the internal affairs of the Slate, contains information particularly valuable at this ct
i great cause of education, now so shamefully . ,
lecled, and a sound, well digested ayatem of an- tlm0 to thtf American reader. fci
vements, diupenmng its benefits to all portions of 1 be woik is dedicated to the author's (<venerable L
Stale, and knitting together the extreme section* and ever kind friend, General Morgan Lewis, lull u
Virginia, shall receive at our hands the merited govcrnor of ,, state of New Yoik," who received ?
nUon?and wc invite contributions on these sub- ; . f .
s, in the form of short, strong essays, from our 11 a 'ew days before his death, it begins by a geo- rn
icrous friends who have the talents and the skill graphical description of the whole division of Amer- /c
vicld the pen in behalf of Virginia's best inter- iax bordering upon the North Pacific ocean, which cs
lut, above all, we have made arrangements lode- 18 fir8t con8'd?re<1 88 ? whole, nnd afterwaida ?c- d,
5 at least a column of every country Enquirer to cording to its subdivisions, with views of the con- h<
most vitally important interest of Virginia?ag- neclions of 'ach part with the other, and with other ft
Ware. Weahall procure the aid and the inllu. prions of tl.e continent. Mr. Q. hue bestowed th
s ot that distinguished scientific, and practical . . , . , , , , . . ,
ner, Edmund Ruffln, and other intelligent and S1"?"1 lttl>or uP?n ,hl8 Part of ,he work> wh)ch hfts ^
ful planters; and, with their powerful assistance, been written anew for die present edition, and much A
II furnish twice a week a series of original and enlarged by the employment of a smaller type. in
selected practical, common-sense.papers, em- As a Specimen of the geography, we cx.ract the cr
:mg a mass of facts and views which will como , , .
i? to the wants and interests of the farmers of concluding part of the general, view, presenting a sc
jinia, the bone and sinew of the Statu, the boon- eoup (fail of the extent of the claims of different th
I source of all our wealth and prosperity. We nations iu the regions west of the Rocky niuuii- w
e thereby to revive the drooping condition of our tains:
culture; nnu, aiaeu oy ?.e t.gni o. actence aim uThe KetllcmcntM of civilizcd nation, in the Pa- of
enence, to place. Virginia on a firmer basis of Nor(h Americft Bie jnionaiderable in
ipeiity. . extent. Those of the Russians nre scattered along al
ife shall scrupulously exclude from our columns ^ (.oaMs nnd w d l|0rth oflhc feUtudeof f,4 do- ar
'ything the may load to violent and heated con- ec8 4() ; (h arc ? ullder ^direction of ?
ersy on subjects which belong not to the public fhe Russian-American Trading company, and are lh
ts,of that may have a tenancy to v. .ate the devolod ; , Jh col|c*ion ,|,c furs and
b and moral sense of the community. The ob- (kina f (he |anJ an(J abounding in th#t .u
of the press should he to diffuse information and lfcr f whJeh , quanUlies are transported en
levate the standard of virtue and mtelhcence by ^ ' A i d g H of
osmg and ridiculing the vices and foll.es of the aml 0f citizens of the United Slates are intermingled
and by presenting noble examples from actual throughoQt the 1Tgion8 80Uth and ^ of ,he j?llK. *
lor the guidance of the ns.ng generation. sian territory, to California; the British, in general,
. a word, we shall endeavor to.makethet Enqui- j pMU north,and the Americans thou p,
an honest and respectable vehicle of what may #oul? Vlhe hilumbia river, which enters the Pa- It
I to convince the: judgment, please the fancy, and cifi,. ncttr the 4Glh dcgl.cc on'lltl,ude. The people U
rove he thoughts of a varied class of readers. fbo|h ? *ioned natloM8 h?ve hitherto. w
are almost sure that we shall fail to All up the ,jkewi ^ employed principally ill the fur trade; o.
me we have sketched ofT.buti; shall not be from but lh?t besineoa hnving becon.c less profitable of 0f
ant of industry and anxious desire on our part. ? t>onl thc dimuiution of the animals, agri- w
lur ask is dune With all its "imperfections on cullu7rBl establishments have been formed, especially w
lead," we send forth this hasty sheet, and leave . (he of lhe Ul)jted & (J) |hc Vicinity ?'
rest to our Jntmh and to prople. J^ Co|,lmbin The firiti#h are M under the th
'riirw nn'rmp'l control of the Hudson Bay company, which posaessltlUS.
KllCt-llls, JR. ea> jn virtue 0f u royal grant, the privilege, in ex- p,
elusion of other British subjects, of trading in all the 0|
MORE IRONS IN THE FIRE. Indian countries 6f North America belonging to, or ^
'he Rev. Mr. Colton, the author of the "Junius claimed by, that power; and they are protected and g,
. ,, r .u i . l j e.- restrained by British laws, under an act of Parliatcts"
of the last campaign, has announced his in- ^ exlJdi?g the juri>dictioll of the Canada b!
.ion of publishing 441 he Life and Times of courts over those countries, so far as relates p
nry Clay." It will appear in two volumes; and to Bubjecls of that nation. The citizens of the Uni- 0|
value of its contents has been ushered forth with led States, on the contrary, are deprived of all pro- t|
,. , . , | ,. tection, uml are independent of all control; as they it
irelimtnary flourish of trumpets by six whig are llot su|je,t t0 British laws; and their own govtlemen
of New York--threc "honorables" and crnment exeicises no authority whatsoever over any c,
:e "esquires"?who certify that tliey have seen part of America west of the Rocky mountains. In o
tiona of the MS, and? California, south of the 38? of latitude, are many if
. coloniCH, p-arrisons, and missionary stations, founded ft
riuit the mithor k i>?culivir and we -known now erf as a . A? \ ., . 3 1 .
ler havfl bees strikingly displayed, both in the plan and '"e Bpflniai'lll (lining the last century, anu now 8
cation of this new task, which is now nearly completed maintained l>y tlie Mexican*, who succeeded to the g,
has imparled to a familiar subject the freshness and rights of .Spain in 1881. They are. all situated ill
[he^iew^aUerHwhich^a'Thorough^xp/oratioi?of'this "TV T ?
Held has afforded. Among the numerous topic* of cap- glOIls being us yet m I most unknown. It is worthy
Una interest, the new light in w hich lie has placed the of remark, thnt California, though thinly inhabited ?
red 'bargain' between Mr. Adams and Mr. Clay, and the by n wretched, indolent pnpululion, is the only part f
Iosures he has made regarding it. Iiy thepresentation of f.i pac;i5c 8ec.lon of North America which rail .
and documentary evidence, are truly surprising," f" aunc;*ectlon OI XNortli Amiriui which call t,
&C. be conaidered as regularly settled?which possc.Hscs a
"he Rev. Calvin Colton states, on his port, that "" organized civil and social system, and where in- a
dividuuls hold u property in the soil secured to them ?]
by law. t,
t he author spent the Inst winter at Lexington, Ken- "luich of these four nations claims tho exclusive ti
ft and ?2wC."f potion of a portion of the territory on the Pacific h
work, in iU progress, is submitted to him." Hide of America, north of the California!! gulf; and ,,
f we may believe the New York correspondent of ?ach of them isn party to some treaty with another p
. 1 , for the temporary use, or dehmtive sovereignty of ?
Cincinnati "Gazette," he hnsconveraed upon the 8Uch porlio'n. -fhu8 It ha8 been agreed by trckly, "
ject with the reverend author, and understood in 1819, between the United States and Spain?re- f,
n him, that on the bargain charge alone, he (Mr. newed in 1828, between the United Stales and Mcx- ]
ton) has obtained from Mr. Clay near one hun- ico-that a line, drawn from the Rocky Mountains 8
, ' , , , , to the Pacific, in the course of the 42d parallel of i,
il pages of manuscript, and that he (Mr. Colton) iH tittide, should separate the dominions of the former c'
I attempt to fix upon the forehead of Gen. Jack- power on the north from those of Mexico on the p
, through four of his friends and alleged agents south. It was in like manner agreed, in 1824, by ?
the clisrgc of his linving himself made 2" \
rturcs to Mr. Clay, and thus to turn the tables menla on the coasts north of the parallel of 54 de- tl
in the friends of General Jackson, who have grccs 40 minutes, and that the latter should make a
rged Mr. Clay with a coalition and bargain with none "J'"1*) ?f'I"5 same line; but this convention was c
i ?. n i c i i neutralized, and in. tact abrogated, by a treaty con- ?i
. Adams. Mr. Colton has, it is true, subsequently cUlded betwecn Rusaja ,nd Jrcal Br'aill in tfie fol. a
dished a card, softening down and modifying the lowing year, by which all tho territories of the main 8
omenta of the Cincinnati correspondent in some 'and and islands north and west of a line drawn a
jects, (not specified, however,) but admitting from the latitude of 54 degrees 40 minutes north- 8
f t\w* / in Q westward, along the highlands bordering the Pacific 0
' coasts to ivjuum 01. cmos, iinu iiicnra uiic imrin uj
iot being behind the curtain ourselves, wo must the Arctic sea, were to belong to Russia, wlnla all
it to see the volumes, to ascertain their contents; cast and south of that line were to be the property "
we hazard very little in saying that, let the ?'"r'taJn,
T i Thus, on the western side of North America,
rges against General Jackson appear when they lwo |jnc8 ?f l|iRtinct boundary, or partition, each
y, there will not be wanting defenders enough to traversing the whole breadth of the Pacific section, "
tect his memory and his good name from the long- have been recognised; the one between two powers, a
, , 11 .1 i. Great Britain and Russia, the other between two diftyed
and now tns.d.ously-concocted assault. ferentpoW0Mi ^ United Slates and Mexico,-nei- n
i we confess we are rather surprised, and some- ther of which is, however, admitted by the third s
at indignant, that these charges should be re- power, claiming, also, the possession of territories (
ved as a posthumus attack upon the diameter of contiguous toil. Of the vast division of the conti- R
i illustrious man. One other reflection, too, nent and the adjacent islands between these two
ies upon the face of the transaction itself?that lines, no spot has yet been assigned, by mutual l<
i a significant sign of the intention of Mr. Clay agreement, to any civilized nation. The United d
je held up as a presidential candidate in 1848. States claim the territories northward from the 42d j,
j biographer appears to be making un attempt to parallel, and Great Britain claims those extending .
ir the paths of ambition from the difficulties and south and oust fiom the other line, each to a distance 1
mbling-blocks which beset his progress. In ad- undefined, but so far as to secure for itself the whole, J
on to the above.it is said that Mr. Clay has or nearly the whole, of the regions traversed by the li
>ncd a correspondence with Gen. Houston, in Columbia river. The American government has a
xas, under the idle hope of obtaining some infor- more that once proposed to adopt the forty-ninth
lion that may implicate Gen. Jackson. narallel of latitude as tho dividing line; the British 11
____________ have, however, constantly refused to assent to that n
rhe Richmond Enquirer of Friday last contains a letter or any other arrangement which should deprive p
lie Wilton from Washington city, in which ?n elaborate them of the coasts and territories north of the Columbia
river; and neither nation being willing to re; ?
, very much in the .tyle of an editorial urticle to the <"-*de from Its pretensions, nil the countries clnimod P
e effect in the 'Union'of a few dayi'earlier flats. From by both, west of the Rocky mountains, remain, by n
l.xccutivc and his cabinet the writer of the letter pro- convention between the two governments, concluded ;,
la to a confederation of the meritr ol the government pa- ,u,n r_? .i . . , , 11
and the indi.itry of it. editor, to which ?nd hi. at.illtle. n 'Wa7> frcc and ?Pcn 10 thc Citizens or subjects of d
\ praise i? given; and then follows the passage which both.
subjoin entire, italicising only a few sentences to direct "Such is the present condition of the Pacific, ree
particularly to them the attention of the .enaitive adi- gions of North America. This anomalous suite of r
at Augusta, who has undertaken to read us a lecture on ?u- ? ? . i i . . rru_ -*1
.abject of thi. Kame government paper. ( on.ldarlng things cannot however, endure much longer. Thc
relation which tho editor of the 'Union' has borne, and people of the United Statcsnre rapidly colonizing thc
bears, to the Enquirer and its editors, no o.io will sup- fertile portions of thc territory on the lower CoTu in)
that inch a letter wa. written here and con.picnou.fy bia. and n0 onc acquainted with their character can
11shed at Richmond, without his entire approbation of .. , 1 ... , . , , , - . .
ontents."?7'A?* moming't National Intelligencer. SiinpOM that tliCV Will Rubmit to ?> deprived of their
indyct tho National Intelligencer has done us H".cal birthright in those countries, while they
..... 8. , have the slightest prospect of vindicating it."
it injustice by its very suppoiUtan. We bad no
e . ...... I The man is Isrce anil bcnutifiillv ene-raved. nre- .
: of connection with the article to which it is , , . ^
...... ^ ^ scnting all the divisions of North America west of P
iscd to attribute some agency, knowledge, or ,-?..? ? d
. . . . u i . Mexico, the Mexican gulf, St. Louis, Lake Sure- tt
robation, much less "entire approbation," on our I* . ? ti
,Mr . ... _ nor, and Hudson's straits, with part of Asia and the
t. We never saw the piece to which it re- ? ... *
.. . . ? , . , ,A Sandwich islands, so as to illustrate the accounts of tt
, until we saw it in print?never requested it to ' . .
. i .i m, . the various expeditions to the northwest coasts, and ft
written, nor directed it how to be written. Ihe .
r . ... , xc : . i . ^ ^ to show the political and commercial connections *
tcr of that letter is himself mistaken, in suppo- ... ? , d
. ti ... . .1 .1 between them and other parts of tho world. Ihe v
' that we hold "dm!i/ converse" with the admin- r
ation "upon the important and interesting .ub- BUthor 1,88 herc- 88 ,n 11 formfir mnP of ,he !",nr,c re"
s of which (we) treat." We find every facility, R'?n8" ????*duoed an .mprovement which might he
ve have already stated, in obtaining information 8PP1,ed "'Ivnnu.geously to moat other mapa, a. inII
the acta, from all the departments ot the ad- crea8,nS the "mounl of 'nformatton conveyed by
iatration, which they may deem proper to state ,henl- wllhout 8en8,l,lc ,ncrC8H'' of the,r 8,ze or o
the information of the people. Nor do we find Price' viz: lhe ln8erl,on of lhe "8meH of ?
difficulty in understanding such op.nion. upon PIbcm in olher Pnr,B of t,lc woHd "n the hor,lrr8 ?f l'
r ac.a, as they think it right to express. Of thfi m8P' ,n lhf,r f*ctive '",,tude8 ; 88 fur ?8m- ?
r opinions they certainly have no reason to be Ple- NnPlf* is in a h,Sh" latlt,,d,0 *an New York' U
lined, if they were subm.tted by themselves at R'chmond further south than Lisbon; and many o
b to the great liody of the |>cople. As we also stated other comparative position, which the eye takes ,n ?
former number of our ,taper, we are sat.afied Bt a g,8nce. on ,h<5 rS'" of the niBP c
the present administration deairea to have as The h,8,f"y con,Bins ""ffic.en.ly mi- t|
myatcr.es as possible, and will keep back no in- n,,te- of a" ,he ?xp^'"ons for d.scovery or settle- 1
nation from any one, but where the public inter- meul 0,1 ,he "orthwert side of this continent, from ?
require it. But a. to any attempt to trench the earl"",t Period" lo ,he Pre8rnt 88 we" 88 of ft
n the independence of the press, which it is the the V8rl0U8 d,8Putes 8nd org?"8llt,n8 ^'ween civil- ?
^ . m. a. .. ized nations with rrsrnrd to those countries. Th* P
ict of the national i iiiemgencer 10 mi press upon ? t
wlers, .t .. entirely dest.tute of foundation. Iabor of collecting <ba?e facte must have been very fl
h, however, i. the right hand of fellow.hip Srcatl "nrt the "? accompanied by renaon- ?
ch the National Intelligencer i. pleaaed to award in?' whcrc <? 8>'ow ?? hearing of Pnch "
he stranger, who almost for the first time enters circumstance upon the great political questions which j
gates of the city-such the generous reception we " WBB ,be of lhe work P?nc,Pally ?? elucidate. n
t with from the National Intelligencer-to be reKar<1 ""ms ,f> bave 1,ren P8"1 to dalea C
5ected of prompting the composition of a letter throughout the volume. The authorities of each w
ch trumpets our own prs.se,-and that suspi- ,mlK>r,Hnt f?? are indicated, and much curious in- ?
,, too, vented in the generous form of an inu- 18 mterspsr.ed, chiefly ,n the form of j(
, notes, respecting circumstances not generally *<
r~, TT known, with which, however, it is useful to be ac- F
(Thv. Union. ' * * , i,
- quainted in order to understand the history properly. ((
Ix-Oovernor Yell, of Arknnsas, arrived in this In the Appendix, is a collection of all the most im- g
on Monday evening, by the nearest route from portant documents bearing upon the subject, com- b
v Orleans. It will be recollected that he landed prising all the treaties and conventions relative to
e from Galveston, in company with Major Don- the northwest coasts and countries, portions of the "
n. He is perfectly conversant with the condt- correspondence which passed, various negotiations, p
of things in Texas, where he has spent some and many other valuable |>a|>era, of which some are a
n since the adjournment of our Congress, and now just printed, and the others are nearly all very '
iga with him the most cheering hopes and bril rare m
t prospects of the annexation of Texas. The New York Evening Post specified several n
rrints in the work which had been particularly neaa which lies between the frontier* <
niched. We Lief? leave to refer lo others. and the shores of the Pacific, almost evt
,h?.. ???,y .u?k.nsar
particularly worthy of attention ar* the follow- which thia may haa been conatructeci
ig: The account of Drake's tiait to the northweat supposititious hus been admitted upon
mala in l&jy, to which such long answers have con"*cting with ( aptain Wilkes's anr
i, i > _ .l u c.i. ~ ii mouth of the Columbia, and with the au
:cii published in the Morning Chromala .ml other vey. of the Stale of Mnwouri, .1 fills i
ofidon paper*; the review of the princijial nuirfl- geographical chasm between these t
res of supposed or pretended voyages to those points, and presents a connected and ac
lasts during the sixteenth and seventeenth cenlu- <1^?"r """'nent from the Mississippi
. f . . * o Pacific ocean,
es; the short notices of the establishments of the To thu geographical map, delineating
suits, and, after their expulsion, or the Francis- the country over which we traveled, thei
jib, in California) the particulars of the important ?nt"hei in profile, showing the elevali
scorer,es of die S,wm?rd8 1774 and 1775 as oTth'elSty mo'u^U
ire first brought lo light, from the journals of the these profile views are given,?one fruti
>yages, procured by Mr. Greenhow from Madrid; to the South Pass, the other from the m
e review of the discoveries of the early fur-traders Ureal Platte to U.c same point The Ii
?nr , - w. . .f s. . shortcut; and following, as it does, the
stween 1785 and 1795, flf which those of the scent of the river, and being seven hui
mericans are shown to have been by far the moat west of the Mississippi, it may be that
iportaiit?particular Iy the account* of the diacov* terminus u. uua 1u.c i.m7 ?u.u?m u.c wi
- . y, < tl ir.u ? r .1? the steamboat and the steam-car may he
y of the Columbia, and of (he pasMge of the an(J exchangc M ^ lheir umgt'c fl
hooner Washington, under Captain Kendrick, tliia continent. These profile views, fo
rough the atrait of Fuca, in 1789, which in In this traYcling routes, of course follow the
ork placed beyond question; the particulars of the (evelest lines, and pass the mountain at
. ? . J ita greatest depression; but to complete til
etended British settlement at Noolka Sound, and to Jj1QW (he h'^hest pojnu, UB well as
' the dispute and negotiation between the British levels, many lofty peaks are sketch
id Spanish governments occasioned by it; and the proper elevations, towering many thous
mlysis of the convention by which it was termi- *b?vo the traveling '"ic. It may '
, , to suggest thut these profile maps here eJ
itcd, and on which the British, in 1827, rested all ^haps, the most extended work of thi
clr claims 10 the possession of Oregon. The lim- constructed, being from St. Louis (accoi
i of Louisiana In ihe north and west are die- route we traveled) near sixteen hundred
. .. , ,u South Pass; from the mouth of the Gwei
,sscd in the 13th chapter, preliminary to the no lhe game pn8g) about one thousand mor?
iunts of the expedition of Lewis und Clarke, other sixteen hundred from that Pass
one of the American and the British traders, and water of the Oregon; in all, about fou
e Astoria settlements; after which are related the mile? of, Proflle foullde<1 uPon
.. - . ... . ? hundred barometrical petitions, with v\
irticulars of the various negotiations between the t(J ?nd factg roted m t{,e fieW ai we wen
nitcd States and Great Britain, Spain and Russia, In the departments of geological an
ith remarks on the views and arguments adduced science, I hate notYentured to advance a
i each side. The history is terminated by a sketch ?" own imperfect knowledge of thoa
? . * but have submitted all my specimens to
the present condition of Oregon and California, ened judgment of Dr. Torrey, of New
ith a few speculations as to their future prospects; Dr. Hall, of New York, who have kind
id the author concludes by the following obscrva- a,|d arranged all that I was able to subn
It is the unobjectionable and, Indeed, imperative compiete them now. The remark* of 1
ilicy of the United States to receive the possession the geological specimens furnished 4o h
f those territories, in order to provide pfaces of re- foun8d in 8? ap^.ndix tb the reporliand
>rt and refreshment for their numerous vessels en- 0ntological skill 1 am indebted for the di?
jged in the trade and fishery of the Pacific, panic- o6|itic formalion in tlie region west of
larly as there is a prospect that they may in time mountains, which furthcr examinalion
e excluded from the Sandwich Islands; and also to to assimilate the geology of the New tc
revent those territories from falling into the hands old World in a rare particular, which
f any other power, which might direct against fore been discovered in either of the two
leir western frontiers the hordes of Indians roving Unhappily, much of what we had o
irsiiirrk iko iviiHHIo on/I msslsromnsl /C.M.i/vnsi of . x'.' ' ? a ...
..wife" ?.? .v. " 108I Dy accident* 01 serious import tot
ie continent. Great Britain, on the other hand, wej] as to our anihiala and collectlona. 1
in have no motive for opposing the occupation of an(j njgCB 0f the Sierra Nevada, of th
regon by tlie United States, except that of check- fomla) wc loat fourteen horses and m
ig their advancement by excluding their vessels from rl)c)<a or precipices into the cliasn
otn the Pacific, and by maintaining an influence bottomless to us anu to them, and one o
eleterious to their interests and sufety over the e(j w;t|, |ut|eg 0f plants collected on a
tvages in their vicinity. thausand miles of travel, and, when all
"Great Britain at present possesses the advantage, our canlp ot, the banks of the Kansas '
* regards the forcible and temporary occupation by the great flood which, lower down
oth of Oregon and California, where a few shins ror an(j desolation on the borders of tl
f war stationed in the bay of San Francisco, the an(j Mississippi, and by which great i
lolumbia, and Puget's sound, might doubtless con- done to our remaining perishable specim
ol the American settlements, all necessarily situ- al,d saturated with water, and which
ted in the vicinity of the coast, and receiving nearly tjlnetodry. Still, what is saved will
II their supplies of foreign articles by sea. But that a,^ctablc contribution to botanical sen
be should, within any period that it is now possible to ,|1(! sMi and care of Dr. Torrey; i
> foresee, furnish a population to tlie regions in qucs- gcology and botany the maps will be of
on, there are certainly no grounds for supposing. the profiie view showing the elevations i
Icr provinces in America have no redundance of specimens were found, and the geogn
lhabitants; and what inducements can be offered in ahowin(, the localities from which they <
ood faith to her subjects in Europe, for undertak- The astronomical observations, take
ig a voyage of six months to the Columbia, or a instruments, have been tested, where
oyage to Canada, and a subsequent journey of moBt important, by a three-fold compt)
jur thousand miles through her wild and frozen by Professor Walker, of Philadelphia,
ndian territories, so long as the West Indies, tronomical reputation is so great; anot
outhern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and lost- Joseph c. Hubbard, a promising youn|
ir, the United States, are open to them? The diffi- from Connecticut; the third by mj
ulties experienced by Americana in their passage thc correctness of the longitudes and la
j Oregon, along the valleys of the Platte and the we]| be relied upon.
ewis, great though they may be at present, sink jn fetching the topographical fea
ito insignificance when compared with those which country, a branch of science in which
Iritish subjects must encounter, in proceeding to professionally educated, Mr. Charles
bat country by either of the routes above indicated; [,een my assistant in both expeditions
nd the constrast becomes still stronger, when we extraordinary skill, supported by the
omparc the character and habits of Americans, feit ;n ^ execution of bis duties, I am
rained from their childhood to struggle and provide t|)e continuous topographical sketches ol
gainst the hsrdships and privations incident to the through which we passed, and which
ettlement of a new country, with those of Europe- jnU;rrupted by any extremity of fatigu
ns, accustomed only to a routine of labor the most tion.
iniple, and the least calculated to nourish energies The barometrical and meteorological <
r to stimulate invention." were carefully made with good instn
1_ admit of no material error beyond the no
WESTWARD, HO! "-EXPEDITIONS TO ''Th^.TexH^niw^mS^
OREGON. taken with more ample means than thc
In thc act passed by Congress three years ago, ??'! 1,ci"K directed to a region so inte
.... r , ? self, and so new to science, can hard
makingappropnations for the support of thc army," q(jj^ lhc fen,erpri9e wiuch explores it.
clause was introduced, appropriating $30,000 "for The report, or narrative, of this extei
lilitary and geographical surveys west of thc Mis- tion, like the maps which illustrate it, v
issippi." Under thc appropriation for this purpose,
laptuin (then Lieutenant) Fremont was called into an/to add something to science while
crvicc, under the instruction of Col. Abcrt, of the instructions of the government, which
ipographicnl corps. He hns carried out two expe- templated a military topographical survi
. , , tt . er degree of popular interest might hi
itions, and is now preparing for a third. He has e(J lQ u by a,|miujng a greater latiti
ft Washington for thc purpose of accomplishing but it was deemed best to adhere to i
:, and expects to leave St. Louis perhaps early in character of a repr.rf, and to present no
rp, : c i . - ? -...i. in the narritive or in the maps, which
j . . . , result of positive observation,
c attention; and under this impression we sought r J. C. FREMOr1
n interview with Captain Frfmont, and we trust Brevet Captain 1
ml our readers are to reap its benefits in the infor- Wmhisotok City, March, 1845.
lation which we hope to give them at some future Wc may add to the above extract fVoi
eriod. For the present, the Captain has placed in niont's document, that the emigration U
ur possession the following introduction to the re- commenced, and is continuing with add
orts of his two first expeditions, which were sub- Mr. Greenhow informs us in his book,
litted to Congress, and are now passing the press ,.A (houtand per<on?, men, wumsn, and ct
l this city. As soon as we can obtain a copy of the h'c<1Watt port, near the Missouri river, on
' , , . the Stat* ofMimoiiri. from which they bejel
ocuments, wc hope to lay a few interesting extracts to Oregon, with a large number of wagon
?"?? as rwis-Jra sssskts^:
tains in the year 184'J, and to Oregon and North Cat- in the Rookjr mountain.: thence through the
ifornia in the years 1843-'44. By Brevet Captain J. Green and Bear riven to the Hud.on'? Bay c<
C. Fremont, of the topographical engineers, under the called Kort Hall, on the Lewis; and thence, in
order, of Col. J. J. Mert, chief of the topographical ^eir^e^
bureau. course, laborious and fatiguing; they were
flora*: or R*.rtu bkktativls, many difficulties and privations, and seven
February 'Jft, 1845. died on the way, from sickness or accident.
Resolved, That the clerk of this House be, and he is here- hers and discipline, however, enabled them to i
y, directed to receive, in the rocess of Congress, the re- the Sioux ana the Blackfeet, those Tartars 01
or! of Lieutenant (now Brevet Captain) Fremont's cxpe- who could only gaie from a distance
ition of 1843 and 1844 to Oregon and North California, as of pale-faces leaving the sunny valleys ol t
le same shall he furnished from the War Department; and for the rugged wilds of the Columbia. Upon
iat ten thousand txlra copies thereof be printed, together difficulties were less than had been anticipate
rith the lithographed maps and drawings accompanying most sanguine partisans oi the immediate
le same, for the use of the members of the present Con- Oregon; and the success of the expedition
ress: and also the report of the same officer, of his expedl- "Ml greater number to follow in 1944, befc
on to the Rocky mountains in the year 184*i, be reprinted which year the number of American citizens
'ith the report of the last expedition, without the appen- ceeded three thousand."
ix of astronomical, barometrical, and meteorological obser- The western newspapers arc now t
ations. . ,
Attest: B. B. FRENCH, accounts of private and enterprising em
Byp. gold! H? ?f K< 1K are travelling wcatwardly beyond the H
Chief Clerk. tains.
Notice to the Rearer. "The Rt. Louis New Era savs that two co
The Senate of the United State*, and the House to ,e?ve 'nJapeiidenea for the Oregon out
< t _ , \ . . month. 1 her numbered one thou Band persoi
f Hep rcsen tali vet, having each ordered ten thou point on the river, there were 36 wagons reac
and copies of the reports of the two exploring ex- at St. Joseph's 'J'20 wagons. Lieutenant From
editions conducted by me, to be printed together 10 Bttrt on another exploring expedition bey
have deemed it regular and natural to place the
sport of 1044 nrat in the order of publication, al- with mulea and equipped for their jourm
dough heretofore printed; it being first in the order ?ay? that the ru?h of emigration beyond the
f time and firat in the progress of actual explore- tZ^JSSSiSi
on. The two reports naturally go together, the p.rtf ula,to pre.erve the ci
rcond being a oonttnuation of the first, and the two expedition. No pcr.on is permitted to Join ?
(instituting parts of a whole, which will require a going en examination! and if he be a crimi
dird expedition, now commencing, to complete. J " J0,"c?, OT ? m?" of infamom eharacti
'he first terminated at the Rocky mountain*, and at A eompanr ol Oregon emigrants left Rang
de two points of greatest interest in that ridge? Illinois, on the Onto? April. They number
nmely, the South Pans, and Frfmont's Peak; the p?r?on?, old and young-had sixteen wagon, t
>rmcr being the lowest depress.on of the moun- fcZ" T?Un' ' '
una, through which the road to Oregon now The St Lonit Naw Km eubaeiiuentlv oaya
asses, and the latter the highest elevation, from the drawn by oia mulee, and accompanied by a n
use of which four great rivers take their rine, and dy. rough-looking men, pa.?< through W,
ow in opposite factions toward the rising and
ie setting hud. The second, after approachirg the continent
lountainn by a different route, connects with the "The Burlington Hswkeye.of the 17th i
rat expedition at the South Pass, and thence finds that f,uitc number of their iellow citiiens f
no nfs.i ii.at.ino i i .a ?< ,u. Lee counties took ap their line ol march iron
fie great theatre of lta labors west of the Rocky .lievj0!li week. 'The company constituted in
lountains, and between the Oregon river and North hundred persons. Mrs. M'Csrver, of Fort Madii
'alifornin. The third expedition, now commenc- M. vPCsrvsr, whose lsttsrs from Orsgon we J
)?:, will be directed to that section of the Rocky nmdsrs some whet ismilisr witk--w*s lose
.uiw.u .Us Ariat.na .u bsnd to join her Iras nana on the other side of t
lountains which gives rise to the> Arkansas, the Tho Hawkeye add* -Another company wil
.to Grande del Norle, and the Rio Colorado of OaJ- aame de.tioation from K.quire Heckleman'.
ornia; and will extend weal and southwest of that county daring the nest week. Thi? band
ection, so as to examine the country towards the "bout forty wagons The bare fact of enteri
>.c,fie ocean, ascertain the lines of communication
etween the mountains and the ocean in that lati- above every thing elao will have root, hate
>de, and complete the examination of the Great ?fthrowing any obstacle in tbter way? any di
alt lake and of the interesting region which em- undertaking - we wish them a
.. f " W..1LH cm lnd a full realiration or their mod aangnine
. ... . when they arrive at their now bom* In tne Fa
The map which illustrated the report of 1842 is Newa from Independence, Vtia.ouri, inforn
ow extended to illustrate the entire expedition of 'grants, now onar that point, number about 70
843-'44, so that a view of both expeditions will be
resented together. I his map may have a meagre with .tw and rafety The Indian, will not a
nil Akelelon apj>eftrancr to thr ?en*n?l fy?, bill m of flv* hitn<ir?*d. ui fur- mi* <"wifrw*w w
Xpected to be nwre valuable to science on that an- ^4r""w.ri
mint. being wholly founded upon positive data and Q . . ? . ,r .1,. 12th u
ctual operation* ,n the field. AbtWlen thousand Th# * R*f,orU'r "f '
tile* of actual traveling and traversing in the wilder- " Almoat every ateamer which arrives
?f Missouri Ohio, brings a large number of emigrants from the
;ry camping old Slates, who are seeking homes in the new. The
ials^*outl"of' rlc^ prairies ami fertile bottom Winds in the West
I. Nothing ere fast becoming settled) and now, we presume, v
it; so that, fu|| one half of the American population are on this
thentic* sur- of the AUeghm..- "
ip the vast The Missouri Era of the 7th inst. reports:
WO remote "From ? gentlemen who irtivtd her# hit ?f??in| on the
curate view stesiui r John Oolong* we learn that the Oregon emigrant*
river to the wer* bout to leave Independence for Council Grove, at
which place the entire companies are to rendezvous prior
. - r to their starting ou their long journey across the mountne
face Ol tains. A man by the name ofAdems? an old Kockv-mounre
is added }**n hunter-has been elected captain, and la to lead and pirhtie
or the Iot **P*dition to the place of destination on the waters
. ' of the Pacific. The number of wagons that will constitute
esisaippJ to the train is sot down at one hundred and fifty. The nuniins,
two of berof persons is variously estimated from 600 to 1,000;
it 8t. Louis ar* t0 Council Grove on or about the 20th of the
outfa of the l' ??"?*-"
itter is the As for as we can understand their movements,
regular de- many of those who have emigrated have remained
idred miles j? the rich valley of the Willamet. Others have
nt'at whtch wan<'?pe4' into California, to the inviting borders of
ireafter meet the San Francisco.
light across '?'
Mowing the "The New York Tribune" has touched the quesloweat
and tione of Oregon, arbitration, and a commercial treaty,
the point of in the some article. We do not intend to comment
le view, ana
i the lowest on "* remark upon our remark, nor upon the bouned
at their dary " north of the 50th degree," which it would
amis of feet appear to loy down as the line which our govern??;
mcl,t peremptorily claims; still lees upon its posie
kind ever tion, that if we "reject Oreat Britain's offer of arbir
-ding to the tration, and rttoltt to take the uhole territory by force,
milcS tO the n WAD mill! irMwilnltlu rMiili.ll >> 1/ U_ tks
At .PlttttC tO " """ m n, ujr njotuu^ uio
;; Bnj then offer of arb?traUon. we ??olved to take the territory
'to the tide- by M"i and "till less upon ita "moM determined
r thousand protest" againet " mixing up the settlement of the
nearlv four Oregon question with the negotiation of a commercws
sKctcn- > | . ?
L cml reciprocity treaty," ai if it had any authority
d botanical for saying that the two questions were to be blended
ny opinions in the same negotiation.
the'enlight- The " New York mT? " H Mr.
Jersey, and Calhoun or Mr. Van Buren can be induced to go to
ly classified England as a special minister to settle the Oregon
ut to them, boundary, we say amen. All Mr. Polk need then
ilne Time to t0 '',e plnnipotentiary a wide discretion,
)r. Hall, on and tune hie organ over again on a lower key." But
im. will be why aend a special minister at all ? Why send the
ever" 'ofan neffot*at'on to London, if we can keep it on thia aide
C*the Stocky oT ,h? water? if Mr. Packenham haa authority to
may prove continue the negotiation that was carried on with our
> that of the |Mt administration ? if an honorable adjustment
^Americas" can *** effected with the British Minister in WashDllected
was ington? If, by "organ," the New York Tribune is
lurselves, as pleased to refer to "the Union," he will permit us to
n the gorges him ^ Mf polk do<a
not wish us to " tune"
e Alta Call- . . ,. . . _ .
ules, falling our nole C? uae P?"te expression of the Trine
of rivers, bune) to any lower key; and if he or all his cabinet
f them load- desired it, we, as the independent citizens of a free
most "home* countl7? would not consent to such a degradation,
was deluged We hare stated, over and over again, that "we wish
, spread ter- for peace, but none except it wee en honorable
la""was P?*?*'" Even lhe "New York Expreae" admitted
isus all wet lbat we bad taken the proper tone, "in good taste and
i we had no in good temper." Does the " Tribune" propose to
be some re- i*ke a lower tone? If so, it must pitch ita own pipe
and both in 10 P,eaae '*self; and we pitch ours to suit our coungreat
value, try and ourselves,
it which the
aphical map RAILROADS IN NEW YORK.
Mime. We obtain from the New York Journal of Com???d
merce the following information of the action of the
l(atj0p one New York State Senate on sundry railroad bills,
whose ae- which were finally disposed of on the last day of the
her bv Mr. session:
; mathema- Yeas. Nays.
?self; so that g-,,,.,,,, Oswego railroad, (renew) 38 0
titudes may Weitera Lakes to Lsks ChampUin, (rtssw) 38 o
Troy anil Oraenbush 33 6
Lures of the New York end trie, (relinquished $?,000,000
ho lied heen lien, lie.) - . 33 8
ne naa ncen Now Yor|[ "Harlem, (euthodses extenPreuss
has ,ion to Albaav) 3S 8
; and to his Weleitown and Home, (renew) 3S O
pleasure he Wutertown endCepe Vincent, (renew) - 3S 0
indebted for Ooshen sod Atbenj, (emend) - 34 1
indebted lor canadaigua ,nd corning . " 34 l
the regions Attica and Homekville - 33 3
were never Auburn and Rochester, (amend) lost - - 17 6
* or nrivn. Nsw York and Albany - ^ _ _ 37 3
, Seneca Like to New York and Erie railroad ae u
observation* The amended charter of the Harlem company
imcnts, and permit* them to extend their road to Albany, prolinute
dcvia- vjdad they expend $500,000 the drat year; 50 miles
ng is under- (ln a('(h,'on to that made to White Plain*) are to be
two former; completed in two years, and the rest in three years,
resting to it- Their capital stock (?3,950,000) is not to be inly
fail to re- creage(j ^ th? new bill.
ided cxpedi- The New York and Albany railroad bill passed
'ill be strict- in the Senate by 27 to 3, and was killed in tho
hat is neces- House. The old New York and Albany charter
Odfilhns'tZe 1,88 lwo ytan yet ,0 nm; the applicants for the new
chieAy con- charter may make use of it for the accomplishment
;y. A great- of their object, as they hare the necessary means
"d" '"V and enterprise.
the rigorous Tho biH authorizing the New York and New
thing, either Haven Railroad Company (incorporated by the lewas
not the gislature of Connecticut) to extend their road to New
York city, was lost in the assembly, though but 17
Top. Eng. votes were given against it, of two-thirds of all the
members, including absentees, for the passage of
n Capt. Frf- such bills, vis: 86 out of 138; and a* 33 were absent,
> Oregon has 'here were but 79 besides the 17 who voted against
itional spirit. This will delay for another year a very imthat
portant work; men of means are ready to take this
the frontier of A bill not applicable to charters previously exista,
'horaeT'an!) '"gi but having an important bearing upon several
ate along the new and amended railroad charters, paased both
h, which hail
tr by Linuten Houses, and has become a law. It is entitled a
lallej'.'of^hV bill "in relation to railroad contracts."
>mpany'? po?t, It forbids any company to contract debts
^"irrOctoKr beyond the available mean* in its poaaeuion and
niied. wa?, ol Mkniiwil?inrluHinir ftmi/i And aVAilible atoc'f aub
subjected to of
thoir parly scriptions, and exclusive of its real estate, unless
iet^t defiance- Pr?w'ou,'y authorized by law to borrow money to
>ht? ^merlcajj meet eaid indebtedness; and every officer, agent, or
he MUeiuippi stockholder of eaid company, who shall knowingly
d,\vehn?byihe aaaent to, or have any agency in, contracting any
ocrii|*tion oi debt, in violation of this provision, is made personir"\h"r**u|d
o! ally liable for the debt so contracted; and moreover,
in Oregon u ja eubject to arrest and imprisonment, and ahall be
ecming with decmed Kuilty of misdemeanor. The passage of
nts who this bill explains the rapid action of the Senate in
ocky ii'ioun- 'avor of the different railroad bills on the last day of
the session?whereas, previously, they were resistmpuiie.
were ?< ?l every ,teP of ^eir progress.
.h.Th.^W The New York legislature, during its late seso?t?wuabout
"'?n' 'ncorPorB,*d "American Atlantic Steam
ond the mounNavigation
Company," with a capital of $3,000,000;
rtreTnrnuhed 10 commence operations, if they wish, when
ir. The Kr? $500,000 arc nubacribed. They are chartered for
. j^LTo"". the purpose of carrying on foreign steam navigaly.
The com- tion.
laracter of the
without tinder On Monday, the 19th instant, the citizens of Bosinsl,
s refugee . . . . .
,r, he ia exclu- 1011 on the propoatuon to accept or refuse the
charter granted by the kat Massachusetts legislanmon
county, 1 .
rd forty-aeTm ture to authorize them to supply the city with fresh
rmImZu Pure w?fr from Freah or Lrmg pond, by means
of an aqueduct. Serious tears wave entertained by
that a wagon, the friends of the measure that its defeat was innmber
of W etiuble.
arronton, Mo. . . .
The Charleston Mercury notices the rumor in the
New York Herald, (that Mr. Calhoun is to be sprllrrT'th
"t*!in"i pointed a special minister to London,) and says:
i Oregon the "For ouraelro?,w? hare no faith in it. and, under all tha ciral)
about two cumatanooa, think It of mighty little important# whether it
ion, wift of M. Utruo or not What interest* ? ** " 'V8 lh*
lava made our in the laat South Carolinian that Mr. C alhoon'a health ia
company this quit* rwstortd.*
h* mountains. ??
BjSE?;.t married,
Will number A( p^j, Hill, near ChUlieothe, Ohio, on Monday
y*hn"m'A^TpM^v.b
but rntrrpri?e Bhitto*, ^ Hon. WILLIAM ALLEN, of the
ad. therefor. United 8la tea Senate, to Mr*. EFFIE McAR,mi.*r
on their thUR COONES, daughter of tha late Governor
\t#3? McAanttra.
ir WrST.' ? ' . I II I . Ill I I. una
00, all dtfatin* O^Young Hickory Club.?The semiR.t
about the monl^,|y meeting of the dub will ba haM to-morrow
i&kl part? (Wedneaday) availing, at 8 o'clock, in the hall of
eaaon ateaa tha Franklin Engine hoaar. Member* will planae
ban tide ia RUend) M buainetw of importance will be laid before
tha meeting.
ill ramarka: ^ JAS. W. SHEAHAIf,
here from May SO Secretory.

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