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fcMSM NUMBERS-VOLUME ig
BY G, VV. BROWN & CO.
j i li i vl .1
Song of the Kansas Emigrants.
Aia: From Greenland' Icy Mountain
From Eastern hill and valley.
Prom Ocean's distant shore
We come with hearts rejoicing.
And on by thousands pour. .
'Tis Freedom call as hither,- :
For Freedom's sake we roeiu; .
Mid Western wilds, io freedom's cause.
We'll make oar happy home.
In close array advancing,
Ubiied baud io hand,
WV3 ianlocr tiag tijFlnit - -.
Oo Freedom's Holy Land:
A ad ne'er shall dark oppression,
lis terrors spread around.
No crouchiug slave shsli ever ears
Oar consecrated ground.
We'll eeek the rolling praties,.
In regions yet au.een.
Or stay onr feet unweary
By Kansas' flowing stream: .
And there with hands unfettered.
Oar altars we will rsie.
With voices high uplifted.
We'll slug oar Maker's praise. .
His hand shall still sustain us,
Hr lore oar path surround;
His mighty power uphold a
In solitudes profound:
To Iliin we'll baild a temple.
Mid astherua' swelling eal.
And there slone frttlnLtr
In humble trust shall kneel.:
Trip up the Kansas River. '
We cannot give our readers a more
faithful description of the Kansas Valley
than is found in the following excellent
article from the pen of Geo. S. Pares
editor of the Industrial Luminary, a
Missouri paper. Chas. H. Brakscomee,
Esq., and indeed all who have leen up
.t. T' : i 1 ;., i.',,,rl
scenery, corroborate the faithfulness ot
Mr. Parka pen and ink sketches. The
; ...if c-. II .
ruer iturouuces uiiuseii a luimws.
In compliance with an invitation from
Capt. Baker and C A. Perry, Es., fli
enterprising owners of the fine little steam
er "Excel," we stepped on loard at Park
ville, on the 16th of June, as one of the
party up the Kansas and Smoky Hill Riv
era. And here let u ear that too much
"alTarinof tg"SfrSred to-f hntlfl-
tnen fr the succesfcful eftbrts -they have
made and are f till . making, to hod tlie
channel and establish the navigation of
the Kansas River; they have already ac
romtJihetl hoiim half a dozen trios to
Fort Riley; have delivered there all nec
essary government freight, with a speed,
care, and Raving of expense hitherto un
known; and they have further concluded
to keep their fleet little mft on that river,
for the purpose of aidiug settler to reach,
with comfort anil convenience, the places
of their destination in the leautifil Kansas
country, so long as the htage of water will
admit. Thw resoiie of theirs is good, and
will be at once profitable oh a busings ar
langeraent, and well limed as an immense
advantage to emigrants. We do cordially
wish them, as pioneers of teandoat nav
igation in this gem of the 'far west
Kansas all tlte honor, and all the profit
to which their industry and enterprise so
richly entitle them.
Our party was a most agreeable one;
conMsting of Dr.-Hammond, U. S. and
lady Mia Nisbet, of Philadelphia, siter
of Mrs. Hammond Mrs. Perry and Mr.
and Mrs. Baker, with their families Mr.
Milk, Paymaster's Clerk Mr. Castleman,
of Delaware Mr. Murlvk,ot iNew xorK
Mr. MeCana. of' Virginia an.I our gen-
tlomajQjy officers, Messrs. Baker, Perry and
Dixon. The excursionists were not nu
merous: there were enouzh, however, to
constitute a pleasant and aggreeable com
pany. The ladies of our company were
the fiist who have sailed up this beautiful
river c the Prairies.
Casting loose from the landing at Park-
viile, we passed down to Kansas city ; ana
late the tame evening, leaving the eddying
waters of the Mad Missouri," turning her
prow towards the setting sun, heading
"... , t- i r
gauy towards ine nncsy ajouuiams,
"Excel' was steaming at a fine rate up
the Kansas. It b more than 600 yards
wide at the mouth. The watera of thl
river it mixed with a Randy sediment, like
. the Missouri; but b freer from snags and
the banks are less liable to wab and. fall
in, and the current is not nearly rapid.
For the first hundred miles or so, ita aver
age width will reach 600 yards ; from Pat
tawatomie to Big Blue, 400 yards; from
Big Blue to Fort Riley, 200 yards. The
Pawnee or Republican, and Smoky Hill
forks are scarcely 100 yards wide. The
Smoky Hill U the narrowest and deepest.
Below Unwntdirn -about one hundred
and thirty miles by water, from the Mis
souri River the Kansas is quite straight,
but above that point it is crooked. It will
be a good navigable river for two or three
months in each year perhaps three or
four in wet seasous ; penetrating westward
as it does, into the heart of the continent,
it therefore must lieooroe tnot important
in a commercial point of view. Some of
our company Joined us" at Delaware. -Above
that place the land is heavily tim
bered on both sides of the river--with
acme wide, high bottoms or Uher side,
"consisting of high, dry, rich alluvion. Ev
ery fire oc six miles io this region we pass
ed fine bluffs" on the river ; .aqd on our
ri-jht,; immediately. . below the ; rrtouth f
Stranger," theraisa beautifu rie, witn
open woods, and high, rolling; prairie. in
the background. .- Just above the junction
f that stream with the Kansas' river, there
is a great bend, like horse shoe, where a
trvt of excellent, high botlRi land can be
easily enclosed by a hort fef.ee across te
neck. : On the south side of the. river, op
posite that bend, there is a pretty town
V?ite, rism gradually from the e!ge of.tlie
iter the plat covered with grass and
scattering timber, forming a greei lawn
backed with higri prairie.-?. In this rwigb
borhood ftie shore is roeky. We passed a
bald Mutt on the north, with a rich bot
tom on the south site, and a high, open
lawn in the rear. - A little further on the
elevated prairies strike the river, giving a
charming variety, to .the sceuery while
on the north are extended bottoms of rich
timbered land.' '
In this vicinity we Raw many Indians
along the banks; we alo iiHssed a grape
thicket, in the l.ttoin, spresd over serentl
thousand at-reM while just aliove, on our
right, rose a rocky blurT, covered with open
woods. A little way above this, Sugar
Creek empties into tltf- Kansas, from the
right; and a little fa.ther up, there is a
low blulf a fhoitjdWaiK' .beyond;-" there
being another fine grac thicket, ami rich
walnut bottom. On the right sid of the
river coal has been found; and here, again,
rises a beautiful undulating eminence, af
fording a beautiful site for a town, on the
height there leing open woods, and a fine
prairie al-out a mile back.
On th 1 ft, a short distance above, the
Wak.:,isa flows in a considerable stream
with good timber for some -way back.
Below the mouth there is a good bluff, and
lhind are the Wakarnsa settlements.
Here the Methodic Church North-
have a misfiou. Coal has also been dis
covered above the Wakarnsa. The Sbaw-
nees have sold, without reserve, all their
Unds in this direction; and the whole
country on the south side of the Kansas
slove-7-except a strip nve miles wwe, and
thirty long, owned by the Pattawatomies
us now open to settlement. 1 here will
probably be some vacant lands lelow, af
ter the Shawnees bare made their selec
tions. In this connection it may be properly
remarked that the Wyandots own thirty
nine sections in the forks of the Kansas
and Missouri rivers. The Delawares, by
their recent treaty, reserve a strip ten miles
wide and forty miles long, running nearlv
to the mouth of the Grasshopper. The
Kansas Indians, too, have a , reservation
twenty-two miles long by one mile . wile,
north of the river, below Pattawatomje ;
while the Pattawatomies have thirty miles
square, partly on each side of the Kansas
and the Kickapoos hold a email reserve
near the head of Grasshopper. AH the
balance of the vast regions drained by the
Kansas and Us tributaries are now ojien
for settlement, and will soon arrest the at
tention of the enterprising settlers. .'
On both sides of the river, above the
Wakarusa, there are excellent lottom
lands; and, a short way 1-eyond these, an
other fine site for a town presents itself on
the north side while still farther up on
the g'outk lank, the high prairie comes
down to the waters edget presrnting aw
other appropriate place where ' the twij
hum of commerce may Ly and by speak
the presence of a city Here we saw -meroux
cahint of tettlers and 'away as
far an the eve could reach: in a southwest
erly direction, the prairies were high and
rollmq, hie the waves of Old Ocean.
Southward, beautiful troves ttot tlie
prairie, and the dark Hue of timber that
stretches along the Wakarusa valley
with the qreat Prairie-mound, so to
sneak, fixed there us the laud-mark of
perpetual beauty hf meandering river,
with its dark skirting foreils qj timber
un the north all are scenes in Xatures
hinynificent Panorama, in: brought
within the range ot vision, rroceemng
north, high rich bottoms extend for many
miles, and we saw vast thickets of grape
vines, pea-vines, raspberries, and pa w-
paws. l ite limoer was priucijHUitr -,
mi .:! !.. f.
walnut, ash,, hickory, inmoerry, nack
beirry, linden, cotton-wood and coffee-lean.
A few miles Nlow the mouth of Grass
hopper, on the north, the prairie uudulates
grsdually back from the river as far as the
eve can reach. At its confluence with the
Kansas there is on the opposite shore, a
beautiful bluff; and between the Grass
hopper and Mud Crek there is a prairie
bottom where pioneers were making claims.
Capt. Baker thinks that from this point to
the mouth of the . Kansas is a distance of
eLrhty miles by tho river.
Tpor the next twenty miles the country
in our course presented the same general
features as those just given on both sides,
alternating prairie and timber, all capable
of settlement.- We passed Mr. Stinson
ferry; his house ana tann are very pictur
esquely situated on an eminence where
the upland and prairies come down to the
About one hundred miles from the
mouth of the Kansas by Capt. - Baker's
estimate we pessd cn tho north aide, a
fine bluff, with dumps of trees on the top,
rich rolling prairie in the background, and
heavy timber above and below A little
farther uj or the left hank, a high prairie
bottom cornea in. which swella ffracefully
aay southward, with copses of timber,
Dresentin" to the enraptured pioneer sites
for the choicest farms.' Settlements are
being made on bot h sides of the river.
Passinor on ward, we came to the month
of Soldier Creek, which has its rise far up
. -1 .i i
norm, ana gives vsrieij j iue- lauusutpe
b? its dark lane t muging umDer. vie
nPTtuw PanoanV Ferrv. His house is
on the right, in a fine timbered bottom;
while on the. south, high prairies such as
we have already noticed, come down to the
river. Here we crossed tne ranawatorme
line" about one hundred and fifteen miles
from the mouth of the Kansas Timber,
on both, sides of the river,-was next rjassed
the praiae Mans on ihe-sontn, aooui
one hundred feet high soou after which,'
we reached th Great Crossing.". 1 here
are three ferries together withPaltawa
tomle settlements, stores, and a . Baptist
School and Mission on the south side ;
and, 'every - few miles. hey pnd, there was
tiie same succession of groves arid ptsuxie
on either hand, presenting unequaled fitu-
aHOU? lor. lariua. . - -
- Uniootown was next seen.-; It made
up of hlriti twenty log cabins and Vsitn-
. 'The point her designated-is about forty
iium m w " -
Ute mooth f the VYakaraaa, which discharres
itsdtinia laa-KajjsfSfB the aoaUi aide, 'i b
first Pioneer partvlroRi Kaw Esglaad located
here aad'staked cut their elalcw, ati com
meaeed the erectlaa of temporary dwelliag.--A
letter from f. Wtso, Esq, to the editor peh
44Wii ISU8UMT piqifi gi
ifc sisleaeaL tst. Hxaxtn or Fajosox. f
ated on the south bank, about a mile from
the river. Steaming onward, 1 we passe.1
Re.1 Bluffs and Darling s Ferry ; and a lit
tle farther on is Mill Creek, a considerable
stream, on: wIiKrh - the fattawatomiea
have erected a milL 1 he srit here, is of
a rel mulattocobr, and is very pro4luctjve;
up this little river we saw finer groves of
timber, and many high mounds forming
stcenery of surpassing lieauty,
Atove Mill Creek, on the KAith. we
passed an excellent; ttrairie town site. A
little farther on, on the saine side, there
are lofty ItanLs'of rel marL with high
prairies in the rear. We saw a large band
of Indians who hail leen holding a coun
cil in the neigh borhood, and herelhe car
cass of a huge: buffalo floated past. Again;
we had the rfc'h'bot fomV and raW1" JR ;
either side of us; and -when we could
withdraw our gaze from the country near.
by, we- caught, cliinpse of the splendid
portions stretching away far beyond.
Coming to an Indian.wood vard, fifteen
cords of wood were taken on board, for
which was paid the sum of $37,50. This
is a new employment, as well as a profit
able one, for the red men ; and the owners
promised to have fifteen xr twenty cords
more ready by the time the steamer re
turned. Our fine little craft was a most
inteYestinf sight to most of - them; and j
she was examined from the- bank by over ;
a hundred, whom curiosity had drawn'
together to see what hatl made such a!
shrill whistle! They were very animated,
and commerce may yet infuse industrious
haUts into the Indian race.
A littb farther hp, and a little back
from the river, is the Catholic Mission.
Skimming alon? for about twenty-five
miles farther, . we reached the mouth "of
Vermillion river, emptying trom the north,
the timber on its banks 'forming a dait
line through the-landscape for many miles ;
along its course, two miles or so, above,
we passed the western Pattawatomie line
supposed to be about , one. hundred and
seventy miles, by water, from the mouth
of the river.
" And from this western line, let it be
remarked, all the conn try. west ward and
northward is open for settlement.
From this boundary to its mouth, the
Kansas river presses on its southern bank,
touching the uplands every four or five
miles; while on the north side, troro a
point just Wow the mouth .of the Blue,
down fifty miles ihete is a pojitinnous bot
tom, fourr five miles wide larger and
more magnificent than the . far-famed
American Bottoms below St. Louis.
Here excellent corn has leen raised bv
the half-breeds for many years. The soil
is a black, sandy Joam kind, warm and
quick; and produces much earlier in the
season than farms in the same latitude
eastT EmTgrants "to California' and Ore
gon, who are aware of this fact, prefer Jo
cross the Missouri river, at parkyjlle, and
take the great road up the Kansas a)ey
oi tha north side, on this account. They
find most excellent gracing for thejr shick
by the first of April, often earlier. We
have not seen a swamp, or a wet slough,
or any stagnant water, in the valley
drained by the Kansas river.- The streams
generally speaking, flow over gravelly
beds; the few that are low are of a dry,
sandy character; and the -prairies are
rolling enough to drain the water freely
Passing the west ine of the pttawa
tomie nation, we entered upon an open
prairie, often reaching the river on loth
sides; now and then a small grove, and a
light fringe of timler on the banks. On
the right, in a great prairie lotiom; in a
bend of the river extending back to Rock
Creek, Mr. Perry has made a selection
for a stock farm; and a little way above
his claim there is another great bend, offer-ing-a
templing ia(Jufrn?rt to some other
enterprising farmer who has a taste for
stock raising. Beyond this we passed a
large grove of timber on the right, and
then passed a most appropriate bluff for a
town site -the first we saw for several
miles. Here we saw the Blue HOI, which
is a prominent and-mark? overlooking the
mouth of the Blue river. From this point
upward, the bluffs are higher , and more
abrupt, and the country back more elevat
ed and broken. Here we saw a large
eagle nest, out of which the old bird look
ed angrily at us, for intruding on its pre
emption; but she, too, must give way, with
the red skins to manifest destiny. A
little way above, another huge buffalo
floated past; he may have" been anxious
to slake his thirst in the Jtepublieari or
Smokv Hilh lost foothold, and cot carried
away by the rolling. flood. :j
Passing the mouth of the Blue, which
comes in from the north- as nearly all
the tributaries of the Kan.sa d-nd Jh
pears to be navigable foromet 4isUncet
we wem pleased with ita fine bottoms and
long streak of timber; while on the left
were conical "tjn$s5 and-Jiigh prairie
rjjounds with figured mV ana, steps ris
ing one above another in the distance,
contributing to the scenery a very roman
tic, appearance. Immediately above this
important tributary, there is another beau
tiful prairie bottom, sloping back north
ward farther than we could see; and on
the left, still another, containing more than
2000 acres in a bend not more than three
fourths of a mile across the neck. The
enticing feature of the latter are a grove
of timber on the height, a cool . gushing
spring, and plenty of rock at hand in the
Wufiv with which to raise - an enduring
fence over the narrow isthmus. The world
does not pretest a more excellent situation
for a . stock farm ; indeed, the whole line
of the main river and tranches from here
upward, may be said to be adapted for a
continuous serlea of surb, &?ms. On the
right a hiuff comes in ; to the river, the
first above the mouth of the Blae, offering
an appropriate ? lown'site;; and we "saw
stakes set out on the slope as ' well as a
tent or xabm on the bkek of the high
prsirie iiidiealiag that our countrymen
were tere, Jasl above, there is a clear
running stream, and a Une of limber reach
ing far back. Frorylbis to the Fort the
riter winds like a liafurideanal, througl
greaa flowery ' meadows with - rifniUr
scenery in the diitac. OnVhe left,' we
saw some spJendidj country fr farms up
the valley of a stream, tha name, of whjca
we do not recollect; tkere weri acssa'fiae
groves of tkabsr and ri'TsII ' halr
We iiuderstand that several claims have
been made there.' i,; '
On Monday night, just before reaching
Fort Riley, we were overtaken by a tre
mendous thunder storm. We were sur
rounded by prairie, and the captain had
u lay his craft close to the shore, and cast
anchor, there being un stump or tree to
hitch to." He is of opinion that there
should, be no cabin on steamers navi
gating these prairie'rivers where the wind
sometimes" sweeps along; with unbroken
violence. -'; We saw the Pilot Mounds in
the distance, where the military road leaves
the Kansas bottoms and passes througVa
depression in the bluff to the crossing of
the Blue.' We passed- some small creeks
on the right, with settlements on . them ;
and e'larkV-Creekf on the lft, : affordingHgrjjp. lands in jts. central and western nor
Mtrno fitift timbererl lands. nd . orv lil.-.nc r.t fc,?."T,-,?.i'.ti; i;
some fine timberel lands and good
A little after sunrise on Tuesday morn
ing, we neared Fort Rilby its fine stone
buildings looming up grandly in the snu-
lieams. It is located at the junction - of
the Republican and Smoky Hill Forks of
tne rvansas ana on ine second Dencn or
roll of the prairie, : haviug higher - hlufis
unmediately behind, from which the
buihling rock is quarried', soft lime
stone, easily cut out with a pick, and can
be split into any Ehape ; we noticed the
same horizontal strata cropping out at all
the elevated points in the prairie. ' Cross
ing the" Pawnee or Republican fork,, by
the Government bridge, we had a good
view of the fine country between, the two
i Ii -era, which rises gracefully backward in
high, swelling prairies. Here there is a
?aw mill just started. - We strolled up the
RepmSliean,gathered some black raspberries
and crossed a spring, branch; then mount
ed a high bluff, whence we could see the
iteautuul Republican V alley a long way up.
It is nearly three mtfes wide, high, dry,
and level, with a loose, bla;k, rich soU.
The river flows in a serpentine course
through the prairie bottoms at some bends
making a circuit of six or eight miles, and
cominjr back to within a mile of itself
again the banks generally having a light
fringe of timber, with occasional groves
near the waters edge, in the ravines, and
on the bluffs. -This is truly a " delightful
valley the "most inviting for settlement
we ever saw.. .' ' .
The 'Excel" made a short trip up the
Smoky hill ; Lieut. Sargent, from the Fort,
acciimpaniea vus. vve naa an excinug
time. The constant announcement from
the man who heaved the lead, was "No
bottom," U The river was full, and the
current strong, but we had great difficulty
in prettiiiff round thehi-wt bends -i keeps
on the- course of the. main 'Kansas,' coming
a little more from the south west. There
is more timber op; tfjjs river than on the
Kansas abovjuRat ta6 atornjei: and the yjul
is better. We observe! -a deep marl de"
fiosjt'on t)e bluffs lneath1 black soil, aud
the bottoms inclined up prettily from the
river. A little way up, we saw a band of
Fox Indian f rossjg oyer, gqijig nort.lt on
a buffalo hunt; and trftir motely proces
sion strelche.1 along over the prairies for
miles. Here and there in the party was
carried a' pole, with a swan's neck and
eagle's head and tail, &c, stuck upon it
for a flag. They had with . them aliout
five hundred horses all of which looked
well. Great 'war the surprise manifested
on seeing the Excel" in these waters;
but, poor fellows I the startling scream of
the shrill steam whistle, and the impetu
ous snorting of the iron horse, will soon
scare away the buffalo and other game
from your hunting grounds to return no
more you, too, must follow in the trail,
or succumb.' to the irresistible influence jof
dviliation.. t "
Some forty miles up the Smoky hill, jan
extensive lied jt)f gypsum has-been .found,
sjiecimens of which have been tested"!
proved to be of superior quality ,we brp't
a small specimen liome with us.' Salmis
also alleged to be very abundant; on the
Saline fork; the- waters of the Smokyhill
are often qujte brakisb, and when-the
boijers of tle xcer 1$ filled from that
river, there is slight incrustation of salt
deposited. Specimens of coal, both bitu
minous and anthracite, and of tin, lead,
and iron ore, have been brought in. Hints
have been given that gold abounds-hut
in parts-ui'30tt There cannotbe a
d,oubt, however, but that valuable minerals
will be found cropping out"leneath or in
terspersed in the prinative. formatior as
we ascend toward the 'Rocky Mountains.
The country, rises very rapidly in that di
rection from' Fort Riley; up the Republi
can, for .instance, the ascent, in the 'rst
three hundred miles,? is said to be i two
thousand feet. The rockin the vicinity
of Smokyhill ts prmctpa.lly hmsetorie j and
me nver X)tunviare a aauaj ioain. -xue
uplahd.prairi but of l&U
rich soiL particuhrlvlvhere limestonj ire-
dominates; the valleys are also verg neb,
and the soU melSw. Passing our he
high uplands often there is nothing to be
seen but prairie spreading out beyond, till
it 'is lost in the dun distance ; when all at
once, as if by magic, yon come upon a
. Woody rallej, warm and low,
With fine springs and clear running water.
This is indeed a wll watered region, nd
must be salubrious and healthy.- YWe pre
viously mentioned the scarcity of timjier
abme Pattawatomie; it may here be abid
ed, that it is inadequate to supply- wiat
would be needoi for agricultural purposes
anl hardly sufScient for fire wood. ; Ire
and to the westward a pew era in agrfcul
tare must be iaaugqratfri a new system
must bo practised. Nature demands that
it should 1-8 so. Instead wf clearing m
ber laruls as in Eastern Slates tho ciazen
farmers of Kansas must grow their timber.
There is foil wanted, but coaV in many
places can he got with Very littk .ULbr;
houses must be bui!tind fences mg&jpf&
in the abscence .faufiwientimber, excelr
Jent rock for a Mrposea can be efcfained'
in abundance; or, for jsfgfloef?' fajmr
can hede himeif in most completely witl
Oiaga Orange, : Tba aBiry iboundLl
with the tsost luscious grspo .Stock cA
all kinLi -fera remarkably. Vny; :ani
these rolling prairies wi!l maki finest Chago k fast peopling thelUiny.
sheep-walks in the wo3J??li tV.Uiftpij fP,eniteatiary. - Nineteen prponers
may be dignated :-illP''k:.::-Ilits, ccnvietAd at f lie present terra of tb Court,
ciqks qr 4src. : Thgsrdeti at Port ire ftwiiting Jrportatioa to Altou-and
Riky look well"; -.and .wftoei aosaelthe jailia crowde-i -with per30j bargee
The difficultyof navigating the Smoky
lull with a stem' wheel steamer of ; such
length as the Excel, prevented Capt. Ba
ker from venturing so far up as he other
wise would. A shorter side-wheel stearir
ft, of very light "draught, adapted to' the
navigation of these interior rivers will soon
iw put on the trade. ; We feft Fort Hfley.
oh our return trip, on .Wednesday morn
tug, and came down4kiteing.w Passing
rapidly in review the splendid scenery of
which we have attempted W make hasty
Uienioranda, we entere.1 the Missouri
alout daylight next morning. ;
Before concluding these brief notes it
must le. remarked in reference to the
productions and climate of Kansas Terri
tory that there- are rno doubt," superior
Uons; But Is at u re unmistakablv indicales
slock-raising as the proper and most prof
itable occupation for the farmers who shall
fettle there. In the great Kansas Valley
Mow Pattawatomie, and in the easternre
gibn alongithe Missouri, there are some
of the finest hemp lands in the worlds
Wheat, corn, oats and vegetables, grow as
well there as in any of the Western States.
Those in the Platte purchase, immediately
east of the Missouri River, who attend to
fruit-growing, say-that their apples peach
es pi urns, fec, cannot be surpassed ; any
where; we can see no reason why as much
may not be said of the same crops in ihe
region across the river.
The winters are generally dry and pleas
ant, and the roads fine; but little, snow
falls and lays on the ground only for. a
short time.1 Sometimes however, there
are very cold spells of weather, but they
are of not long duration. Eor instance,
the masons' in Parkvilie, Platte Co, Mo.,
quarried and laid" stone last winter with
1 bat Jlttle interruption on account J of the
weather. - Common cattle, colts 'l mules
and sheep, jean be wintered on . blue-grass
proviaea ine pastures are auowea to grow
up in the Fall, and the stock have a little
corn or hay occasionally. February and
March are frequently quite pleasant,, and
mucn plowing can oe done m the mellow
dry loam of the Kansas v alley. The sum
mers are quite warm and long, the ther
mometer (Fahr.) not unfrequently mark
ing up to near one hundred degrees in the
6hade. The hie;h prairies however, are
generally fanned by cool aud refreshing
breezes; and aa we ascend the branches of
the Kaunas from Fort Riley, there is a
rapid rise. to a cooler region. In May and
June there is a superabundace ofrain; but
tiif latter end of the summer and ialLare
geuerallydry. J ' , ' .- -'.
Having leen across the Territory many
times in the course of fifteen j'ears wegjye
these remai fes as tje rasuU ot our expert
ence." " . .
. The Freemen's Song.
Air -Scots vka hue wi l"allar blt4.
Man, who, bqr the Pilgrim's name.
Men, who love your country's fame,
fan ye brook your country's shame,
Cham and Slavery? .
Traitors, bhaed in Southern mould, ".
Have onr honest birth-right sold ;
Wolves are set to guard our fold ;
Shame, Democracy! .
Hunted in his riRljve Jir, '
furious tights tho. Nortliern bear ;
Wo to those who roused his ire ;
Let them turn and flee. ;
' From our mountains in the North,
: Freedom's legions sally forth,
Shouting o'er the trembling earth,
. ; Death to Slavery! .
Raie the alandard in the van.
Sacred to the rights of rnq ;
' ' Tyraats! meet us if ya can r
: x .4 We are ready now.
- j : lre a score of years be past, ;
i Slavery shall breathe her last ;
, - Spike the colors to the mast,
, : II drrah for Liberty!
The' IndiansTheir Lands and -TreaUea.
Mr. Robinson! Indian Agent, has issu
ed a notice to the public, in which he says :
' "The late treaty witblhe Delaware tribe,
of Indians among other things! provides
that the President wil ras soon as "the
whole, or any portion of the land s ceded
by said treaty to the United States are
suryey ed proceed to offer such surveyed
lands for sale at public auction, in such
quantities as he may" deem proper, being
gcjrerned in all respects' in conducting
sucja sales by the laws of the United States
respecting the sale of public lands. .It is
further provided, by 6ajd treaty, that all
moneys received by sale of said .lands f-
it,r AaAiiptlncr ihMvJjLctF KHrroriniT rr.cn-
-b mu? the shaU be paid
to the said tribe." The treaty also provides
that the act of Congress approved 3d of
March, one thousand feign t hundred and
sevenV'.in relation to " the lands ceded to
the United States shall, as far as applica
ble, be extended to the hinds therein ceded.
S4 it will be af once seen that those lands
can, in no wise be subjected to pre-emption,
or homestead laws, without a palpable
violation of the treaty. f- ' ;- .-. . .'"
'" fin view, f therefore, jo these facta, I
hereby frevirn all persons againsV locat
ing or .settling onb,e lands ceded' by said
treaty to tlie United States, as by so do
ing they c only inVplve themeelves in a
complication of difficulaes.,, . ;
The Dataware r4dians are also moving
in the matter. They have, published an
advert i-ment, in which they say: .1
"W the Chiefs head "men and counsel
ors of the Delaware tribe of Indians do
hene; notify put. white brethren, that 'fi
settlements on. the lands cetledtr; the'
tlaware rUc- rrf $n&grp;u the Jnifced"
States jf treaty dated at Wihingtori,
the 6th of May, 1834, is iii vklaion of said
trsatT, and that we in no"wfee gtrot5y
wl of present ta such settlement, 'and iff
persiiwaia oy our wniieoretneen, we
dehtv tiljnited States,' for pr-teclk,
Poductivenesa of S&nsaa.
In regard to the' productiveness of the
soil and the most favorable, time , for emi
gration to Kansas attention is directed to
the following letter, written "by a gentle
man well know n by the country and
upon whose opinion reliance may lie placed.
' -" : , - - .
ISDKPKNDENCE, Mo JULY 17, 1854.
Dear Sir : In my wauderings to and
fro in this region, I find m3'self, to-night
in this beautiful town, where are some fine
buildings good land, and enterprising citi
zens. . : .' .
The Court House, situated in the cen
ter of the square that occupies the center
of the village, is truly an elegant building.
There are alsoat least two large and well
Kept hotels a well as a great number of
stores good dwelling houses kc, in the
town. The land like that in Kansas Ter
ritory is rolling, rich and beautiful and
yields immense crops of corn,hemp, tobac
co, and almost anything else that can be
raised in the United States. I have pass
ed cornfields to-day, where some of the
corn was so tall that the .tallest man sit
ting on the tallest horse in Massachusetts
would be unable to reach the . top, and
that too, when it had just commenced to
tassel out, and before the stock had com
pleted its growth. I am told that" when
the com is harvested, only the jtallest of
the laborers can reach some of .the corn
without breaking down the. stalks.
Judging from the present appearance-, of
the corn here and of that in Illinois when
I passed through that State, the yield of
this will be nearly or twice as much as
that In fact I never saw anything : like
the com here, nor "dreamed, of it in'my
philosophy A: very intelligent . and
systematic Belgian farmer in Kansas a few
days since gave me some of his experience
in farming, with hired slaves for his labor
ers. -According to his experience, last
year, which was not as good as some, on
account of the dry "weather, he will have
this Fall, when harvest is done, as follows :
Cora, eighty-five acres, with sixty-five
bushels to the acre, at 50 cts a bushel
amounting to . . $2,762
Wheat 10 acres 2Q bushels to the,
acre, at $1,00 making '
Oats 26 acres 40 at 30 cts. making
Timothy grass 12 acres-2 tons to
the acre $10,00 making .
. Clover 2 actes for the swine.
Potatoes aere 200 bush, at 40c,
making i 80
.These products amount to $3,594. In
addition to this, he had 150 swine, which,
when ready for the knife, will weigh 230
lbs. each, if as good as last year, and which,
at six cents a pound, will come to $2,070.
Deducting 18 bushels of Corn at 5f cents
a bushel for each hog,will leave $720;
which, added to the first, makes!T,3 1 1.
The work on his farm, including the gar
den, general improvements &c, is done
by five men, or hired slaves .while the
owner simply superintends it.
From ten. to fifteen hundred pounds of
hemp to the acre is an average crop for
this land,, and the. price the year past has
been from 120 to 150 dollars a ton.
Pumpkins, melons . apples peaches and
fruit of all kinds grow jjere i abundance
if -planted,, Sufch s th.e land in Kansas
town, and sitch, ajso, is the land in Kan
sas territory ; for it is of the same general
character.- Let it be remembered that
such crop as the above are raised without
a spoonful of manure, and that, too, from
year to year for all time to come, for aught
I know. I have seen corn growing on
land that has been planted, for twenty
years in succession, and there was no ap
parent difierence between it and the corn
on new land. Also, let the New E nor
land farmer remember, that toraise from,
60 to 80 bushels of corn to the acre here,
no hoeing is - required.. - The only work
requisite after planting is to plow amongst
it a few times and such work as weed-f
ing," halfThillip.g,w and 'hilling- is un
known. - The price of this land is for un
improved, from. 25 to 40 dollars an. acre;
and for improved land, from 4 0 to ' 1 00
dollars. This is the price of all the land
bordering on the Territory for ' several
miles Bouth of the ' mouth of the Kansas
river, and it will soon be higher for there
is comparatively but little such land in the
United States as this. The land afl thro
the' Kansas river valley, in the Territory,
is equally as good as that above described,
and worth' as much to the acre, and will
produce as large crops. . Is it to be won
dered at, then, that every4 young man in
Missouri, and every old man, also, who has
not already a farm of the same quality of
his own, should be rushing into the Terri
tory to secure 160 acres or $1,25 an acre,
when he knows it will be worth from $25
to $100 the momegt Iga gets hi title?
Kather & U not strange, and - wonderful
that at least one hundred thousand per
sons from New England, are not on their
way to this garden of the world, at this
moment? ...That such would be the case 1
have no doubt, if the good qualities pf the
land, climate, fce were rnerstood by them
as we" j as ijey are by those in .Missouri
on tlio borders. The rush from this State
to Kansas territory, is not so much to se
cure a foothold for slavery there, as to
secure a fortunit, notw ithstand ing w hat
the newspapers say about it. rto; most
who ?o from here are young men, in want
bf: farms; and slayery a sa.y the least, is
2 secondary matter with them, if indeed
they are not opposed to its introduction
into Kansas, which is certainly the case
with manr. - r- s T; "
You ask, when is the best time for New
England men to gq to Kansas? Unques
tjoriably the;- best ; time "th' FalL '-'By
comm nrw, theyuan select from the best
vjTthe Tar 'iKwr -.opfeti-.to settment, as
well Ai get their calibs aed. fences m.jvls :
and their lind plo-ife4 r&viy for Spring i
work. Ttiu wmterst I-iam told, a o
mild,' that out-door work can Ije done Frith
comfort, such as .splitting raila; fendng, j
liuikling houses &c, dsiring most 4 the
season. Besides if they woukl he repre-
sentedin the firsts Territorial Legfelature.;
pt Kansas they must be on the ground,
soon,;;-.'; '.-., r-:2-::.:r. r--. Ai.v
; The irsiley of the Neosho or Gnuul
river, ia thi aqato lijassasis eal, ta-fe
, The Kansas Emlfrantsf Sony..
' BT J: O. WHITTItR. ' . . v
"- ' AAuU Lsng Syne.
We crass 1e prairies as of old
The pilgrims crossed the sea
To make the West, as they the F.asf, -The
homestead of the free.
CAor The homestead of the free, my hoys.
The homestead of the free ;
To make the Weal, aa they the East,
The homestead of the free, ' 1
We go to rear a wall of men '.
..- tin Freedom's Southern line,
And plant beside the. cotton tree. -
TbeTgfcdorthra plaa lkS--,f,
The ragged Northern pine, &e.
We're Sowing from our native hiljs,
As onr free rivers flow ;
The blessing of oaf mother-land ' .
Is on us aa we go.
Is on ns as we go, &c.
We go to plant her common schools
On distent prairie swells,
And give the Sabbaths of the wild
The mnmc of her bells.
The music of her bells, &e.
Upbearing, like the ark of old, '
The Bible in our van .
We go to test the truth of God .
- - Against the fraud of man. "",
Against the fraud of man, &c,
.No pause, nor rest, save where the streams
That feed the Kansas run,
Save where our Pilgrim gonfalon
Shall flout the seuing sun.
Shall float tho setting tun, &c.
We'll sweep the prairies aa of old .
Our fathers ewept the sea. -And
make the West, as they tho East,
The homestead of the free !
- The homestead of the free, &c.
Kansas and the Compromise of 1820.
Chillicothe, O.Sept. 8, 1854.
G. W. Brown, Esq.: Dear Sib:
In describing the .Territory of Kansas
which is large enough for two full sized
States, it is proper to confine my remarks
to the -eastern ' section horderitKf on the
State of Missouri, and exteniliug west uf
the valley of the Kansas and. Arkansas
rivers three hundred miles to the western
boundary of the incoming State of Kan
sad. "This new State, upon looking at the
map of the United btates win be found
central to the area of the whole Union
the United b tales; consequently forming
the half-way house between Boston and
New York on the Atlantic, arid San Fran
cisco on the Pacific
Bounding upon the farms as this new
Territory does nnd in sight of the towns
of Missouri, with steamboat, navigation up
to its very center, with railroads from St.
Louis and Hannibal on the Mississippi,
each pointing to a junction at this center,
and to be finished within the next two
years thus far toward the setting sun, no
State or Territory yet inhabited has been
so accessible, or can be jiopulated with so
few of the difficulties incidental to the
settlement of new couulries as this. And
here it is when, for the first lime in this
world, marking an era in the progress of
the human family, that unlike the chil-
Iren of Israel lost in the wildernese the
highly favored people of this - western
world, upon arriving on the borders of
their ideal wilderness are to find great
roads already opened into It? and earned
forward with the velocity of lightning, on
a fiery charger, irhich ; would hare ?fifled
Moses and the children of Israel with more
astonishment than the "sublime miracles
that were intended to confirm their faith
and insure their obedience - , .
Situated as this new Territory ia be
tween the 37th. and 40th degrees of north
latitude, it is in- the' very climate f where
bread stun grow, in : the greatest abun
dance; it is also midway between the ex
tremes of heat and cold." Like Illinois
and Iowa, it ia a great prairie State; a
great natural meadow and pasture, and
those who. do not .wish, to break their
backs cutting ajsd. rolling logs and grub
bing bushes will . find' exceUent - timber,
bituminous and anthracite coaL and lime
stone in sufficient abundance for all the
purposes of life.
As to the soil the testimony, is all on
one side J that it is equal to the very beet
Missouri and Kentucky land--mucb eas
ier worked, sd e-ery ; way. more produc
tive, especially in the article- of hemp,
whyh is a great staple-crop of lor middle
western States. tAb a 'wheat 'grrowhier
country, with prdper culture. 1 1 hat e no
uoudh wul excel any other portion ot the
western country. ' . ...r ; .y --- .
As" to 1iealth,the . high, rolling, well-
drained character of Kansas is the sure
guarantee that , it will be - more healthy
than any - other State bordering oh the
Mississippi or Ohio rivers. Rut tvery
where, those wbooecupy low, rich, bottom
lands TO" for their superior productive- j
neM unleiis they keep unusually clean,
dry and sober, and live in houses not built '
down hi the rich vegetable , mould, and
sleep in well ventilated apartments ex
pect to pubmit to the deduction of a chill
and fever, .- ' - ' -
Notwithstanding the vast extent of un-
occupied domain belonging to the Aroerv
can -ItU'puUicv'rjo where" ekfe -CJia si-S3te
onehundred and eightHiy.tlree hundred
muVs square, be hud off . e jual in fertflit f
of soil to that included within the bound
wles Kans&sT ;It etipllaicwly Xlai
faftt best spot of earth arid
in the' hands of slaveholders, witbj the at
tenUon friven! in Yirdala.to breeding, ne
groes enough woull be i raWtl ta stock all
t be ptgaf land l&fyr'iog on1' the Gulf- of
v wrjffwa allowed1 to? exist uf this
regn, as well as all that ferritory embraf
ed within ilia limits of .'theI Jkited &ates
easof thel.Rockf Mountens an! west of
theiiss'ssippv - SBtir'tfie' year 1 S20, at
whBitima that portioa lying north cf 36
degrees and 20 miuutes wasorer-er cIor
ed against the trafikv For thirty-four
years this feature of 1820 remained the '
raw of the land, as it always would had' it o .
not been for the ambitious motives of those -who
cared more for the spoils of office, ?
than for the sacrednes of compacts or
the wishes of the masses. 1 - - - - '
We r originally acquired this region on
the' 30th of April, 1803, by a treaty with
Franco, at which time the first Consul of
that .nation ceded ; us tlie domain, and
the laws which govern it. Tlnwe laws
permitted slavery to exist there, and so re
mained until repealed, as lfore stated in
1820, by the extension over it of the 6th
article of the ordinance of. 1 787. - The ;.
late law, which repealed tlke.Mouri corn-. v
promise of 1820 was not needel to ena-
h freemen o locale in Kansas; for the A ;
Constitution of the United states express;
ly declares that Mthe citizens of each ,
btate shall te entitlexl to all the privileges
and immunities of citizens in the several
States" and as in none of the States, is ,
the ownership of a slave the condition
precedent to citizenship, the owners .have
had at all times the same right to settle .
there which non-slaveholders had; none
but slaves being excluded from locating-
there. To establish slavery in Kansas ;
and Nebraska, if not the express object,
is the sure result of the repeal of the act
of 1820, unless prevented by a very large',
emigration from the northern States. Ia
all the ancient Louisiana west of the Mia
sippi embraced in the recent territorial bill
if treaties have the force of law
slavery is now an established institution, ,
and can only be put down by an act of
Congress or by the people of the territo
ries through their respective legislatures.
'Because politicians have repealed the
Missouri compromise, it does not follow as
a matter of course that the very "issue '
which that compromise was intended to
avert should now be made between the -free
and slave-States; nor until the at
tempt to restore the prohibitory clause of
the act of 1820, is met by the hoetile op
position of the slave States.
The people of the free States, and all
opposed to slavery, claim, as their birth
right, all the benefit accruing from the
act of 1820, and for them tamely to sur
render this right, muet be but the discov
ery that they had necks fitted to some vile
purpose. "They, however, can assert and
vindicate " their rights' without any just
cause of offence, and without treading up
on any of the rights of slaveholders; and
whatever is their right and privilege to
do, it is their duly, not to leave undone.
You will distinctly understand that I
am without affinity for the party denomi-; ..:
nated "abolitionist." and that if I lived in , -s
a .slave State I should expect to be' a ' ,
KlaVeholde, resolved to defend my rights . -of
property to the last extremity. . Lhow
ever, am a believer 1hikIs tvnj'BrT"
as the ligaments which bind society : to
gether, and that when we lightly tear up
one toud and tread it under foot we
have perpetuated the first act that leads .
to the final suicide.
I very well understand the reason that
prompted the adoption of the : Ordinance
of 1787, aud I have no more doubt of ,
the wisdom of the measure, and the lion-
esty of those so ordaining, than , I have of ;
me patriotic devotion ot our. tatters who ;
in 1 776 declared these Colonies iiidepend- '
ent of the Crowri of Great Britain ; nor
can I doubt for a "moment that if the
whole of tlie territory "then1 ktiowji.. as ,
Louisians and embracing all that region, '
lying west of the Missouri river, had b ,- .
longed to the United States that porlion 7
lying north of the mouth of the'. Ohio'
would haveleen indudeil in that Ordin-'
ance.- . .. ! r ? '
' I am now sixty-four years of age, and! '
having- from the galleries of tbn Capitol
heard nearly the whole debate which L?d
tft tfc adoption of , the Missouri -oompro-. ' '
mise, ,'am not permitted to doubt thai
it was intended ly tlie prohibitory clause
in the, act of 1 820 to include all the moral
obligations of the Ordinance of 1787 : and
jfhif my thirty-four yeare of, fixed fcelief,:
couwa wiia my yery great respeci for s
the actprs.WiJl constrain me, if ever I am
called to vote upon the-.queitkri in Kan- '
sas ai I exjeci taloif'auve a year or two
hence, to give it against tha presence: of
slavery there. -" v j-.'i
lou wJl understand that atthouerh I , -
have been upon the eastern borders of ,
Kansas, I have, never traveled over ; the
territory; but that my informationtis de
rived from such "iutelWent and reliable .
sources that in connection with myjown
personal knowledge of the western conn- . ,
try, where I have resided for forty-six ...
years, enables me-to&peak as one whose
faith is fully confirm. J, and it ii ia : obe- -" .
diepceto the dictatejs of Jhat faith that I
am now pakedup,"and iua readr to iwit
outgr Lancas.iilh'rny thres sons to ho
S - . if,. , , - i - i -
in 'time to erect cauns there to winter in.
'' fZ-- "WJ! X40; WC',W. ' i v
1 Tb Great y alley tfo WtC :
The diffewnbe orelevatibn ofi the ' val-
leys of the Miseoori and the Mk,kippi
has been determined. 1 The -level of the -Missouri
at Council EJufls g tQOll;anj .;
and twenty feet above the Mexican Gulf;
that of the Misafirippi at Pfck Island, in -the
same latitude, only five hundred arid
twenty-eight feet At Port Pierre on the
Mieouri, in ' hit 44 deg. 24 min the ele
vation is one thousand and fifty-six feet,
while at the lower end of Lake Pepin, in
the same latitude on the MLiiiti, the -
elevation is only feeven hundred feet alcove -
the GulC uTlereftre in iWMis&ouri 210--'-;
khtnds fcetweentl Velk; ftone land the
mouth; one half tlmprpililce forest
trees chiefly cotton wood "and : lan''v trees,
below th Platte, aal alveinterminglino'
gradually whh trees and lmibs peculiw it
-.irgsiifgK''hiUi; tht pmUmiaant;
growth .fc. onaedit ;4: pme :, The . 1
oumtv:idf Uittanes wiihia the same i
space is over two liandredj,- Very few of
them are "of iuiyhk hrftaii:Ttx i
KatHas ahd 'thk . Platie -are the'ouly'ones
www, in uu- in aur Taiue.iof navr-
B Kaiisas Territory-iw hun"Jred and .
seveh miles wide,andjVfera x hun-'
died miles lecb-le of division S". '-.
into three States c- the size of Ohia' " T "