i 4-. M ill'
. A "TkTnrAIITT tT
;ot ftj'f j.VI .
" "Vol. 1.
TUBAC, ARIZONA, MAY 12, 1859.
A WEEKLY PAPER,
DEVOTED TO THE GENERAL INTERESTS
' Three Dollars per annum, in advance.
HATES OF advertising:
One Square, of 10 linos, or less, ono insertion, $2 00
u a u a a tnroo a oo
" " " " " ono quarter, 10 00
" " " " " ono year, 30 00
All communications and business lottors must be
nddrosed to The Arizoniax, Tubac, Arizona.
For the Arixonian.
Ths C.ty of Hermosillo.
Tha city of Herm-Hillo, par excellence the
city and at present the capital of the Mexican
State of Sonora, is situated on the right bank of
the so-called Rio del Sonorn, about 45 miles
from whore that stream is lost in sands and
swamps. The nearest point to the Gulf of Cal
ifornia is west, close to Tiburon island, distant
about GO miles. Along the shores in this di
rection none but the Ceres and Tiburon Indi
ans are encountered. Southerly, about 100
miles distant, is the seaport of Guaymas, which
is C3aneeted by a semi-weekly line of stages.
Tlai fare on this line is $G,03, and the time occu
piel from 21 to 33 hours, according to the
upeed with which passengers wish to travel.
Hormxillo contains about 10,099 inhabit
ants, and standsoa a gravelly table land, two
apurs of caleareous mountains coming from the
fudged ranges nsrtli and South, which form the
Valley of the Ho del Sonora separate the lat
ter into two vast plains, several miles in width.
TU 3 Veitern is tfoit seemingly cndles3 slope
iowarls Tiburon islaa L Isolated and barren
mratit'aiiH daSnethe martli'and tlie soiitH;: and'
the Sonora river, meariering through the cen
tre may be traeel for many a mile, not by a
volume of water as one would suppose from
the name of rircr, but by a broad belt of dry,
glaring sand, lined with row3 and group3 of
cottonwool trees. Outside of these lines of
trees, sometimes on one or the other side of the
river, we find the cultivate! portions of this,
one of the best valleys of Sonora. These lands
are a light alluvial deposit made by the summer
freshets of tho river. Owing to the warm cli
mate and irrigation, they produce well, as far
as the water will reach ; as every inch has to
be irrigated to produce at alL These bottoms
are seldom over half a mile in width, but what
there is, has by hard work become a species of
paradise. There are luxuriant fields of fine
Sonora wheat, clover, corn, sugar cane, vines,
and other agricultural products, intermixed
with groves of beautiful shade and fruit trees.
Oranges, lemons, limes, quinces, pomgranates,
palms, and other fruits produce well Plan
tains, pine-apples, and the northern fruits grow
The city itself consists of brick and adobe
houses of the usual Mexican style, but gener
ally' plastered and painted. A few are two
stories high, with fiat roofs and commonly sim
ple exterior. They present no striking picture
when seen from one of the nearest hills, but the
many beautiful shade trees in their, courtyards
and little gardons, gives quite a refreshing ap
pearance to that otherwise desolate, thirsty
country. Some of the houses in tho contrc of
the town are built in better taste than usual,
and quito a number are elegantly fitted up in
side. Although possessing some private houses
of great comfort and good style, wo cannot say
as raucli for those generally termed public build
ing?. The most conspicuous of these is the old
mint, where money wa3 never coined, and which
now is used for soldier's quarters. It looks
dreary and dimmed, grey with ago and weath
er. r It is in perfect harmony with the decay of
Still, worse is tho appearance of the pririci-i west, already noticed, and that of tho cast which
pal church, a long, dark, barnliko adobe struc-. does not differ in appearance from the other,
lure, with all kinds of "gingerbread work" in-, makes this one of the finest views wo ever be
side and out In better taste is a little chape'
near tho eastern end of tho town, called "El
Carmen." The prison and town hall on the
plaza are simply one story houses with a little
tower and clock. The "plaza" is about 100
yards square, and is provided with seats where
one may spend a pleasant hour in the cvenin;
held. Nothiug is needed but a noble stream to
make it sublime. Tho outlines of nature and
art are just seen, while the detail, so barren,
dreary and desolate, is concealed in a mysteri
A few miles above the town, the Sonora is
joined by tho stream called San Miguel River,
beneath tho thick foliago of fine oak trees. ( rising within a day's journey of the Presidio of
On a summer's night, with a clear sky, a deli- j Santa Cruz, near the American line. Like
cious breeze from the Galf, fragrant with the most streams (called rivers !) in Sonora, it is
odor of tho orango an 1 thousand! of flower on interm'.ttnnt, only, its waters rising to the
from the many surrounding gardens, an hour's . surface at times, but for the most part they are
lounge here is well spent After tho sun sets engulfed in tho deep loose sand3 that fill the
and the boat moderates, tho plaza is much re- beds of the streams. Along its margin above
sorted to by the aristocracy of the town, and J are some of the finest haciendas in Sonora, and
not seldom tho soun 1 of the light gaitar is ; the lands on the upper 'part are cultivated by
mingled with tho beautiful note3 of tho nuraer
ous. m iking birds, that are psrehalin tho shad,!
0W3 of ths fragrant lem.m and orange groves of
the gardens. If it is a pleasant place to pass
an evening it is far from handsome in the day
time. Tho dry old adjbe building, church and
prison, the glaring sun, anl in summer tho in
eine boat, mike? ths closed houses far more
comfortable than the plaza.
Another public plaza is the Alcmcda, which.
if not shamefully neglected, would bo a most
delightful drive in daytira;, tho, Walks being
lined with rose-bushes.
With few exceptions tho streets, aro narrow,
a small nutnber paved, but badly, There are
no sidewalks. The theatre, whera amateur ac
tors perform once or twice a week, is a largo?
rounumrco story ouuuing, not oaa lor a saiaii
city like , Hcrmaaillowithout a roof, jyhclvkarW;erRZ, and Cjrtez arc the principal ones.
swers well in tho summer, but is rather cold in
the winter. The stage is small, the acting and
music exicelingly primitive, owing to their con
tinued aim at tho claVic, instead of confining
themselves to the light comedy, in which they
are not bad.
Two canals, about twelve feet wide by one in
depth, run through the whole length of the town.
The water is U3ed for irrigating; for milling
purposes, for washing and bathing in daytime,
and after the bustle of the day is over is used
by many for drinking and culinary purposes.
Then score3 of dusky beauties, generally of In
dian origin, arc seen with their peculiar "ollas"
(earthern jars) on their heads, filled with water
for next day's use. Many families, however,
have wells. All the water is slightly impreg
nated with alkali, but it is still better than that
of Arizona. Tho climate, although cool in the
winter, is excessively hot in the summer, but
it is very healthy ; no epidemics prevail.
Of note, and of great beauty, when seen
from a distance, "is the Campana or B3II moun
tain, near tho centre of tho city. This moun
tain is washed by the Sonora river, and rises
up above the plaza liko a gigantic pyramid,
which it very nrch resembles in shape. It is
propably 500 feet in height, consisting of
barren granular limestone, crests of which, of
great beauty, crop out liko comb3 along its
slopes. Isolated peaks, cragged with massive
columns of threatening appearance, shoot up
high from its sides, and ruins of them, huge
fragments, surround the whole base. The loft
iest of these peaks consists of an indescrimi
nately piled up heap of rocks, in tho intervals of
which wild dogs, buzzards, owls, and reptiles
have a home.
From the top of tho mountain tho view is
extensive and beautiful. The word of rugged
mountain ranges everywhere, crowding, as it
seems at first sight, around Campana, liko an
assembly around their monarch their out
lines although wild in tho extreme tingod
with a soft blue, encompassing tho plain. to the
the brave and industrious Opata indians,
Having made at attempt nt giving a general
view of the city we can only add that Hermo
sillo is the great centre of the commerce of the
State. Its position a3 a distributing point for
all parts of the interior, especially to the mining
sections, is excellent, and in consequence it
has within a a comparatively short space of
time, and without government support, become
the principal commercial depot We find here
some very elegantly fitted up stores, and large,
stocks of French and English goods. Still, as
in Guaymas and other Spanish towns, these
establishments do not give a fair illustration of
the whole commercial transactions of the place.
With lew exceptions the commerce is carried on
by Mexicans. Among the foreign houses those
M' Mo33rs. Ortiz, Camiu Bi'othorj, Andrade,
There arc perhaps, 13 Americans, 3 Germans,
a few English, some Spanish, and some 50
French residents, which number however, is
continually changing. Quite a number of the
latter are mirried to black-eyed senoritas, and
live a contented, if not luxurious, life.
Those of the foreigners who arc not mediants,
are mechanics, of a peculiar disposition gener
ally. They live easy, work light, tako tho world
as it is ; are generally in hope of making a pile,
but do not stake their temporal and eternal
happiness to procure it, as we do. Who i3 tho
wisest, I leave others to decide.- There is one
thing certain, however: if they do not sacrifice
every thing to procure a pile, there is hardly an
instance known where ono has been made. The
oldest inhabitant cannot recollect such a thing;
but they still go on a3 well as wo do, with per
haps this difference, which is, that they cat more
beans; that they use red pepper to our black,
and dried beef to our salt horse, as Jack gener
ally calls it He who don't like such fare and
prospects, ought to go to another hotel.
Tho Mexican residents of Hermosillo are
courteous and polite, no matter of what class or
color they may be. It is difficult to say what
blood predominates, as far as numbers arc con
cerned, but there is more of the white in it, as
is generally believed. Many are highly educa
ted : some at home, others in Mexico, the U.
States and Europe, but a great number of tho
lower class are principally in California. The
people in general are of far better disposition
than those of southern Mexico. At the fan
dangos and fiestas of the lower classes, they
may get drunk at times, but they will hardly
ever have a riot or fight. If knives aro dis
played, they are generally wielded by runaway
convict soldiers, imported in tho country by the
supreme government from Guadolaxara. Re
volvers aro never seen in the streets, nor is it a
custom to go armed. For the last five years I
know of no murders committed in tho city, nei
ther are stores broken open, but thieving of a
trifling nature occurs at times.
The expense of living is remarkable, although
the faro nt tho hotels is not equal to lelmon
ictf'sv They are generally kept by Frenchmen,
sometimes by Mexicans. Any establishment is
supposed to last from six months to a year
Then every one is insolvent.
This tendency to breaking is not caused bj
tho extravagant expenses of tho landlord, or
high prices of articles consumed by the board
ers, but rather by the lack of consumers. Mex
icans generally prefer to stay with some of their
numerous relations, perhap3 dating from Noah,
or some remote perioJ ; and foreigners, who aro
the men that spend the cash, are but few gen
erally. Only at the annual excitement, when
it is cither supposed by tho boy3 thnt Sonora
has been purchased, or will bo shortly, by old
U. S., which has been the case for the last six
years, landlords do a good business. Americans
and others then flock in the country. They, .at
first like the orange trees the delicious aroma
in the air the easy manners of the people tho
many pretty girls even go so far as to approve
of chili Colorado and tortillos for a time. When,
however, the excitement ends in smoke, then
that eternal blue sky gets tiresome, and reminds
them of some very bad place, with which .So
nora is uot seldom compared. Misfortunes
never come alone; with the failure to buy So
nora, is generally connected wiih a vacuity in
the portmonie, and the, question is now, not.how
and whero to speculate, but how . to get outiof
the country, in double quick time, before the
last Inst eagle take3 its flight. Hard times is
then coming. The excitement and throng of
human beings over, the landlords hold out a
little longer, and break. This is no joke. It is
a question of time only, influenced by, .tho
amount of capital or credit, a hotel is started
with. There are other novelties, perhaps, but
they present no great attraction. At times .a
strolling band of bull-fighters will exhibit in tho
outskirts of the town, bnt tho bulls being gener
ally emaciated, poor, miserable devils, they by
far do not present that interest as those fights
of our bullies at home.
The social state is deplorable. Tho continual
revolutions have sown distrust in the very heart
of family life. All friendly intercourse has been
destroyed. The piano, harp and guitar,, which
formerly invited the neighbors and friends,, to
joy and happiness, have ceased to ring, or they
only send melancholy through the halls where
they formerly only sent foth the tunes of, Straus,
and other veterans of the waltz.
Such is Hermosillo : and I only regret that I
cannot add statistics of its agricultural produc
tions, and of other matters, at present, that
eould be relied upon. H. E.,
The Maynard Rifle. We learn that Lt. CoT.
Roberts, of tho Mounted Riflemen, U. S. A., ono
of the best shots in tho service, has recently
been trying the new Maynard rifle, and pro
nounces u me oesi gun in me worm lor Horse
men. He fired ten shots with it a distance of
888 yards, and put eight of his ten bullets in an
oak'trce, penetrating it, at that great distance,
quite two inches, and this, too, with a charge of
but forty grains of U. S. rifle powder.
Ditrcrs saw a note Ivinir on tho rrouud. but
0 - o o j -"-
knew that it was a counterfeit, and walked on
without picking it up. He told Sraithers tho
story, when the latter said :
" Do you know, Diggs, you have committed
a verv grave offence T'
"Why, what have I done?"
" You have passed a counterfeit bill, ksowing
it to be such," said Smithers, without a smile,
We have the last conundrum: "If Sickles ja
a murderer, what is Buttcrworth ?" Some bn
tcrprising grocer is expected to reply, "twenty
two cents a pound." ' '
Men of the noblest souls find themselves hap
piest when their fellow men share that happi
nes3 with them.
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