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$ MARCH 3, 1859.
m im A .1V3El3IiJLY lAPtiU,'ft f ,t
DEVOTED TO ,TIIE GENERAL , ;IN3PKHE
i ; .,., , OF, A1UZONA.
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One Sdudro of 10 lines, or less, ono insertion, $2 00
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All conimunlcations nnd biiBinbsn 'letters tiittat be'
ajldreasedr to; ,Tiie Amkoxian,, Tubac, Arizona.
Leech's Wagon Eoad. .
lSH- P- F" further
iiuiic i(j,aii v oilier cause, luexico is uis uay in-tjf w ' o 'r t w
debted for the lamcntablo confusion irito jvhicliff. BPsUn,tiat sorao official investigation be in?.
its-affairs have fallen. If the events of Ihc. stjtued as to the expenditures made and. the -
Jiia;.u ..jnu.w uHjiiuiijji il is i.uui fjjWQrk done by late expeditions?. Jf no more
Liberal ,cau3e is predominant everywhere out-Jiff -K I " , i , i
side of tiip capital; and that the Constitutionll P.Was accomplished by the northern wagon
which Coinonl'ort betrayed met,, in a gcneralf V&d, -companies than was. effected.by Colpnel
sensQ, tlio wants an.l wishes ot the people... hefyLgech and bis corps on the Southarn Jine, the
There are in Mexico (hrc6 great leading'
parties, answering to tli6' type of ptirty wherever
that' produel of impbrfect civilization- exists.
The first, bepatisc the eldest, is tho CoJfSEUVA
tive, with principles cognate with its name;
strenuously adhering to ancient realism'-as dis
tinguished from modern speculation ; anxious'
to concentrate power in individual hands, and'
therefore to weaken the authority of popular
constitutions and popular legislation; depend
ent upon the sympathy of the Church and the
superstition of the 'masses for its nnit'ertal
8troifgth; and suspected, probably without jus'
tice, of a willingness to restore monarchy, if
not in favor of the Spanish crown, of. some,',
scion of European royalty. This party Avas.iii
power, ill the porsOri of Santa Anna, from' April
20, 1853, to August 11, 1855.' It wits' again in
ollice Only a, few , months. since, in the person of
Felix Zuloaga,' whose administratiqn was an
exhibition of arbitrary authority amounting to
actual Dictatorship. The second great division
consists of the Radicals, or liros, who discover
the necessity of reform in every department of
the Government; advocate a 'resort to pure
democracy, and regard the Church, in its- un
bounded wealth, and malign influence, as the
mother of' the manifold evils which afflict the1
people; The Puros were in power in'tho person.
the leaders ot that important taction have beeli
Lerdo de Tejada, Viduurri, Degollado, Zarco,
Arringa, and Mata. Intermediate between
these extremes is the modprate party' the
Moueuados in power frpm 1851 to 1853, in
the person of General Arista; and from De
cember, 1855, to January, .1858, in the person
of General Conionfort. Juarez, Zamora, Gar
za, Parrodi, Casteneda,. Yanez, may be named
among the morp conspicuous of the moderate
arty, although many of the Moderados of 185G
lave, by the drift of subsequent events, been
carried into the ranks of the Radicals. For
immediate purposes, indeed, the Moderates and
Radicals are in strict alliance, under the com
prehensive names. of "Liberals" and "Consti
tutionalists;" the restoration of the Liberal
Constitution adopted by the National Congress
at the City of Mexico, Feb. 5, 1857, but set
asido in the subsequent December by tho joint
effort of Zuloaga and Conionfort, being the
The three great parties, thus discriminated,
enjoyed vigorous existence in Mexico at the
. moment when, in 1855, Santa Anna was driven1
out afresli. A liy.ely contention for the succes
Bipn follqwtjd. The Radicals triumphed; Alva
rez became Provisional President, surrendering
the office, however, at the end of a few week?
tenure, to Gen. Coinonfort, understood at the
time to be as thorough a Radical as the hero
of Guerrero. The earlier measures of Conion
fort answered the expectations of his friends.
His programme of reiorms was undeniably rad
ical. It enacted the Constitution of February,
it opened a long vista of legislation before
which the power of tho Church and tho insub-.
ordination of Ihe Army would alike succumb.
But it was not long ere the incapacity of the
new President for the great task he had as
sumed became evident. He appeared terrified
at the storm he was provoking. To counter
balance a measure offensivp to tho Conserva
tives, ( ho adopted measures offensive to the
Radicals. The law of demortization drove the
Church to frenzy; he endeavored to equate the
mischief by a decree abridging the liberty of
the Press. The Liberals bade him proceed
with his mission; lie drew back, and cast him
self into the hands of the Conservatives. His
whole Administration, its earlier days excejited,
was a rapid retrogression from Radicalism to
Conservatism; from tho people, suffering under
the weight of an intolerable hierarchy, into the
arms of the hierarchy itself. It was Conion
fort who aided Zuloaga and the Conservatives
in overthrowing the Constitution It was Corn-
only point unattainable ,tp. thp pppplar party la
the City of Mexico, which it was , in tho nowr
of Conionfort to have secured to them.,. ,Hjj
gayp it to their adversaries, and hence, tws.pto-1
iraciea series oi woes.
. Since, the departure of Compnfort to. the
United States, there has been a constant ptate
of warfare between-the opposing factions.. with i
varied success, until yery lately, when, thp Con-,
servatives are reported ;o have triumphed, andj
money mignt as wen oe Kept in(B treasury,
I'rpm lj'aso, along the old6au4p Tuqsori,
tp,thepoint where Leech's road sMwkt off to
if?E.Gilaj the amount of labpr,r)ejformed was
3vjry trifling. As to the road along the Gilar
iwjjiouui, yery mucn m h nas ever Deen travei-
ed,jby,,a wagpn since thp expedition left, and the
int .tracks made, by the expedition wagons,
rire rmiiuiy growing up xo. grass. VOl. Jueecn S
elqcted General Miramon President We. may,;
noweyer. sun .iook ior a continuance oi inS3j;, . , -j, ,
str.ifoJWtwe9n ,tl',B,.yarpu8 parties.. Under tUsuperinfendnce of a sea
..b . ycapmui, yua eit;yejv.iiio,m.ns nning ine aisiance
, , Condition Of Mexico. lffroin Fort BelknaP .to.Meilia and an-ived
i The. London Times uses , strong language" iB,tist in time to be sold out, not having been of
itd articlbs rin Mexico'. In -aii article written whe. least- benefit. There nre circumstances
directly after' the reception in England of thPconnected with tlie sale, which dd not speak
President's Message, after a sketch of Mexico, jjftery well for the management, to "say the least,
of the sixteenth century, the Timea continues, ij$f such operations. ' "' "i!
"There is literally no spot in the- o.ntirei?''' The "water tanks"'made by Leech's exp6df-'
American 'continent from the Arctic Seas lip t;on concerning which there has been so much
Cape Horn, which presents such a spedtaele of ( , . ,, t, ','.,
disorganization. and. ruin. .Tho Indmhs;of Pat-4Slld the Eastern PaPera ment
agonitv are better ordered than the Mexicans jf apologies f6r "water ' tanks" ever Jaid out-
ot 1858. In the old seat of American civiliza-fmere shallow, contracted holes, floj5 out in
tioinhere is now no Government no recogni7.cdJFthe ground, and generally locator in places
numy, iiu i)iiuau uruur. uim mm nroneriy arof f,i. . . i i m-i t
insecure, not through the accident of nolftiCal9horo lfc 18 almost on impossibility for wafqr
revolution, or ns the consortium of a trnnsirinfc'jstto drain into them. These celebrated ''tanks'
convulsion, but necessarily and permanehtlyiimexcite tile ridicule of every one vho W
trom the utter detault and break-up ot all thpjjf'tl
tern, and if any debendence wa'SoiiacxSl ution
institutions dosigiitidiop thbir protbotiori; VMtheir supply of 'watcr, trains voW Jgrish from
cannot, lind ni any. European histoiiy-rrnot .eyeujlfl. l . , . 1 ,,
getip individuals .niayhaypjmade "four" dollars,,
per day, which is a, ;y cry firm, aypra'gp yiptd of,
thp diggings, ,butfthe "hnndredrandrfifty-dpljars-per-day'.-men.
it ,,woruhl .puzzle, cyerr .a 'Yash
irjgton correspondent" to disqover. , , .
Wo are next enlightened tq thp effect- that:
A new silver, "lead" had, bpen, discovered, pn-p
land belonging tp Ueut Mowryr which pays, as
richly its, if not .richer, than th'e celebrated'
Helntzlemarf silver mine -Theae moifb r;edeli,
discoveries had produced an. excited, mining.
foypr throughput the.comtryr , ,,, , t
, Jn. yipf, .the faptr th,a.f, , mping ,is rp-.
ceding consiflprable attpntipuin thispctipiioff,
Arizona, -we, should really be gJati. to knox by
whom that identipal Vlead!'. (on, land belonging ,
tpj Lieut Mowry,) was, discpveRedr whenj.nd.,
whpre ,? Wp, ,fepl .confident thai supv infprmar,v
tion wJH bp, "new" tp-.p.ur readevsjiand.nft.dppblt;
highly gratifying. We shall .als.p ,b,e- equally
gratified if (the e Yprfc Timea.wli d'psigWe ;
some particular.,loqality in ths territory ,wlip9,r
u few cases of the above mentioned "mhingi
iever raay oe touna i, . ,,r
AltllOUfh Wfill nwnro flint. Irk orrni rorllt nnn.
half the falsa and nQh1ayp,us.!ne",.pybjish7'
edin roXerp.npe. tp, Arizona vrpuld bp a, jWpigltyi
task, we caunpttrefrainrpm notpfng,suqljerlfo
nequsjstatemeiits as, thp .abovp, wlncji mu,t;i
, eyitabj f esubUihagfthe TpriWryr
' LiEUTjfepr EpIqs: of Tppn'-1
Lieut Ives',pubjishes'a.prelirliiiarv lenort of
Jir4 fetplo'ratiM pffl
Colorado), by whicH '
The Mexicahs can neither govbrll themselves
nor lind anybody strong enough to govern
them; and the State, if it can still bo called a
State, is simply tumbling to pieces for want of
anything like vitality or cohesion,
"The ordinary interest which might attach
to a spectacle like this is materially enhanced
by two important considerations: On the north
ern frontier of Mexico lies a formidable neigh
bor already aggrandized by large acquisitions
of Mexican territory, and prepared for the ab
sorption of more. What gives this contingency
still greater weight is thu fact that the internal
politics of the North American Union will be
intimately affected by any further annexation
towards tho South, and its wisest statesmen are
apprehensive of the results which might ensue.
Certainly, up to the present time the Govern
ment of Washington lias exhibited considerable
forbearance in dealing with the provocations
to which the anarchy and license prevailing
throughout Mexico have naturally given rise.
"In Mexico there is not a vestige of nation
ality. Of its seven or eight millions of popula
tion, about one million only nre whites, tho rest
being Indians or mixed breeds; and these
Mexican Spaniards' hove not succeeded, like
thp French Canadians, in preserving the spirit
which they brought across the seas. Mexico
lias broken up from pure incapacity for self
government. The license which ensued on the
extinction of absolutism forty years ago has
never been exchanged for any regular or stable
Administration, so that what should have been
a mere temporary suspension of authority has
proved a permanent abeyance of order. Des
potism might have relieved the country, but no
Mexican has been strong enough for n despot,
and affairs, therefore, have gone from bad to
worse, with interminable convulsions, hopeless
wars, losses of territory, and, at length, with
such absolute political disorganization that no
stagp of decline can bo more ruinous, and men
are only looking to see what may follow."
The Minie Musket. G. W. Kendall writes
to tho New Orleans Picayune, that in ono of
Lindsay's recent scouts against the Navajos,
one of the latter was killed at a distnncp of
four hundred yards and another woundedl with
a shot from one of tho now Minie muskets now
used by tho U. S. troops.
The, winnings of Mr. Ten Broeck pn thp En
glish turf the Fast season, are reported to 'htivd
continent wherever they are needed, and would'
not be understood as saying anything to dis
courage them, but at the same time feel called
upon to protest against the useless and extrav
agant manner in which the appropriations
are usually expended, and confess a thorough
disgust for the small amount of labor and the
immense quantity of bloviation which usually
Lieut. Beale, with his party, wintered at. Al
buquerque, and before this time, has started out
on his route along the 35th parallel. He intends
to make a good road i and construct bridges
wherever they are needed. He. has a strong
force of men and animals, and being an officer,
of great skill and energy will doubtless make a
fine route, to California. ,
"News" from Arizona!
The Washington correspondents of the New.
York journals possess wonderful facilities for
obtaining intelligence from this region. In fact,
those journals publish so much that is original,
rare and strange, from this far-off portion of
the Union, that it is quite a treat to read it
Looking over a late number of the New York
Daily Times, wo discover an arrt.j of "news"
from Arizona, a portion of which we quote, con
fident that it will bo interesting to people here
abouts, since the intelligence is eminently "new"
and no less wonderful I In reference to the
Gila river gold mines, wo find the following :
At the date of these advices about the mid
dle of December, there were over six hundred
men at work with the rudest means of opera
tion, and making from four to a hundred and
fifty dollnrs per pay ! A few of the miners had
struck tle "bed rock," at the depth of pver,
twenty feet, and were taking out an average of,
pver fifty dollars per day to the hand.
The above paragraph is a tissue of humbug
gery. No such number of men as is stated'
above, have over been at work on the Gila at
one time not over three hundred at tlie very
highest estimate, At present there are but few
persons at the diggings, and most of the num
cer are barely clearing expenses. A few ener-
Ttv&ppears thdTh'e ascended the river- with. "His
jsmall stern wheel steam boat ttt a stream call
ed 'thp Rio Virgin, five huii'dirdd miles from tlie'
mouth. He then procee'd'edWerland io Fortf
.Alburquerque, nine hundred miles.. Mp'sf of
Ut-iLt--A..Jt.L:i..l'vA 'i.'f iJ' i ... -I
iiuuunuuiir jh ruEsreu mountains, mffanuc can-;
ons, and vast stretches of barren land, sparsely
inhabited by a few wretched Indians. Some
few valuable minerals were discovered, but' ii
such inhospitable regioha that they can neyer
be profitably worked. This is the substance of
the report. We do not see that any important
discoveries have been made. ' '
p ' Hews Items.
Late papers from the, States announce tho
death of Ex-Governor Slade. of Vermont, whoso
lab.ors in behalf of education "have 'given him, a
' wide-spread reputation.
Gen. Mi ramo!.. iThis new President of the
Mexican Republic is an addition td the list of"
those 'who have reached the summit of -ambition
in early life. Born, in 1832, he. is now in his
27,th year. He first figured conspicuously in
the insurrection of Zuloaga, Inst winf er. Uppii
the death of Gen. Osollos, he was placed at
the head of the army, signalizing his promotion
by a. great victory over Gen. Vidaurri near San:
Luis Potosi, Spptpmber 29th. More recently,
lib has beaten the Liberal Degollado without
the gates of Guadalajara, and forced his way
into that city.
Ax enterprising sliowman is exhibiting a
company of trained fleas in the cities of the
Atlantic States, to crowded houses. Their feats'
as described in the papers, are truly surprising.
It is rumpred at Washington that a propo-.
sition for the sae of Sonora and Chihuahua has
been received from President Miromon. Tho
price named is said to be sixteen millions. We
do not credit the rumor.
The neutrality of the Atlantic Cable, which
caused so much discussion in the Senate, ono
ydar hgo, has been fully established. hasn't
a icord tq say on cither side,
Iaxsas Gold MiXES'-rTho reports, from the
South Platte gold region announce new discov
eries of the precious metal, and a large yield.
Tlie gold is fine float, or scale gold, intermixed
with boulders, coarso gravel, and sand, tho
whole of which is from sixteen, inches to two
and,, a jnf feet in depth, and dppptsitptl upon a.
hard cement, resembling in appearance burnt
clay or lava) this is termed f lib' bed rock, and"
is reached at a disf anco of from three to sixf
feet below the surface.