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Sacramento daily record-union. (Sacramento [Calif.]) 1875-1891, March 06, 1880, Image 2

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THE DAILY RECORD-UNION.
AGRICULTURAL NOTES.
PRACTICAL INFORMATION FOR THE
FARMER AND THE ORCHARDIST.
Thi« Department is prepared for the Sacramento
KECORrTusioK by ita Agricultural Editor All
matter relating to the agricultural interest will he
found under thi» head. 1
THE RIVERSIDE CITRUS FAIR.
We some time since, when announcing the
time of holding the Riverside Citrus Fair,
promised our readers that, as we had no
doubt many of them felt a lively interest in
this exhibition, as we ourselves did, we should
watch it closely and give them such an ac
count of it as would convey to them ninny
valuable hints in the cultivation of citrus
fruits. We are now enabled to redeem our
promise in part, as the Press and Horticult
urist comes to us filled with interesting par
ticulars of the fair. The fair opened on
Tuesday, the 25th of February, and contin
ued two days, and from the general account
was a decided success as a show and a prac
tical study for those who went to learn. The
exhibition, though calif- i a citrus fair, in
cluded raisins, fi '• and olives, Zante
currants, almorls, prunes, lime juice,
orange marmalade, pulverized lemons,
and »aricu3 ether articles of home manufac
ture from the citrus fruits. The premiums
offered embraced a large range of merits or
excellences in various forms. I The first
premium offered was for the best display of
citrus fruits grown by one exhibitor in the
counties of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura
and Santa Barbara. The exhibitions made
for this premium occupied about one-third of
all space devoted to the fair, and the entries
for it were made by Geo. C. Swan, of San
Diego ; Albert C. Clark, of Orange, Lot An
geles county, and S. Richardson, of San
Gabriel, Los Angeles county. The com
mittee awarded this premium to George C.
Swan, of San Diego. It will be remembered
that Mr. Swan obtained the first premium
at our last State Fair for the largest
and best display of semi-tropical fruits.
The committee, however, in their report,
said if Mr. Clark had exercised greater care
in the selection of his fruit, they had no
doubt they would have been justified in giv
ing him the preference. Though there was
a premium offered for the best display of
citrus fruits grown in the State north of
Los Angeles and Santa Barbara there were
no entries for the premium. Right here we
desire to say that this fact should not be
taken by our friends of Southern California
as an evidence that there are no localities
north of the counties named that could not
have made a creditable display. While we
in Central California did not enter into the
cultivation of citrus fruits early enough to
exhibit very extensive collections, yet Sacra
mento or Marysville, or even some locali
ties as far north as Butte county,
could have exhibited oranges that
would have compared very favorably
in their exhibition, and we expect in time to
prove this fact to them, by placing our pro
ducts beside theirs at our State Fairs, and
maybe some future Citrus Fair at Riverside.
Of course, our Riverside friends will rejoice
at such success by us j list as heartily we now
rejoice that they are succeeding so admirably.
There were three competitors for the best
display of citrus fruits grown by one person
in the county of San Bernardino, and Messrs.
Shngart and Waite were awarded first pre
mium. For the premiums offered for the best
budded orange wherever grown there were fifty
entries, including the following-named varieties
of oranges: Mediterranean Sweet, Dußoi,
large St. Michael, small St. Michael, Keller's
Best, Konah Naval, Acapulco, Chinese Dwarf,
Mandarin, Rose's Best, Bouquet, Washing
. ton Naval, Naval on orange root, Naval on
lemon root, Konah on orange root, Konah on
China or lemon root, Acapulco on China
lemon root, Malta Blood on China lemon root,
Chuehupin on China lemon root, Mediterra
nean Sweet on orange root, Malta Blood on
orange root, Pischon's Best on orange root,
large St. Michael on orange root, large St.
Michael on China lemon root, small St.
Michael on orange root, small St. Michael
on China lemon root, Rio, small or paper
rind St. Michael, budded Mission on orange
root, Asher's Best, China Mandarin or Tun
guerine, Wilson's Best. There were many
duplicates of the same varieties by different
parties, but the above we believe were all the
varieties grown on different roots as tests.
The committee awarded the first premium to
W. C. Kimball, of San Diego, for a Naval
orange, and the second premium to
A. P. Coombs, of Riverside, for a
T)u Km orange. The committee failed to
etate what roots these oranges were grown
upon, whether orange or len>on, but as
it is not stated we presume they were
both grown on the orange root.
l"or the premiums offered for the best seed
ling orange there were 3G entries and 30
specimens. The names of varieties were not
given at all, as, of course, these could not be
known. As many of our readers are grow
ing more or less seedling oranges and trees,
and are interested especially in this branch of
the business, we will give here the report of
the committee in full, and we call special at
tention tc the remark of the committee on
some Panama oranges presented to them for
comparison with the California grown :
Your committee had placed before them
thirty-six specimens of oranges selected from
all the exhibits of the seedling orange in the
hall ; each orange had a number given it by
which number it was only known to the com
mittee. Among so many oranges, from which i
the committee were expected to select the !
best two, we found a difficult task. We need
n.'t assure you that the presence of all our
discrimination was required in our attack
npon the luscious fruit. The oranges were
cut and tasted, at first with vigor, after
wards more sparingly, until the end was
reached, and it was found after our ar
duous labors that to the orange known
to us as 4a your committee would
award the first premium, and the orange
numbered and lettered 18b we selected as
the second best, for tbe second premium.
One thing particularly was noticed by your
committee, that the largest oranges were not
the sweetest or best flavored ; also that some
had been longer from the trees than others,
which prevented the committee from getting
at the equal merits of the fruit. We would
suggest ten days' picking of the orange be
fore being exhibited as a goo+rule to adopt
We had presented to us for comparison some
oranges from Panama, and their insipidity
removed the flavor of the oranges we tested
from time to time, and in this way we were
glad to have them — to freshen us in our at
tacks. No. 4 is a seedling, grown by T. W.
Cover, of Riverside. No. 18 is a seedling,
grown by G. W. Garcelon, of Riverside.
The next premiums were offered for the
best orange, the largest orange, and the
largest cluster of oranges on exhibition.
There were twelve entries, and as we
suppose this premium for the best
orange on exhibtion was intended as a
test between budded oranges and seedling
oranges, we give the report of the committee
in full, which also states the size of the
largest orange on exhibition :
We find upon careful measurement of all
the oranges presented in competition that
No. 12 i 9 the larsjest, the size being 13i in
transverse by 143 longitudinal circumference
measurement. No. 12 belongs to L. G. Rilev.
of Orange, and is the Navel grown on the
The largest and finest cluster— Entry No.
4 consists of a single stem or cluster of thir
teen oranires, seedling?, smooth skin, bright
strong color and of uniform sue— above the
average. We award it the merit of being the
finest cluster on exhibition. Entry No. 4 be
longs to T. W. Cover.
Best orange on exhibition — Your commit
tee are unanimously agreed that the seedling
tested by us is the richer flavor of the two va
rieties presented to us, and we have thercf' re
>i warded the premiu.n to the seedling variety.
Kntry No. 4, by T. W. Cover, of liiverside,
takes the premium.
In the seventh class the premiums were for
best and second best lemons. There were
thirty-four entries, and they embraced the
following varieties: Seedlings, Lisbous,
Sweet-rind, Sicily Seedling, Lisbon on China
neties presented to us, and we have therefore
awarded the premium to the seedling variety.
Entry No. 4, by T. W. Cover, of Riverside,
takes the premium.
In the seventh class the premiums were for
best and second best lemons. There were
thirty-four entries, and they embraced the
following ' varieties : Seedlings, Lisbous,
Sweet-rind, Sicily Seedling, Lisbon on China
lemon root, Lisbon on orange root, Malaga,
Sweet-rind on China lemon root, China
lemon, Knobby Seedling, Australia, Olivia,
Eureka, Wolfskill's XX and Bouton. The
committee reported as follows, and we would
call special attention to their remarks on the
comparison of foreign and home -grown
lemons:
Your committee on lemons would beg leave
to report that they examined a large number
of lemons placed before them, but the time
for work was tooshorttodothesubjectjustice.
They first examined the fruit for size, taking
for a. standard a lemon that would weigh
from font to five ounces, marking it 10 ; if
the lemon was either smaller or larger than
this standard the mark was reduced one for
every half ounce above five or below
four. The fruit was then cut, and thick
i. -. of rind, texture of pulp, and num
ber of seeds were marked^ ten being con
sidered perfect, and fruit inferior on any
of these points was marked accordingly.
At this point one-half of each lemon was
used for a lemonade, which, after standing a
few hours, was tested for bitterness. About
one-third of the Iruit was rejected, as having
a bitter rind. This report is not made
as complete as it was intended to
make it, as the fruit was not in
condition for making thorough tests. Most
of it was picked from the tree just before
being sent to the exhibition, while a few sam
ples hud been picked for from four to six
weeks, and were thoroughly sweated. These
few samples had a thinner rind, more juice,
and a larger percentage of citric acid, while
the fruit just taken from the tree had a
thicker rind, less juice and a smaller percent
age of citric acid. A lemon will increase in
value for four weeks after being picked from
the tree, and should therefore never be sent
to market until it has passed through the
sweat. Imported lemons do not reach a
market for several weeks after being picked,
and this one cause alone ia enough to give
them a good standing when placed beside
fruit freshly picked. An imported lemon was
examined by the committee in connection
with the California fruit. ■ While it stood
better than some of the fruit, it was
inferior to half of the samples tested
!as regards texture of pulp, thickness
iof rind, number of seeds and flavor. In fact,
there were no lemons that had passed through
! a sweat that stood so poorly as the imported
fruit. There was not time to make acid
tests of all the lemons on exhibition, but
taking three samples which were very fine,
and which were nearly perfect as regards the
rive points mentioned, they were subjected to
th? acid test with the following result, as
regards the two best: Lisbon lemon, grown
by J. W. Wolfskill, of Los Angeles, con
tained a juice of which 8.50 per cent, was
citric acid, and a Eureka lemon, also grown
by Mr. Wolfskill, contained a juice of which
7.75 per cent, was citric acid. These lemons
being the best examined, and being consid
ered equal, except as regards strength of acid,
the Lisbon lemon is awarded the first premi
um and the Eureka lemon the second. Both
lemons were budded on an orange root.
GRAPEVINES IN CALIFORNIA.
In 1855 the State Register estimated the
number of grapevines then in the State to be
1,500,000 ; in 1857, 2,250,000, and in 1859,
4,000,000 vines were estimated then in the
State. The estimated number of vines now
in the State is from 40,000,000 to 45,000,000,
and it is supposed that this year's planting
will increase the number to 50,000,
--000. In 1875 France produced 2,190,
--000,000 gallons of wine, and if is be
lieved by some of those best informed in wine
and vine matters that within this century, or
within twenty years from this time, we will
have as many vines as France had in 1875,
when, as we said, she produced 2,190,000,000
gallons of wine.
AGRICULTURAL SELECTIONS.
Salt. — Occasionally we have an inquiry in
regard to using salt as a fertilizer. In nearly
all ages and countries salt has been used as a
manure. While it acts as a feeder to plant*,
it performs the office also of a solvent, dis
solving, in the fluid state, other substances,
aud rendering them available as plant food.
But it should be used with care, especially in
a dry season, or in dry climates, where the
rainfall is deficient. It should never be ap
plied directly to plants, although sometimes
it is applied to cabbage to hasten their head
ing, and render them more solid — [Prairie
Farmer.
Bone Dcst. — Bone dust will doubtless be
beneficial in supplying phosphates or bone
earth, which all grain crops remove from the
I soil. It will add, at least, in restoring fer
tility. It may be sown broadcast with small
grain in the spring, or can be harrowed in
alone. It should not be plowed in, for its
tendency is to sink rapidly. The quantity an-
Bone Dcst. — Bone dust will doubtless be
beneficial in supplying phosphates or bone
earth, which all grain crops remove from the
soil. It will add, at least, in restoring fer
tility. It may be sown broadcast with small
grain in the spring, at can oe harrowed in
alone. It should not be plowed in, for its
tendency is to sink rapidly. The quantity ap
plied to the acre varies with circumstances
or the opinions of different persons. Ten or
twelve bushels per acre are usually applied,
though a greater quantity is often used. No
definite estimate of increased advautage in
yield of crop thus treated can be given be
cause of so m;iuy contingencies and diverse
conditions in different cases. — [Prairie Farmer.
Calomel in Tomatoes. — An old subscriber
and friend writes us that a celebrated French
chemist and physician, who has analyzed to
matoes, declares that they contain all the
elements of calomel, and he lias known them
to salivate persons. She wishes our opinion
on this subject, and we have only to say that
this idea has been going the rounds of the
press for more than thirty years. It is a
falsehood from beginning to end. The idea
that they produce salivation may possibly
I have originated from the fact that, eaten in
large >iuantities by some persons, the acid of
the fruit seems to irritate those parts of the
mouth with which it conies in contact. The
idea that tomatoes Cause cancer is another
superstition, the outgrowth of the former
notion that tomatoes were unfit to eat.
They cause neither caucer nor salivation, aud
may be eaten with impunity by most per
sons, and often with great benefit.— [Herald
of Health.
An Artificial Mother. — A good arti
ficial mother for chicks over three weeks old
may be made in the following manner : Drive
two small stakes into the ground, at a dis
tauce of from IS inches to three feet, accord
ing to the number of chickens to be brooded.
Tne stakes should be about 24 inches long,
and all but 10 inches should be driven into
the ground. Then nail a light piece of wood
of the proper length to the end of each
of the stakes, so as to form the frame-work
of a miniature tent. Now stretch a large
piece of cloth (a sack or two are good) across
the ridgepole, pinning the ends down at each
side — exactly as though you were putting up
a tent. The two ends will then be open. If
you like, an extra sack may be bud over one
end, so as to prevent a draft, while the other
end t-hould be left open. If this "mother"'
Sm placed on the spot occupied by the one
which was used when the chicks were smaller,
they will readily make the change, and, if
over three weeks old, will thrive as well as if
still furnished with artificial heat. This kind
of " mother " is inexpensive, and prevents all
stifling or crushing of the chicks. No more
than seventy-tive or one hundred chicks
should be kept under one brooder. — [Califor
nia Poultry News.
Maplb SCGAB.— Joe Pippin has an old
fashioned maple sugar camp, on a small
scale, in full blast at the Powder Works.
He has tapped about a dozen email, white
maple trees, and during the prevalence of the
late frosty weather they yielded about 10
gallons of sap daily. From this he has )<een
manufacturing both syrup and sugar. This
is the first instance we have known of sugar
being manufactured from maple trees in Cali
fornia. — [Courier.
Old Billy W , of Fluvanna county,
Ohio, wai dying. Ho was an ignorant
man and a very wicked one. Dr. D ,
an excellent physician and a very pious
man, was attending him. The old fellow
asked for bread. The Doctor approached
the bed-side, and in a very solemn tone,
remarked, "My dear fellow, man cannot
live on bread alone." " No," said the old
fellow, sorter reviving, " he's 'bleeged to
have a few wegetables." The subject was
dropped.
OUR LETTER-BOX.
CURIOUS AND STATISTICAL QUESTIONS
ASKED AND ANSWERED.
[Correspondents will write upon but one side of the
sheet and make their questions as concise as
[n)B>ib!e. Replies by contributors to questions
hv correspondents will be -iven when acixroi>atiietJ
by the name and address of the writer.l
Addkes?.— H. A. May, Fair Play, El Do
rado county. The gentleman who is engaged
;n raising millet is \V. A. Sanders, of the set
tlement of Sanders, Fresno county, Cal.
Coinage. — I have a silver coin which I
picked up in Mexico— date 1252, letters
■• .Mixican," all very plain. Can anyone ex
plain who coined it? Inquirer.
Mendon, February 28, 1830.
Engine Running. — Please inform me if a
hill has been passed at the present session of
the Legislature providing for the examination
of persons who may be engaged in running
steam engines and boilers. Engineer.
Bio Vista, February 20, 1880.
Aftimr. — There is a bill before the Legisla
ture of that character. It has not become a
law yet.
Heat. — As an answer to qiiestion 49 has
not yet been proposed, 1 will eudeavor to an
swer it. Iv 1799, shortly after Count Ruiu
fordproved that lieat is a specie* of rrotion,
Sir Huuiphery Davy added continuation to
the theory by rubbing together two pieces of
ice and thus melting them. Before this, in
17i>0, Dr. Black, the discoverer of carbonic
acid, discovered the fact that the heat, which
enters ice and melts it, remains latent until
the last particle of ice is melted. L. W. V.
Red Bluff, February 23, 1880.
Northwestern Territory. — A dispute
has arisen among; some of us here in regard
to the Louisiana purchase. One si3e con
tends that all of this Western country, viz.:
Idaho, Montana, Washington and Oregon,
were included in that gale, while it is stated
in a cyclopedia which we have, that it in
cluded all the country west of the Mississippi
to the Rocky mountains. Also, did the
Government, at the time of Tyler's adminis
tration, offer to sell the aforesaid country to
the British? If this country was not in
cluded in the Louisiana purchase, how was it
acquired by the United States ? Idaho.
Idaho City, February 23, 18S0.
Answer. — In 1800 Bonaparte succeeded in
inducing the Spanish Government to retrocede
Louisiana to France. He then sold it to the
Uuited States for §15,000,000. The country
comprehended the present State of Louisiana
and all the country to the north aud west be
tween the MinUßppi and the Pacific, except
such parts as were occupied by Spain, aud as
far north as the British territory. During
Tyler's administration there was a critical
situation with England relative to the
northern boundary. Lord Ashburton and
Daniel Webster arranged the matter by
treaty, which was ratified by the Senate
August 20, 1842. If there was any offer to
sell to the British Government it did not be
come a matter of record in political history.
The conventions which settled the boundary
or frontier line between British America and
the United States were known as the con
ventions of 1839 and 1840.
Alloy. — Can you inform me if rifle balls
alloyed with quicksilver are injurious to a
rifle? Can you give me a method for alloy
ing? Ximrod.
Answer. — Assuredly balls thus alloyed
would injure a rifle sooner than balls not so
treated. If you will state for what purpose
the alloy is desired a formula for alloying
with various metals will be given.
Kimisat's "Memoirs." — I have received
the tirst volume of lime. Renmsat' a "Me
moirs of Napoleon Bonaparte,'' and am de
sirous of having your persons] opinion of the
work, and the motive that induced its publi
cation. If the book has already been noticed
iv the Recuki>-1 niun, please refer me to the
number ; if not, I will be sincerely gratified
to hud your comments thereon in the columns
of some future issue. A New Reader.
Sutter Creek, February 26, 1880.
Antmer. — The work was britHy referred
to on its receipt. The memoirs are
revelations of social court life under
the Consulate and the First Em
pire. Madame Keiuusat was nearly
unknown in this country until the publica
tion of this work. She is included in Sainte-
Beuve's " Portraits of Celebrated Women."
She made essays in literature which attracted
some cotemporury attention, hut are compar
atively unknown now. Sainte-Beuve says
she wrote early with facility and gran and
sent forth creditable short tattyi at the age
of 15 or 16 years, as well as some novelettes
and some translations of odes of Horace. She
was a great letter writer, and nightly wrote
down the events of the day preceding.
She wrote two romances and a work on " Fe
male Education. " Madame ßemusat was born
in 1780 and was grand niece to Louis XVI.
She married an aged magistrate of the Su
preme Court and lived a life of retirement for
several years — one of ijuiet enjoyment and
intellectual culture. Madame Bonaparte made
her one of her ladies in waiting, and her hus
band Prefect of the palace. She died in 1821,
about GO years before her memoirs were given
to the world. Says S:iinte-Beuve : "In 1815,
during the hundred days, some peculiar cir
cumstances, which she doubtless exaggerated,
excited her alarm on the score of these papers,
teeming as they were with items and with
names. She sallied forth to place them in
the keeping of a friend, but, failing to find
her, she returned in haste and threw them
into the fire. Before an hour had elapsed she
regretted what she had done. It was not
until the publication of Madame de Stael's
work on the French Revolution that she felt
the courage to undertake once more the col
lection of her reminiscences. In de
fault of the fir.st incomparable nar
rative, those will be partially indemnititd
who shall one day read the second."
The memoirs lift the veil from the leading
actors of the period treated. Her chapters
have all the charm of romantic fiction with
what there is every reason to believe the
power of truth. She was a simple, easy
writer, not brilliant, but very skillful in nar
rative. The record she kept was an accurate
one. Her powers of observation were great ;
nothing escaped her, and she saw generally
clearly. ISapoleon, on separating from Jose
phine, knowing Madame Reniusat's habit of
recording daily events, and her memory of
conversations, distrusted her. He sent her
husband into exile subseo, liently. It is set
tled that the rewritten memoirs are a very
faithful picture of the times and an honi'-t
narrative of event*, presenting accurately the
feelings, expressions, passions and sympathies
of the historic characters, and giving a clear
insight into the real relations of Napoleon
and Josephine.
Answers.— W., of Tahoe, Placer county,
sends in these answers to questions :
To No. 40— Salad oil is olive oil of the
best and second best qualities. In the mar
kets it is quoted as : Fine salad olive, cans,
Kal., S3 50 ; salad dive, Bordeaux, quart?,
per dozen, $9 25. The best, called virgin oil,
is made from olives when nearly but not quite
ripe, aud comes from southern France. Other
qualities are made from fully ripe fruit
that which has lain in piles and soured, the
mash from previous expressings, etc
To Xi>. 41 — The tomato, Solatium Lyropcrsi
cum, originated in South America. About
the year 1596 it was taken to England and
grown as a curiosity, the fruit lunln! for
its beauty, and called "love apples." It re
mained for the Italians to discover it 9 utility
as human food ; this date is not known, how
ever. Afterwards the French begaa to use
it, and finally the English. Its extensive
use does not date back over twenty-five or
thirty years.
To Mo. 45— Black lead is an improper
name for graphite, one of the forms of pure
carbon. When iron or other impurities are
contained in it, they form no part of the ma
terial itself, no more than a stone in a pail of
water is part of the water.
To Xo. 39— Mosaic gold is a brass com
posed of from fifty-two to fifty-eight parts of
zinc to fifty of copper. When first cast it is
not attractive ; but subjected to the process
called dipping— that is, placed in certain di
luted acid solutions — it very nearly resem
bles gold. Used for cheap jewelry and orna
ments for furniture.
Sale of Stamps.— Please inform me if
Postmasters can sell stamps to purchase mer
chandise with or not. A Reader,
Millville, Shasta county.
Antwer. — If you mean to ask if he can sell
stamps to citizens who may use them to pur
chase merchandise, the answer is yes. He is
t» sell stamps at his window in the usual way
and in sums demanded, and the use to which
they are to be put does not concern him. If,
also, you mean to ask whether a Post
ma*ter can himself take office stamps and use
them to purchase goods with, we reply yes ;
if he keeps his account good therefor, putting
in cash when he takes out stamps.
An editor out West, who has served four
days as juryman, says: "I am so full of
law that it is with great difficulty I refrain
from cheating somebody."
THE QUIET HOUR.
THE " TANGIER'S " \ PARADISE OF CHA
• ■ Z i : RADES, ENIGMAS, ETC. .
[Contributions to this department should be ad
dressed "Quiet Hour," Rbcobd- Union. ..Write
upon but one side 01 the sheet. Accompany all
contributions with the answers, the true name,
and postoffice' address. Contributor!! will receive
advice and assistance, and arc privileged to engage
in courteous criticism of the productions pub
lished. I ___
Answers to February 21st.
584. Ray, ado, ink, lye.
585. Evil, Violono, Arden, non-sparing,
golf, Epiploce, lineal, ideal, Nebo, endow
(Initials and finals read " vangeline ; "
Longfellow.")
580. P R EM A- T ' U RE
I M■ O G E N E
SENNA
T E A
S •
587. PIRATE
IRA T E
RATE «
A T X
T E
E
SSS. ■ E P H A
PEAR
HA R T . : -
AX T 8
589. One had 7, the other 5.
680. A happy new year.
591. In God we trust. Gower, outgo,
drug, write, inter, nodus.
592. Because its a Bon-a-parte (bone apart.)
593. Ginger-Snaps, (Fanny Fern ) ; The
Hidden Path, (Harland): Alive, (Har
land ) ; The Man Who Laughs, (Victor
Hugo ) ; Tiger Lilies, (Lanier ) ; Checkmate,
(Dt-Fann); Dollars and Cents, (Lathrop);
The Unkind Word, (Moloch); A Noble
Life, (Muloch ) ; A Secret Foe, (Pickering).
■Kew Tangles.
001. Charade, by Casper :
On this old earth I had my birth ;
Sly power is great an.i grand. v
- Go where you will I'm near you still,
And all throughout the land. *
Up Science hill, with mind and will
Together, I have climbed.
Wer't not (or me, no laud ther'd be,
No life, and no mankind.
My whole, in man leads fist the van
Of panel pens, and Time.
Now tanglers all (both .large and small)
Sly whole's for you to find.
602. Crossword enigma, by G. K. Orge :
My first is in paper but not in book ;
My second is in starch but not in look ;
My thirii is in bear but not In dog ;
My fourth is in cat hut not in frog ;
My fifth is in have but not in suit ;
My whole is the name of a delicate fruit.
003. Diamond, "by Amy :
Inma.nify: ahorse; gay; a slight shake ; in
adamant.
60-1. Crossword enigma, by Augusta Blake,
Hollister :
Mv first is in sand but not in lime ;
My second is in year but Dot in time ;
My third is in come but not in wait ;
.My fourth is in rough but not in neat ;
My fifth is in May but not in June ;
Sly sixth is in morning but not in noon ;
My seventh is in we but not in you ;
My eighth is in many but not In few ;
Sly ninth is in true but not in false ;
My tenth is in polka but not in waltz;
My whole united will relate
The name of * city, a river, a county of the State.
005. Charade for Trinity, by Hattie Heath :
Oft in childhood, when robbed of some treasure,
The big tears were just ready to burst,
They were cheeked by the promise of pleasure
Long wished for, if we would be " first."
When we listen to words we would cherish
Or wish to remember some text,
Lest both from our memories perish
We often resort to the " next." -
A mUch censured part of creation
(It is merited, sometimes, no doubt),
But in whatever position or station
It is wise to have " third " about.
Words can never describe such horror
* As oft comes to my beautiful " last,"
Or depict the dark scenes of sorrow
When 'tis lashed by the merciless blast.
Many seek long years this art to obtain,
But ever beyond is its goal,
To some it brings employment ani gain.
Now, Trinity, please give us the whole.
000. Double acrostic, by Mariuß :
My primals read downward*, and finals upwards,
will name a gram a' d what it Is made into.
007. Crossword enigma, by Trinity :
In Lemuel not in Dan.
In Isabclle not in Ann.
In eagle not in parrot.
In vegetable not in ca rot.
In antelope not Lib rain. ; ,
In Lee not in Grant.
In gentleman not in dandy.
In lemonade no in braudv.
[The above is new iv style, and we consider
it exceedingly neat.] *
008. Changed headings, by F. M. S. :
Take a fish egg and change to a substitute for a
bridge; again, to a man's nickname; again, to
mirth ; again, to a noted duelist ; again, to a crowd ;
again, to pear cider.
009. Beheadings, by Viola :
Behead a tree and leave two girls" names ; again,
and leave another girl's name : aga n, and leave an
other girl's name.
010. Enigmas, by Trinity :
(1) R G
0
(2) '84
[No. 1 is a word of three, and No. 2 word
of four syllables.] /
Answers to Correspondents and Correct
Solutions.
Hattie Heath— s72, 574. 579 (nearly). 584,
685, 587, 588, 001, 592. You say it has the
prints of wales (Prince of Wales). Very
good, but not the answer.
Casper— MS. received. Glad to welcome
you to the (.Juiet Hour fireside. It is a very
social and helpful circle.
Gus.— 597, 599.
Aug.— sß2. 587, 591.
Frank L.— 590, 592, 594 (hardly), 599.
Amethyst— s62, 563, 500, 569, 571, 570,
578, 579. 580, 581, 583. . "
T. O. Head— sßl, 584. 590.
Eveline— sS6, 587, 590.
Dear Quiet Hour : In my hour-glass, 572,
is a mistake of the compositor's, or some
body's, which is so calculated to confuse that
I write to make a correction. In the para
graph commencing " upper half read down "
the word " across " is ore of the definitions,
and as such was written with a small "a "
and preceded by a semicolon. It is the mean
ing of the upper half of the centerword.
Thanks to F. M. S. for the neatly-turned
compliment with which he (jets out of the
accusation of theft against me. I did not
expect that to be printed when I wrote it,
aud am convinied that the Quiet Hour is a
woman ; they always have to tell everything.
Amethyst.
Trinity-584, 585, 587, 589, 590. 591. [To
592 Trinity says : The Prince of Wales will
be a king ; a broken limb will be aching. J
593; Trinity says: Tell Myrtle "mas
culine gender " is the proper thing in his case.
Amy— sß4, 585. 686, 587, 589, 591, 593, 594,
596, 597, 598, 599, f>oo.
Ora and Carrie Bradley— s7l. 576, 582, 583.
F. M. S.-588, 591, 586, 595 (wrong), 584,
5%, 597, 600.
[For the Record-Union.]
APPLE BLOSSOMS.
I snatched a cluster from the orchard bough.
Rich fragrantblossonia. "Dearest," low he said,
" Rob not the tree of its fair treasure now,
Wait till the ruddy fruit come? in its stead."
The fair earth slept beneath the monn of May—
I in my girlhood, he in manhood's prime.
'Ti- said his chestnut locks are tiDsred with frray
And my red cheeks have faded since that time.
Ten timed hath autumn lighted up the hills
And ten times have the blossoms decked the
tree.
And now beneath the richly laden boughs
I trembling wait for him to come to me.
Ah, will he hupe to find the sweet Miv flower
And mourn the fancy of that by -gone hour?
— [Alice Grey Cowan.
Suisun, February 28th.
The influence of our officers over their
men, and the state of our discipline at the
beginning of the war is best illustrated by
an incident which occurred on the field in
the heat of the battle of Bull Run. An
officer who has since become very prom
inent and well known throughout the coun
try was then in command of a brigade on
the right of the line. While riding over the
field, he discovered a soldier concealed in a
hole in the ground, which was of just suffi
cient dimensions to afford him shelter.
The General rode up to him, inquired as to
his regiment, and ordered him to join it at
once. The man, looking him full in the
face, placed his thumb npon his nose, and
replied, "No yon don't, old fellow— you
want this hole yourself."
Victor Hugo, says an English report,
will soon publish two more volumes, one
of them to be called " Toute la Lyre " and
another " Religions et Religion."
OUTDOOR AMUSEMENTS.
ITEMS OF INTEREST TO THE L7FERS OF
FIELD SPORTS.
(In this department, as the head indicates, we pro
pi *l- to make record of current sporting events.
Communications to the paper concerning such
matters should be addressed to tbe " Outdoor
Amusement Dei iartnient "1
The Coming Pedestrian Match.— Last
Tuesday James Cain Simpson, of San Fran
cisco, was in Sacramento to meet Mr. Bu.-.bey,
stakeholder iv the O'Leary- Weston pedes
trian match, which begin* in San Francisco
Monday, March Bth. Mr. .Simpson's opinion
c incidea with ours, that the match is gen
uine and for blood. Mr. Bnshey anived in
the Stite Tuesday, and his reputation is a guar
antee that the ten-thousand-doilar match stake
is no merely nominal thing. It is said that
Mrs. Weaton put up the 55.000 for her hus
band, who is much pestered by worrying
creditors, and it was on account of these that.
he forced the match to be located in San
Francisco. The men :.re to go as they please,
and will conclude the match Saturday night
next. Much interest centers about the match.
O'lieary has twice held the Astley belt. He
is uneqiialed as a square heel-and-toe walker.
He is an easy, graceful sttpper, and is said to
be a model iv his style and action. His gait
ia peculiar and attractive. In his first at
tempt — which was in 1874, at Chicago — he
walked 100 mi!es in 24 hours, and in the same
year made 100 miles in 18 hours and
53 minutes. His fast walk of 500 miles
na in Chicago, and wan made in
Ls6j h.mrs. Hid next heavy match
was with Weston in Chicago, in November,
1870, heel-and-toe walk. He scored 503 miles,
and Weston 45U. In 1877 he walked avainst
Weston in London, heel and toe. for £100 a
side and two-thirds of the gate money. Wes
ton made 510 ;>nd O'Leary 520 miles. In 1878
O'l.i-ary went for the Astley belt and won it
in 520.) miles, against 500 by Vaughn and 470
by Blower Brown. Iv the same year he won
it again against John Hughes. In 1879 Unw
ell took the belt from O'Leary anJ received
$20,000 gate money anil sweepstakes. The
fourth time the Astley belt was won by Wes
ton, who made 550 miles. Since then Rowell
has won it twice in succession. Weston is
about 40 years old, below medium hight, and
weighs 140 pounds. Weston is a nervous,
rapid walker. He has walked over 40,000
mile in matches, and more than that in pre
liminary trainings. O'Leary recently said
to a San Francisco reporter: "It is a great
mistake that the strain of even six-days'
matches is injurious. The walkers not only
recuperate Bwiftlyjrom the immediate effects,
but the general result is beneficial. When I
commenced walking my maximum weight
was 135 pounds, now I never scale less than
100. My chest has expanded and my whole
body ha.-, developed, and I can aver that if
all people did much uioie walking the medi
cated vuice of the corner apothecary would be
heard no more iv the land."
Caup Cl'i.niiE. — We have received the
following from Levi l)avis, dated Forestville
(Sonoma county), March Ist: "As to-day
brought in the last mail in February, and I
hive all letter.-, answered, I will drop you a
few lines. Since the first of January, 1880,
I have answered eighty-lour letters of iuquiry
about carp culture, some of them containing
a dozen or more questions ; so I have had all
my evening time filled up. If I had not
been so crowded, I should have answered
through your columns. Just as soon as I
can get a little leisure time I will give you a
statement of questions and answers for the
benefit of others. I see that Professor
Spencer F. Baird, Ui.ited States Ki.-h
Commissioner, says that he has au
thentic evidence that tae carp lives to
be 200 years old. What do you think of
that? We can beat the world in growth, as
far as I have any account. For instance, I
let a man have two little fish 3 or 4 inches
long, two years ago, and he put them in a
good pond by themselves, and has taken
extra good care of them, and on the 27th
ult., he weighed them and their weight was
7 pounds each. I think we had better keep
these txtra things to ourselves, lest those
who know but little of their history will be
like the Dutchman that had his sou John to
hide in the fence-corner to scare his young
horse when he rode up. 'Shon' placed him
self a.s directed, and when the old man came
up he sprang out and cried, ' Boo ! ' and the
colt piled the old man iustanter. But he
gathered himself up quickly and said :
'Shon, Shon, that was too big a boo.' I
trust none will think our accounts of carp
culture too big a 'boo.'" Our readers will
await anxiously Mr. Davis' promised copy of
the questions and answers. They will prove
of great interest, and will, through the
RBOOBD-TThIOK. reach a vast number of
readers who feel a deep interest in Mr. Davis'
experiments.
Salt Lake Sporting Items.— The owners
of the old Faust race track over Jordan sig
nify their intention of refitting the grounds
this summer, and endeavoring to inaugurate
a new interest in racing. A little energy
may again create a revival in this sport
It is expected that the base ball association
will this year make marked improvements in
the appointment of its grounds; twelve-foot
fences will be made, new, tasty and comfort
able stands, with increased seating capacity,
will be built. The ground will be made per
fectly smooth and neatly sodded, which will
prove of incalculable aid in brining the boys
out to a higher standard of playing. Fresh
water will be had on the ground, dressing rooms
made, and all reasonable accommodations for
the comfort of the audience and players be
provided. A smooth, straight footracing
track of 125 yards, and an oval cinder track
of 220 yards will be prepared, where am
bitious f edestrians can test their endurance
and speed. Considerable attention will be
paid to establishing permanent sport in this
line, and with the active daily practice now
in operation at the gymnasium, we can took
for some interesting races when the Olympic
Club holds its inaugural meeting The
officers of the I)e9eret Base Ball Club report
their intention of organizing during the com
ing week for the summer campaign. They
are determined to get together a good team,
and they significantly wink their left eyes
when told that the Keds are coing to take
their laurels from them this year.
Scarcity of Rabbits.— The Indians have
been clearing the country of rabbits this win
ter. One could not drive over the Long Valley
road last fall without seeing dozens of jacks
hopping about in the sagebrush. But yester
day a party of three Reno sportsmen scoured
the hills and plains about Alkali Lake, armed
with breech-loaders, and returned to town
without a rabbit or bird of any kind. They
report that they saw none on the road, either
going or coming, and that while hunting
through the brush if a rabbit caught sight of
them a quarter of a mile away it would turn
tail and run for the mountains as though the
devil were after it. Walking through the
brtuh is now very hard. There are several
inches of snow on the ground in most places,
and where it has melted on the hill-sides, the
mud is deep. — [Reno Gazette.
Strange Beauties. — Last Thursday Mr.
Jones killed a pair of ducks at the old mill
pond remarkable for beauty, while the oldest
hunters are at a loss to determine their
species. The breast feathers are of a deli
cate orange tint, while those of the back are
of many different brilliant colors. The bill
is similar to an ordinary fash duck, only that
a clear, bright, skin-like covering of red ex
tends half way down on each side. The ueck
feathers are preen, wings white and black,
feet red, and size of bird nearly equal to that
of a white brant. — [Lassen Advocate, Feb
ruary 28th.
New Club. — Sacramento has a new sports
man's club. The Sacramento Sportsmans'
Club was organized Wednesday night, with
21 members. The officers are : President, J.
C. Dase ; Vice-President, G. Hagelstein ;
Secretary, F. M. Coona ; Treasurer. J. G.
Shaw ; Propertyman. W. Eckhardt. The
Club bas taken rooms on X street, begins
with a good treasury, has put teams into rifle
practice, proposes to engage in field sports,
target shooting and to give attention to game
culture, protection and pursuit. May the
Club prosper ; there is room for it and for still
more.
Coursing. — The Capital Coursing Club's
(Sacramento) spring meeting will take place
about the 25th. It is open to all the State.
The Club is prospering finely. It received a
number of new members Wednesday night
last. The outlook for its spring meeting is
very fine, and we anticipate a very superior
Beason of field sports. Entries open on the
Bth instant, and the fee is $5. The Pioneer
Club, of San Francisco, has a match at Mer
ced on the 10th, open to all the State ; en
trance fee, ?5.
Protecting Game. — A couple of men liv
ing near (Japay were placed uuder arrest for
violating the game law Monday evening, and
on Tuesday appeared befnre Judge Rugbies
and gave bonds to appear for trial next Fri
day at 1 o'clock. The fine for the offense is
$50, if found guilty. — [Woodland Democrat,
March 3d.
Fixed Events.— The Pacific Coast Blood
Horse Association has announced the "fixed
events" for the spring meeting, but the
whole programme is not yet complete, and
the date is not yet named. Both omissions
we deem to be very serious oversights. If
the programme was complete, owners of
horses could at once put them in training;
and by the time the races came we might see
a large field of horses all thoroughly fit to
face the starter.
Trout fishing Grodnds in Prospective.
It is claimed .that the San Jose creek can
be converted into one of the finest trout-rish
itig streams in Southern California by the in
troduction of this lively game fish. The
stream, where it comes down the mountain
side, has numerous deep holes in it, shaded
by overhanging tree-branches, keeping the
water cold and well adapted to the wants of
the trout. The trail just opened by Mar
shall will take sportsmen to the eharmiDg
spot. — [Santa Barbara Press.
Want Fmh.— Del Noite is the only county
in the State which has not been supplied with
fish for the purpose of propagation. If there
are any streams in the county in which catfish
would thrive, it might be well for us to claim
■ ■ur share. There are two lakes near town —
Like Earl and Dead Lake — and though we
do not claim to be authority in fish matters,
we think catfish would do well iv either. —
[Crescent City Courier.
Rowing. — The PaciKc Amateur Rowing
Association has fixed the date of their next
regatta, which is announced to take place in
the month of June, and the course selected
is the Oakland creek.
Yachting. — The opening day for the sea
sou of 1880 of the San Francnco Yacht Club
ha-, been set for the 24th of April. There
will be a dance at the cluh-house, and after
ward a moonlight sail to Mare Island.
Snow-shoe Kace. — We are infurmfd that
snow-shoe races will be gives at Jamison on
Friday, March 12th. Purses will be put up,
and the track put in good condition. The
races will be free for all.— f Pluraas National.
Base BaiX. — The match between the In
trepids and Amitys of Marysville, February
S9to, resulted in a victory for the former.
Score, 5:27 to 3:27. Some fine playing is
noted.
SHALL MINING STOP?
AGRICULTURISTS WHOSE INTERESTS ARE |
THOSE OF THE MISERS.
Foothill Fanning and its Relation to Min
ing—Why Hydraulic Mining Should
Not Cease.
Ens. Record-Union : It is universally
admitted that the "debris" question is one
of momentous importance, but at the same
time impartial observers are compelled to con- j
fess that the discussion thus far has been one- !
sided, and therefore incomplete. As the case '
now stands the public supposes that the con
troversy is wholly between agriculturists and
miners. Arguing from this stand-point it is
easy to assume that agriculture is the essen
tial basis of State life, and that mining being
an "ephemeral industry," must therefore
give way to the demands of tht husbandman.
I admit that great shrewdness has been man- ]
ifested in this method of stating the case, I
but the element of fairness is entirely lack
ing, and any solution that may be based upon
thi-s practical statement of the problem will
be wholly unworthy of our da}' and genera
tion. We are engaged in a mighty work,
eveH the upbuilding of an empire as extensive
as the territory between Boston and Charles
ton, South Carolina, and we cannot afford to
surrender our judgment to passion, clap-trap
or ignorance. There is another and hitherto
AN UNNOTICED FACTOR
In the problem that is quite as important as
any that has been considered, and one that
must be discussed before we can be either
just to onrselves or the subject. I assert that
there is an agricultural interest that espouses
the miners' side of the case, and I shall prove
that that interest is, prospectively at least, as
important t.> the State a* the other agricul
tural interest that opposes hydraulic mining.
If I succeed in placing before the public a
fair and convincing statement of this fact,
thoughtful and broad-minded statesmen will
be better prepared for just action and be
enabled to escape the beguilement that now
threatens to seduce their judgment. The
foothill farming lands of the Sierra Nevada '
mountains are wholly dependent upon the
hydraulic miners for irrigation, and without
their aid the farmers of that region would be
compelled to abandon their homes. Many
valley farms may be threatened with partial j
destruction, but the foothill farms without I
the miners' water would be utterly and for
ever ruined. Let me here explain the situa
tion and make my meaning clear. The winter
rainfall, while it is generally sufficient for the
lowlands, is wholly inadequate to the wants
of foothill farms, and for the simple reason
that it does not remain in the ground. Sys
tematic irrigation is therefore an ab
solute necessity in the foothills. But
who or what interest can lie relied upon
to furnish the foothills with water? Can the
farmers themselves do it? A simple state
ment of facts will settle the controversy.
Foothill farming is yet in its infancy, and the
farmers, as a rule, are just emerging frcm
beneath mountains of debt. They have al
ready subjugated about 100,000 acres of land, j
but years will elapse before they will be able i
to own and control the sources of water. To !
command the sources of water it is necessary I
to build immense reservoirs in the canyons of
the higher Sierra and build thousands of
miles of ditches. This stupendous work is
wholly beyond the power of the foothill
farmers. The hydraulic miners, however,
have already constructed
GKEAT RESERVOIRS,
And they have also built the requisite ditches
to scatter the water to thousands, of foothill
farms. If allowed to go on in their work
they will build other reservoirs and soon be
able to house water sufficient to irrigate the
entire foothill region. No water company or
companies can take their place, for the rea
son that the profits wotild be insufficient
just now to pay the incidental expenses of
such a system. In a few years there will,
however, be a farming population in the
foothills large and rich enough to bear
the expense. At present the farmers could
not keep in repair reservoirs and ditches,
even if freely donated to them, and therefore
a stoppage of mining would rob the said
farmers of all their investments. During the
past five years foothill farming, by the aid of
the miners, has became an industry of v:i-t
importance, and land that was worthless five
years ago is now worth §100 per acre. And
this stupendous success is only prophetic of
results that wiil be seen at no distant day
throughout the entire foothill country. Irri
gation is then a necessity to the foothill
farmer, and it can be obtained only through
the enterprise of the hydraulic miners. But
the miners' ditches are necessary for another
purpose. The early miners stripped the earth
train thousands of little valleys and ravines,
and the foothills have been made hideous by
these terrible scars. During the past five
years the foothill fanners have been filling
these ruined depressions with debris obtained
from the miners' ditches, and thousands of
acres have in this way been recovered and
made as useful as any other part of the coun
try. Every year adds to the area of territory
thus rehabilitated, but fifteen years at least
will be required to complete this creative
process. In the judgment of some very able
men, fully competent to give an authoritative
opinion upon this point, a larger area will
have been saved in the next fifteen years by
this process than has been ruined by debris
in the valley.
SHALL WE STOP MINISO
And arrest thia recuperative process ? States
men will hesitate a long while before answer
ing this question in the affirmative. Ex
tensive activity in mining is essential to foot
hill farming in another way. In the inception
of this kiwi of farming a convenient customer
is absolutely necessary. All foothill farmers
begin operations on a small scale, and for two
or three years they are unable to make ship
ments to distant points. In the meantime
they make both ends meet by selling their
products to the miners. Thus the miners
help to put the struggling foothill farmer
upon his legs. The miner also encourages
teaming, general commerce, and many
branches of manufacturing opon a small
scale, and this in turn helps the farmer by
providing him with other home customers.
The miner also assists the struggling f.-irmer
to sustain schools, and these in their turn
invite additional husbandmen. And thus we
discover that the hydraulic miner is the essen
tial foundation upon which alone prosperity
can be achieved in the foothills. But there
i< a still broader outlook in this direction. In
the future quartz and drift mining will furn
i.-h the bulk of our bullion, and do it, too, in
a manner wholly inoffensive. But the min
ing here referred to will never be extensively
developed until we have a large farming pop
ulation in the foothills. Then an abundant
population will furnish cheap sustenance,
cheaper labor, capital, and young men of spe
cial aptitude who can and wiil devote them
selves to quartz and drift mining. Besides,
farmers will, in thomAds of instances, de
vote a portion of their unoccupied time to
these kinds of mining ; a ,,d these interests
will react upon fanning and establish foothill
fanning upon a permanent and profitable
bacu ; but this outcome cannot be realized
unless we continue hydraulic mining If we
stop hydraulic mining now, we will destroy
all these industries and prevent the futuie de
vtlopraent of the foothill couutry. The foot
hill farmers, whose invMtmenti now reach
many millions of dr liars, will be suddenly
ruined, and that, too, without remedy We
will not only ruin this clasa of citizens who
are working miracles of industry foot the' good
of the State, but we will create endless feuds
Already we begin to hear the mutterings of
A COMING STORM,
| And the writer of this article has heard many
| sober, quiet, industrious foothill farmers de
j clare that they would raise an army arid shoot
| down in their tracks all who would undertake
Ito stop the operations of the miners. Let us
I now consider the full extent of the evil that
i would accrue from a stoppage of hydraulic
I mining, bearing in mind all the time the fact
already demonstrated that the foothills as a
rule are wholly dependent upon hydraulic
mining for water for irrigating purposes. The
toothill region of which we speak extends
along the Sierra Nevada mountains a distance
of 350 miles. A strip twenty miles in width
possesses a semi-tropical climate, the exact
equivalent of the Sacramento valley, in
which can be produced any and everything
I that man needs. In this strip there are
4 -ISO. OOO acres .of ' land. Of this land
480,000 acres is unsuitable for cultivation
cause of its precipitous character. To be on
the safe side we will Bay that there are
1,480.000 acres of precipitous land, and we
have then a residue of 300,000 acres of good
land. And we must bear in mind that the
foothill land differs from the valley land in
that none of it is — it is more evenly good.
Every acre of the number mentioned can be
made as valuable as the land about Newcas
tle and Auburn, upon which diligent farmers
are now growing rich. Then again, we have
another strip of twenty miles higher up,
equally good, though not adapted to semi
tropical fruits. That land, however, will be,
and is now, preferred by many, and it will
produce all that is really needed. We have,
then, C,0C0,000 acres of magnificent foothill
land that is wholly dependent upon hydraulic
mining for irrigation, and the impulse neces
sary to its development. Now let us see
what can be done with this vast area.
IN THE FOOTHILLS
Fifty acres is a large farm, and more cannot
Be cultivated by one farmer with profit. We
have then in this area 120,000 farms, or more
probably 200,000, as the majority will not
exceed thirty acres. Each farm will support
; five persons, which at the lowest estimate
; will give a farming population of 500,000, aad
I a mining, commercial and manufacturing
i population of 300,000, making a total of 800,
--000. These are, however, the lowest esti
mates, and a more reasonable calculation will
give us in the same area 1,2C0,000 of popula
tion. We have already a foothill population
of 60,000, and it is rapidly increasing. In
creased healthf comfort in living
and scenery attracts thousands to the foot
hills, and the immigration of the futuie
I will be mainly towards that regior.
- i The consummation looked for may not come
for many years, but we are building for all
time, and, must consider what will come
in the next half century. But all these
splendid results must depend wholly upon
hydraulic mining, and that must be sustained
until we can produce a foothill population
able to take its place and command the water
sources. We thus place the teeming inter
ests of 0,000,000 acres of agricultural land,
■ j and nearly 1,000,000 of agriculturists on the
side of the hydraulic miner. L"t no man
say hereafter that we have in the great con
flict the agriculturist on one side and the
"ephemeral miner "on the other. The fu
ture welfare of one-third of the arable land
of the State is involved in the solution of the
I great problem, and the magnitude of their
interests commands careful investigation.
*
DESCRIPTION OF BARGION'S COMPOUND
RAIL.
The advantages claimed in the improve
ment are as follows : The r»il is made in two
part<*. The upper rail is made of steel, and
in shape is the same as the T-rail now in use,
'with the exception that it has no base. The
bottom rail is made of iron, with two upright
flanges or w.ii;-, with the iniside faces angled,
forming a level groove or canal, the upper
rail having its web or tongue made to corre
spond with the groove formed by the upright
flanges or wall of the lower rail, so
that when the tongue or web of the upper
rail is placed between the two upright flanges
or walls of the lower rail it is made to till the
space between them, and extends down to
within half an inch of the bottom, so that
the lower edge of the tongue or web will not
come in contact with the bottom of the
groove in the lower rail. The upper steel
T-rail when put in place is supported by
having its bearing upon the upper edgea of
the flanges or walls of the lower rail,
preventing the rocking of the same,
and it ia made to lap the ends
of the lower rail to any distance that
may be required to break joints, and when
bolted together forms a strong, continuous
compound rail, not liable to get out of
place. Another 'advantage claimed for Bar
ton's compound rail is that the breaking
of the upper rail wiil not cause a car to be
thrown from the track, as the breaking of the
upper rail only makes another joint. It is
impossible to break the lower rail or for the up
per rail to leave its place, thereby avoiding
many accidents that take place with
the rails now in use. The lower rail
having two flanges or weba, it will sustain
twice the horizontal strain of the single
T-rail. It will readily be seen that when thia
compound rail is put together, the
tongue of the upper rail and the flinges of
the lower rail form a complete truss, giving
it great strength to withstand wear anil
tear without being lialile to get out of
place. After my compound rail is laid, the
lower or bed rail will not have to be dis
turbed, which saves the drawing of spikes,
and avoids splitting of ties. My rail being
compound, and not having any dead joints,
does away with the great labor of tamp
ing up low joints. The rail being made
in two parts, the upper part only
requires renewal when broken or worn
out, and it is only half the weight of the rail
now in use. Railroads with this compound
rail can be kept in good running order with
one-half the number of track men that
are now employed to keep the common T-rail
now in use, making a saving of many thou
sand dollars yearly to railroad companies.
In renewing a worn-out or broken rail all
that has to be done i.- to take out eight bolts,
the labor being done in half the time that it
would take to draw all the spikes and
re-tpike, as required for the rail now in
use. My compound rail being continuous,
and no dead joints to pass over, it will read
ily lif seen that trains can run at a higher rate
of speed, with much less wear and tear
to rolling stock, and with more safety to the
traveling public, than with the T-rail now in
use. These great advantages will enable rail
road companies to meet the great want of the
clamoring public with cheaper rates of fare
and freights. It is a well-known fact that the
great progress in railroads for trie last thirty
years has brought out many valuable im
provements, but nothing has been done for
the rail, only from iron to steel, and from
chair to what is called fish bar rails. It in
also a well-known fact that the weight of en
gines and cars have very much increased, and
that the rail now in use is not strong enough
to make railroad travel as safe as it should be.
The space in the bottom rail is utilized for tele
graph purposes. By lay ing a cable in the bottom
groove it will be seen that the telegraph cable
is well protected and cannot get out of order,
giving at all times a sure communication. It
is a well -known fact that most of the
telegraph companies in Europe are now put
tin™ their telegraph lines under ground. My
rail being well adapted to meet the require
ments of telegraph companies, and, at the
same time, being a better, stronger,
Bafer and cheaper rail than the T
rail now in use, my improved rail
being compound and continuous, having
no dead joints to be passed over it, will en
able railroad companies that adopt it to run
much f»nter with safety and at the same time
carry freights at much less per ton than can
be carried on the T-rail now in une.
P. Barcion, Patentee.
" How do you like me now ?" asked a
belle of her spouse, as she sailed into the
room with a sweeping train of muslin fol
lowing her. "Well," said he, "to tell
the truth, it is impossible for me to like
you any longer."
A Moliere Society has been established
in Vienna.

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