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THE WEEKLY ARIZONIAN.
TUBAC, ARIZONA, JULY 7, 1859.
A WEEKIiY PAPER,
devoted to the general interests
Throe Dollars per annum, in advance.
RATES OF ADVERTISING;
Ono Squaro, of 10 linos, or loss, ono insortion, $2 00
n u t it threo 4 00
" " " " ono qunrtor, 10 00
" " " " " onoyoar, 30 00
All communications and businoss letters mast be
addressed to The Amzonian, Tubao, Arizona.
For tho Arizonian.
mining Stories and Realities.
Whenever some individual wishes to create
an excitement for Arizona or Sonora, he always
begins ransacking and parading the old news
paper accounts about the minqa of Mexico ;
drawing hqavily on his own imagination, and fil
ling up the intervals with sketches of farming
country, that fits almost anywhere else, but in
these two territories. At times tho intention
may be good, but the result must ever be bad
to the emigrant and his family, The mining
stories, too, are generally nothing but heresay
affairs, that have wandered through divers gen
erations, and finally have assumed a wonderful,
nnd to the unacquainted, an enticing shape.
There is ono thing they must all have in com
mon, that is, the principal personage who knew
always all about the mines is dead. These
stories not only here, but all over Mexico, gen
erally fit under the following heads:
1st. Some fortunate wretch hunting cattle, or
camping out, finds in the ashes of his camp-fire
Borne white metal which. he takes to be lead.
He neglects to notice it afterwards he can't
find the place again, or he dies just while hunt
ing for it, j
"hfi fnianTbTinging In fargTiumpsbf pure
silver. Indians never show metallic veins ;
afraid they will die. Finally somo ono per
suades them to go by the vein and leave a sign;
thereby cheating the spirit of tho lower regions;
but that old fellow is not so easily humbugged :
lie sends a rattlesnake, or some other thing, in
his way, that kills him. The Indian' goes to the
upper hunting-ground, and the story remains.
3d. A most fruitful source, however, is found
hi the country surrounding the Mission of the
old Jesuits. For the last three hundred years
they have been accused of knowing and having
worked rich mines.. In the seventeenth cen
tury they were formally accused of hoarding
their immense wealth in Lower California. A
commission sent by his most Catholic majesty
the king of Spain, reported the fathers hard at
work, raising Christians, beans and squashes,
and the informer as being crazy. These shrewd
men are accused of having worked the San
Saba mines in Texas, that have never been
found. They are now said t havo known the
Sierra Nevada gold fields in California. Sonora
aud Arizona is dotted with spots where they
are reported to have covered up some awful
rich hiines. Generally these mines are said to
be closed with massive doors, but the first plank
has yet to be found. There is no doubt these
industrious priests often worked mine3 to get
metal for their church bells, or to employ the
idle Indians, who did not cost them more than
the corn they eat, which was raised by the oth
ers of the same tribe. But tho fathers of these
Missions are dead and gone.
4th. Another source for these romantic wri
tors who like ,to see things by tho light of Ala
din's lamp, aro the books, and statements of
Messrs. Ward and Wilson, of Mexico. The most
reliable of these are undoubtedly the notes of
Mr. Ward, tho British Minister; but as far as
regards the frontier, at least they aro not based
on facts either, but mostly on supposition and
reports. Mr. Wilson cites Mr. Ward generally.
aud tho newspapers cite Mr. Wilson again and.
agaity until tho topic becomes digusting and
void of force, Such notes on miniiig, as those
of Mr. Wilson's, are of no value at all, as they
lack all consistency, and bear the stamp of the
author's ignorance in such matters on the'
face. For instance he cites without commentA
page 416, in his book " Mexico, its Peasants ana'
its Priests," the following on Lower California:;.
" The benefitting ia no Inss perfectly done
than the labor at the mines. There are no ha
ciendas for benefitting. Many persons that en
gage themselTes in mining speculations, have
one, two, and even five horse mills, with which;
they grind the metal ; this they mix with quick-;'
silver and salt, imitating tho process by tho
pati, (amalgamation,) in proportion of 50 lbs,
of the first and 75 lbs. of the second to 625 lbs
of metal, and proceeding by mean of fusion inj
bad ovens, they obtained silver," &c, ac
Now I can assure Mr. Wilson that the few
poor mines worked by a few poor minerd in
Lower California, are worked precisely as those
in Mexico and Peru. There is no such absurd
thing as a mixed process of patio and furnace.
Any man who will reflect for a mement only
will perceive that quicksilver placed in & hot
furnace would immediately evaporate, without
producing the slightest change on the admixed-
ore and salt, which require an infinitely higher
heat to be in any way affected at all. I suppose
this is the first time that quicksilver is cited as
a plan for smelting.
In another part of his work, page , he say's
that the freight alone of one. steam engine at
the Francisco miries in Mexico amounted to
over 1,000,000 of dollars. Shortly afterwards
'of the various pumping machinery, just one
half of their cost wa3 caused by the freight from'
times abandoned, and again successfully re
opened. Since 1830 large sums were unnrofi-
tably expended by an English company; but the
present owners have, with great economy, better
management, and perhaps some better luck,
achieved a most brilliant triumph.
t According to the report of tho chief engineer,
'they produced during the last five years, end
ing 31st December, 185.7, $11,823,803 00, leav
ing to, the shareholders, alter paying the owner s
shares of profit, and providing "for crcatlv ex
tended new works, the sum of S2.G84.11G 00
jThe yield in 1853 wai 1,537,7.69, 00
do in 185T was 3.039,016 00
'Showing an immense increase in the production
,yi ouYcr. xue sYergo yieia in ipo-i was 504
Serton; production 1,811.382 00: which shows
that the enormous amount of near 35,000 tons
ot ore haa been reduced. Allowing the same
average for 1857,. this would give 50,000 tons
of ,ore. v
P'For the reduction of these ores, the three dif
ferent methods :
1 The Furnace The barrel, or German atnal-
f'amauon, ana ine ,jn.inencau, or pauu amaiga
ion, are applied in accordance with the nature
and value of them..
The cost ,of smelting per furnace' per
ton. was So 9 94
The same quantity by tbe barrels, . 15 59
ao Dy cue patio, no
lie yield of the ore used ia' tho furnaco
r per ton, was ' 345 60
)tield'in the barrels, ,62 24
meld in tho patio, 4J oo
The different prices paid for reduction are by
o means to be taken' as a criterion, each class
,ore, was subjected to the propess best aunp-
d for it.
the sea coast to the place of ;erection."
the same rate as that for the pumps, then this
cDgino must have originally cost $1,000,000.
Rather a gigantic affair this, and liable to cause
a tremendous, blowing up of any company, ao
matter how large or rich.
These are merely undigested statements, and
only serve to throw doubt over others more pro
bable. It is strange that Mr. Wilsonj the matter
of fact man, should havo allowed himself to ba
carried away by the fabulous and most ridicu
lous mining stories, and to base on such, foun
dations the future grandeur of Northern Mexido..
While we agree with him, iq 'many, .things regar
ding the much exaggerated Artec civilization;
its mud monuments and barn-like architecture
of the same material, the sane now in use
amongst the, Pueblo Indians of New Mexico,,
we very much distrust his authority in mining
matters. His pictures of Northern Mexico,
where he never was, are entirely overdrawn,
If we wish to cite numbers and examples of
rich mines, there is no necessity of going back
to the fabulous ages ot romance, We can find
them sufficiently grand for all reasonable pur
poses nearer home, and aearer to our pwn
times. Where is there a parallel to California's
500,000,000 dollars produced,iu only ten, years ?
What history can show ant squal to the great
gold fields of Australia and Siberia ? Compared
to these all tho silver mines in the world sink
into insignificance. It is true they have pro
duced similar sums, but it took centuries to
As it may be interesting to some of your readers
we will give a few notes on somo of the great
mines ot tho day:
THE HEAL DEL MONTE SILVER MINES.
These mines aro four in number, and belong
to a mixed company of Mexicans and Euro
peans. They are situated about 9000 feet above
the level of the ocean, in the highlands of Mex
ico, some twenty leagues from tho capital Al
ready last century large sumd of silver were ex
tracted from their ore. Thoy wore moral
THE BURRA-BURRA COPPER MINS,
'Situated in South Australia, lar. S. 34 25: Ion.
x?lFrom the engineer's report wo extract the
'A;.rotrospective view of seven years give a
auction of 87,d9 tons of ore, averaging
iit.24.per,icent, ot copper. , J.he whole sub- t
e wnoio expense in mat unit?, juiuu.uuu
inhere were paid in 17 dividends to tho
t shareholders, 30S,000
This gives to each share of an original
value of 5, 125
Balanco dtill on hand for division, 86,255."
"Capt. Roach reports at the 50 fathom level,
R splendid lode of mulachite of the richest qual
ity ; and at the 40 fathom level a beautiful lode
or red oxide,' 12 feet wide, which it is calcula
ted will produce thousands of tons of ore on that
level alone, to sav nothing of the lower ones.
. The -number of men and bojs, including offi
cers, on the .30th of November, 1852, was 157,
which, owing to the gold discoveries wan re
duced to 100 men' at the end of the year.
In 1853 there Were issued in all, 'since the
formation Of the company; 24G-3T shares; Paid
in cash 5 ; present value, 135. Dividends
?aid to 3d March on each share 195. In last
years 37 times the paid in capital has been
refunded in dividends.
TnE MINNISOTA COrFER MINE, IN 1859,..
This is the richest worked Coppermine in the
Lake Superior copper region. The stock of
tho company is divided into 20,000 shares, on
each, of which $3,50 has been paid in. They
are now worth $120 each. In other numbers,
tho original investment of $70,000 has now
a value of $2,400,000.
Tho net profits divided amongst the stock
holders during the, first 6 years, from 1852 to
1857, amounted to $980,Q00, showing a repro
duction of 14 times the original, investment.
THE GERRO TABOO SILVER MINES,
Are situated in Eastern Peru, about 11
south of the line. These mines were discover
ed in 1631. According to Lieut, Herndon,
U. S. Navy, the ore is quarried in monster pits,
open cuts, and is very poor ; but the facilities
for' procuring at little expense, largo quantities,
and their easy amalgamation, makes the work
ing of them profitable. The principal mass of
the extracted ores yield but about 16 ounces to
According to Mr. Castleman, these mines
produced up to 1849, tho enormous sura of
475,000,000, which would give an annual aver
age of $2,170,000. The annual average is now
only estimated at $2,000,OQO. Corro Pasco is
situated on tho Eastern slope pf the Andes, at
an elevation of some 13,800 feet above tho sea,
and hare a population of about 7QQQ 8nlBi
irgin siyer were found on the
nearAnzona. inj.'bu. The
HUANCAVELLIA QUICKSILVER MINE,
Is situated about 200 miles s. e. of Cerro Pas
co, and according to Mr Castleman, produced
from 1751 to 1789, 1,040,452 quintals of quick
silver. Allowing $65 as the average value per
quintal, the value of the product is $07,629,380.
Tho expenses were $10,587,845 during that pe
riod. Since then this mine has produced but little,
all schemes to re-open it having failed so far,
but thoy aro not considered as exhausted. Bol
ivar, the Dictator, refused for them in 1828 tho
round sum of $600,000 or $800,000.
THE SAN JOSE DE PARAO SILVER MINES, PERU.
This is no very great establishment, but only
mentioned here to show the interior economy,
as a model. Thero are annually reduced at
this mine 750 tons of ore, with an average yield
per ton, of about 128 ounces of silver..,, Tho
ores, in consequence of blende, are roasted1 with
about 87 per cent, of salt, and amalgamated bj
the Patio process. I'he annual yield is $70,
000( Expenses $30,000. According tor this
the average would only be $93 per ton, with an
expense of $40 per ton for miningjand reduction.
The hacienda for reducing the ores is man
aged by 1 superintendent, 3 major domos, and
40 hands, Indians.
The 4 mines belonging to this company aro
situated 2 leagues from the reduction works,
and in charge of 1 major domo, four corporals,
and 60 hands, divided into 2 gangs? working
each 12 hours out of 24.
The salary of the superintendent is $1200
per annum ; major do'mp 30 per month ; cor
porals $21 ; miners 62. cents per day ; hands
at the works receive 50c, per day.
It would be highly interesting to get statistics
of the great mines of Mexico, Quanaxuto and
the Alison, and the great gold mines of Califor
nia ; also, those of the new Almaden quicksil
ver mines in that State; in comparison with ,
those of Almaden in Spain, which have been
worked over 2000 years. Also, notes on the
rich mines of Germany ahd Hungary, espe?
eially those in the Ore mountains, where (I ben
hcvean the 14th century,) immense masses ot
ot Falhaunin Sweden, are yet produ'ctivelThoT '
ore, is very poor, but notwithstanding all ithisL
they produced during the greatest part of JastT
century over 800,000 lbs of copper ppr annum?
Not less interesting would be statements nf
the iron an'd coal mines now worked, Anv nnn
in possession of reliable data would confer a
benefit on the public by publishing them. -
fniiuiuwa jmrut;uiariyinieresieuin oDtaming
information respecting mining pperations as
she is par excellence a' mining country, and
the, mining State ot'the Union, as the future will
show. We shall not be able to show such magic
results a3 did the placer mines of California,
but' will exhibit a gradual dovelopefflent that
will be really amazing ; as soon as we havo
securitv from Indian depredations, laws, capi
talj.and science will come to our aid, and such
will be the case.
We have in Arizona mineral lodes containing
ores! of a far superior character than' thosa
of the above cited mines. The question is
whether they pan be produced in such immense
quantities. The copper ores from tho Santa
Rita de Cobre, the Ayo, and hundreds of other
veins are extremely rich ; the dinlculty-of trans
portation and the want of . fuel, has however,
prevented their being profitably worked, so far,
Nothing but a railroad will remove the difficul
ty. Tho silver ores are as far superior to thoso
of other parts as the copper ores are. In tho
Heintzelman mine the rarest specimens of rich
silver ores, of great variety, havo been found
also, spcjiniens of cinabar anil virgin silver
and copper, in the same vein. The general
yield of the ores there, are not surpassed by
any others in the world.
Arizona has had no fair chanco yet to show
her wealth. It is in the depth, beneath rugged
mountains. All our oxcavations so far, aro
but mc scratches ; our reductiou works mcro
trials and tests on the pigmy scale. Our local
ity, monstrous difficulties and wants, are entire
ly misunderstood and neglected at home, and
even here. This leads to badly equipped enter
prizes, delay, and disappointment. Tho fail
ures aro attributed to the country and tho
mines, when in reality thoy are owing to want
of knowledge of mining.
Hoping that this may prove interesting to
some of your readers, and that where I am
mistaken I may bo pardoned having but few;
notes hero for refereuco I remain, &c.