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Sacramento daily record-union. (Sacramento [Calif.]) 1875-1891, March 06, 1880, Image 4

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THE DAILY RECORD-UNION.
-SATURDAY.. MAKdI .6, I so.
: The San Francisco office of the Daily Record
«ad Weekly Union is at 20S Montgomery street.
THE WEEKLY UNION.
The Weekly Ckios now contains the current chap
tern of Farjeon's great story, " Set in a Silver Sea."
The Weekly -Unos is an invaluable news, business
&nd family journal, and has no equal on the coast
lor the variety, fullness and high character of Its
contents. It contains all late telegraphic and ex
change news, editorial comment on a'l current
topics of moving interest, reviews of recent publi
cations, agricultural editorials and selections, house
bold and puzzle departments, art, scientific, re
ligious and educational departments. It gives r»°
uographie reports of both houses of the Legisla
ture, and running reports of legislative committee
proceedings. Beside, it presents home, Eastern and
foreign correspondence, and all the latest European,
Eastern and Congre-sional news. Pi r variety, ex
cellence and economy of price it has no equal among
weekly papers. It is issued in semi-weekly parts, of
-eight pages each. Pi year, *2.
NEWS OF THE MORNING.
Is New York yesterday Government bonds were
quoted at 10«J for 43 of 1907; 10: i', tor 5a of 1881 ;
166 for 4Js; sterling, $4 Ss@i S8 ; silver bare,
113j ; silver coin, t discount buying, par selling.
Barn in London yesterday, Sid; consols,
ST 1".-16; 5 percent. United States bonds, 106;
is, 109J ; 4}s, 110 J.
Ix San Francisco half dollars are quoted at par
Mexican dollars, DO buying, 91J selling.
At Liverpool yesterday wheat was quoted at 10s
7<l " is i l for average California white, aud 119 Id
to 116 7d for club.
As assessment of M cents lias been levied by the
Seal del Monte Minim,' Company.
Tub variations in mining values at the Stock Board
in San Francisco yesterday morning were of little
Importance, and correctly given only In fractions'
The tone of the market in most cases was weaker,
and there ma a decline of 10c to 7. ; cm the majority
•f the Corns!
Tiik scaling 1 season has commenced on the north
ern coast.
The cold weather sti I prevails in upper British
-Columbia.
Mill and covered bridge burned at Bar Mills, Me.
A violent "ale occurred in Ohio, Indiana and Ken
tucky yesterday morning, doing much damage to
property and causing the loss of several lives.
Two men were killed and a number wounded at
Watertown, N. V., in an iron mine. ■
Tub Treasury Department yesterday purchased
161,000 ounces of silver.
At'GCSTt'B Puoert accidentally shot and killed
himself "ii Sandy river, in Oregon, Thursday.
The would be assassin of General Mehkoff was
executed at St. Petersburg yesterday, in the presence
of .ni immense concou-se of people.
I.v order to afford Bismarck relief from his ardu
ous duties. Count Yon Stalberg Wemigrode is to
be appointed Prussian Premier.
All danger of general starvation in Ireland now
Seems to have passed. *
Kooer li. Coxaxt was yesterday sentenced at Bos
ton to seven years' imprisonment for embezzlement.
A steamship from New York to Liverpool lost
• rboard seventy bead of cattle on the voyage.
Tub New York Republican State Committee has
efaosen Chester A. Arthur as Chairman.
[boh ore is being shipped from the McCloud
river, near the United States Fishery, to San Fran
«isco.
The evidence is a!l in at tlkiah in the case of
Brown, one of the Hendodno outlaws, on trial for
murder.
Finn at San Bernardino.
A shock of earthquake was experienced at San
Bernardino Thursday night.
The case of the North Noonday Mining Company
against the Orient Mining Company was concluded
at San Francisco yesterday with a verdict for plain
tiff.
Charles Colet was banged at Santa Cruz yester
terday for the murder of Harry Williams.
Fekemax Griititii was found frozen to death near
Trtukee last evening.
For insulting President Grevy and Waddington, ■
l*aris newspaper has been fined 1,000 francs.
li is possible that a crack French regiment will
visit this country on the occasion of the centennial
•celebration of the surrender of Yorktown.
Till! winter wheat crop in portions of Wisconsin
is pronounced a failure.
The Chilean fleet has attacked Arica, Peru.
There is at present $45,000,000 woith of gold
i ullion in the New York Assay Office.
Tiik death of Commodore Isaiah Ilanscom, U. S.
X ., is announced from Washington.
As explosion of fire-damp at East Nanticoke, Pa.,
yesterday, caused the death of several miners.
Bt a boiler explosion in Glasgow, Scotland, Thurs
day, six persons were killed and thirty severely in
jured.
Tue usual quantity of excellent reading matter,
including the regular weekly departments, will be
found this morning on the inside pages of the
Ekoord-C.mos.
In the State Senate yesterday the Article on Reve
nue and Taxation was completed. There was a lively
. passage at arms between Senators Zuek and Pardee,
in relation to the passage of Assembly Bill No. 404.
Senator Pardee demanded an investigation, and the
■tatter will be brought before the Senate to-day.
i Is the Assembly yesterday a good day's work was
accomplished, forty bills on the third reading file
having been disposed of.
CONFUSING EFFECTS OF AUTHORITY.
We are inclined to think that the State
Library has not been an unmixed blessing
to our legislative bodies, and that it has
«<>iitributednot a little to befog the question
of revenue and taxation which has lately
occupied so large a share of the session.
If the present Legislature, or better still
the Constitutional Convention, could have
been taken where there were no State
libraries to refer to, and had been left to
•hisel out a Constitution with no other aid
than the old instrument, experience and
eomnion sense, we are impressed with a con
viction that the result would have been
Tery much more satisfactory than in fact it
was. And we think, too, that if the present
Legislature could have been delarred access
to the authorities, it would have reached a
much more intelligent and equitable so
lution of the tax question. For it has not
now to be discovered that "a little knowl
"edge is a dangerous thing, " and men
who come here without any previous train
iag and then undertake to deal with
kigh questions of economics by un
discriminating study of all sorts of
■writers, are tolerably sure to become at
once confused and conceited. Nothing is
easier than to find precedents and authori
ties for anything. The difficulty is to
select those authorities which are trust
worthy because they proceed upon well
sustained principles. To the uninformed
amateur economist one theory is as good
as anether. He cannot distinguish
between Mill and Carey, between Mal
thus and Wallace. All arguments seem
to him equally respectable, and he possesses
bo means of forming an intelligent judg
ment. The consequence is that he brings i
no rational convictions to his task, but is
swayed by prejudice or deceived by falla
«ies, and may as likely as not advocate
some doctrine which has been exploded for I
a generation by all civilized communities.
Whereas, had he trusted altogether to his
native sense, he would very probably have I
perceived the fallacies proposed to him, and
be would then have had no hesitation in
acting upon a judgment which would have
appeared to him sufficiently well grounded.
And the la9t named method of procedure
•would have been safer for the State than
ike first.
THE NEW EDUCATIONAL BILL.
We have received the school law which
has been agretd upon by both legislative
committees, and have examined it. The
Eramen of the new educatioual system
have labored under very great disabilities,
owing to the miserably perverse and in
adequate provisions of the new Constitu
tions on this su!>ject. That instrument,
indeed, has made it impossible to devise a
system of education at all commensurate
with the requirements of the community,
and if it dots not prove a failure altogether,
through the want of harmony and coher
it will be no merit of the Constitu
tion. The in w la"' v appears to us to be
carefully drawn and as comprehensive as
the circumstauces will permit, though we
are not clear that it would have been alto
r impossible to provide in it for some
reflection of that better method of edacs
tion which is taking root in advanced
communities. We have said that the new
school law may be as good as the Constitu
tion allow?, but this is not saying that it is
factory school law. In fact it is not.
Even supposing the difficulty about uni
formity of text- books could be sur
mounted (and this is a consti
tutional, not a statute stumbling
block), we have here neither more
nor lass than a scheme reproducing in all
essentials that which it is to replace. Of
coulee it the latter be a good scheme, this
arrangement ought to be satisfactory. But
the latter is not a good scheme, ami it is
so far from being good that in moat regards
it must be set down as a, failure. The pub
lic schools to-day are doing very much lest
to educate the people than most men real
ize. The instruction they afford is not, as
a rule, of a kind calculated to be useful in
after life. Far too much stress is placed
upon parrot-learning of rules which the
pupils neither comprehend nor remember.
In the primary schools, v here the instruc
tion ought to be most careful, it is least so.
The most inexperienced teachers are set
over the most important schools. Tne en
trance to the educational course is thus
beset with pitfalls for the scholar, and the
rudiments being ill-learned, a bad founda
tion is laid for all that follows. It
appears to us that some effort might
have been made to recognize and enforce
the importance of specially careful
primary instruction in this bill.
All that we tiud here, however, is a clause
forbidding the granting of a teacher's cer
tificate to anyone uiider IS years of age.
I And this is not a reasonable proposition,
for if an applicant under 18 is capable of
passing the necessary examination, he or she
is certainly fitted for the office of teacher
I according to the only standard whicli the
law recognizes, namely intellectual attain
ments. There can be no good object to be
gained by excluding persons solely on the
ground of youth. It is conceivable that
some people may be as well informed at
eighteen as others are at oue-and-twenty.
The ability to stand the test examination
is really the only proof of competency which
ought to be recognized. Indeed this pro
vision strikes us as being superfluous. We
should like to see in place of it some mdi
cation that the framers of this bill have
given any thought to the Quincy methods
of teaching, and that they realize the
superiority of those methods to tho ones
which have hitherto obtained in Cali
fornia.
A good provision of the bill is to the
effect that two members of every Board of
Education shall be teachers. We are not
i sure that it would not have been still better
to have put three teachers on the Board, as
the County Superintendent is not (neces
sarily) a teacher himself, and as he and the
two lay members of the Board can under
the proposed arrangement always outvote
the educational members. It is, we think,
also evident that the County and City Su
perintendents ought always to be teachers,
To the extent that they are uot teachers
they must hamper and impede the progress
of the schools, no matter how energetic
and earnest they may be. It is unbusi
nesslike to put untrained men in positions
demanding special training, and the notion
of keeping the schools in the control of
the people by this means is too crude
to be put forward seriously any
longer. If we want a thoroughly good
educational system we must put thorough
ly trained men in all its departments,
and not until we do that shall
we succeed in bringing the schools up to
the required standard of efficiency. It
is even more necessary that the schools
should be in the hands of trained teachers
in the rural than in the urban districts, for
there the chances of finding educated
men to put on the Boards of "Education
must necessarily be smaller than in the
cities, and so the danger of absolutely bad
methods of instruction must be the greater.
Section SO of the new bill provides that
"no person whose husband, father, broth
"er, uncle or cousin is a member of a
" Boar 4of District Trustees or City Board
"of Education, shall hereafter be eligible
" for election as teacher in such district or
"city, and no County Superintendent shall
" draw a warrant for the salary of any
"teacher so elected." At first sight this
seems a righteous precaution against ne
potism, but reflection will show that it en
tails not a little hardship upon those who
may be unfortunate enough to be related in
any of the affinities described, to Trustees
I or members of the Board of Kduoation.
We are also tempted to inquire whether
the adoption of such a clause doea not
imply a very serious doubt of the probity
I with which examinations not only are, but
j will hereafter be, conducted ? Obviously
j if the examiners are honest no such ques
tion of relationship can affect the standing
of candidates. Is it really necessary to
take for granted the normal dishonesty of
Examiners in this way ? It may be a
simple mode of preventing favoritism, but
to our thinking it savors far too much of
the Oriental receipt for preventing in- j
triguea against a reigning sovereign by kill- I
ing all his relatives when he mounts the ]
j throne. Under this law the appointment ]
I or election of any citizen District Trustee
or member of a Board of Education, dis
qualifies his kinsfolk for election as teachers
lin such district or city. The constitu
tionality of such an arrangement is open
to grave doubt, and its ethical justification
i appears to us singularly defective. If citi
zens cannot be trusted without prohibitory
clauses of this kind, they cannot be trusted
with them.
The Constitutional provision which gives
to every county the right of choosing its
own text-books, in utter indifference to the
system pursued elsewhere, vitiates the
whole educational scheme, as we have re
peatedly pointed out. It is impossible, in
the teeth of that provision, to secure uni
formity in the course of instruction. When
the clause was adopted we showed what
effect it would have, but the Constitutional
Convention was controlled by men whose
ignorance was only surpassed by their ob
stinacy, and so they insisted on rendering
an intelligent educational system impossi
ble in the future. The statute cannot
overcome this difficulty, and nothing
short of a constitutional amendment
will remove it. While it stands in
the Constitution, the common - school
system must be a mere rope of
sand, lacking cohesion and unity, and
capable of being shattered to fragment* at
mv time. The State University is practi
cally isolated under the new Constitution.
The text-book blunder cuts off three
fourths of the counties from the possibility
of utilizing its advantages. This also,
however, is a fault incurable by statute.
A few days ago we suggested the introduc-
tion to the new schoul law of provisions
for the regular inspection of all the schools
in the State, private as well as public.
The reasons for this are apparent. It is
the duty of the State not only to see that
its children are educated, but that they
receive a kind of education calculated to
lit them for the duties of citizenship. Now
it is conceivable that in certain private
schools a course of instruction might
be given which would fail to produce
this eiTect ; which might unfit those
who passed through it for the duties
of citizenship. It is clear tlkat any such
danger would be largely .neutralized by se
curing that publicity which is always the
surest safeguard against methods demand
ing secrecy for their successful operation.
An annual inspection of all the schools by
the State Superintendent, and annual pub
lication in his report of what was taught
in all the schools of the State, would also
tend to bring the public and private schools
into greater harmony, and thus fit them
both to be better preparatory agencies for
the State University. We think this sug
gestion sufficiently important to insist
upon it with same emphasis, and we
specially solicit the attention of educators
to it. There are probably no private
schools in the State the condnctors of
which would not welcome such' an
arrangement gladly, as a new means
of bringing their establishment be
fore the public, and nothing but good re-
suits could possibly flow from the measure.
If, in addition to this, the Legislature will
introduce to the bill some amendments
looking to the securing of more careful
teaching in the primary schools — a neces
sity absolutely indispensable to the inau
guration of any useful reforms — we are in
clined to think that the mo3t will be done
of which the situation is capable. Under
the new Constitution we cannot enjoy a
satisfactory educational system, and there
fore we must endeavor to be satisfied with
the next best thing we can get.
THE IMPORTANCE OF SETTLING THE
DEBRIS QUESTION.
The RbcOKD-UnIOH desires to call the
attention of the public to the importance
of settling the debris question without fur
ther delay. We have believed that the
l';irks bill met the requirement* of the case
more nearly than any other measure which
ha 3 been proposed. We, however, are too
profoundly convinced of the necessity for
remedial action to hazard the failure of all
legislation. Having no further interest in
this matter than that which we share with
the community, it is oir main desire to aid
in the accomplishment of what investiga
tion shows to be necessary. At present
we apprehend the results of discord and
procrastination. Public opinion has thus
far been manifested almost exclusively
in opposition to the measures which
have been brought forward. There
appears to be no harmony any
where as to what ought to be
done. If this state of things continues
much longer the Legislature will adjourn
without having passed any law bearing on
the subject. We are well aware that this
is precisely what is sought by many of the
opponents of the I 'arks bill. It is not so
much that they are opposed to that par
ticular way of treating the question, as
that they are opposed to any way of treat
ing it that will put a stop to litigation.
This, however, is not the interest of the
people. Whether it is the J'arks bill or
any other, it is for the public well-being
that some remedial legislation should
be had at this session. Should
the Legislature adjourn without do
iDg anything, the resort to the
Courts will be the only one left to the
farmers. But even should they be
successful in procuring injunctions against
the hydraulic miners, thej would not be
any the more safe. For it must be real
ized clearly that if these mines all sus
pended working to-morrow, the danger
would remain, the fact being that Miere is
enough debris this side of the mines to
o
complete the work of destruction already
so far on its way. The natural flow of the
rivers muet bring this debris down, and
when it comes, if no preparations have
been made to dispose of it, the farmers
will find litigation useless to prevent the
ruin of their land, and the dwellers along
the rivers will discover that the remedy of
stopping the flow of debris from the mines
was applied too late.
Mr. Will S. Green called attention in
our columns yesterday to the great value
of that river which our people are allowing
to be destroyed before their eyes. The
importance of the Sacramento to the whole
of northern California can scarcely be over
estimated. It has a money value which can
be clearly ascertained by all who take the
pains to examine the question for them
selves. So long as its waters are open to
navigation those who live within reach of
it are guaranteed the low est possible rates
of transportation. The river controls all
the railroads with which it can be made
to compete. Should it cease to be naviga
ble, howerer, not only Sacramento but
Colusa and other towns along its
banks would lose this invaluable pro
tection against high rates of trans
portation. The river acts as a natural
and permanent safeguard in this respect,
but the fact that it must soon cease to
protect the public in this way unless some
thing is done, is as plain as anything open
to the meanest comprehension. Mr. Green
estimates that the river navigation saves
the farmers of Colusa county not less than
-?200,000 a year. What it saves Sacra
mento can be judged from this. But
this saving is now in process of being
eliminated. It is not only that the
navigation of the river is endan
gered. It is being destroyed more
and more rapidly every day and
month. We cannot say that another
year of inaction would not suffice
to produce absolutely irremediable injury,
for it must be remembered that as the
upper part of the channel is being raised
the fastest, the advance of the coarser
debris to the lower part must become
quicker and quicker, and the damage
therefore be cumulative. The engineers
believe that five years will complete the
work of destruction, but the time actually
required may be much shorter, and when
the work is done it will be too late to think
of applying remedies, for there will be
nothing to save or to reclaim, The need
of action, and harmonious action, at this
time, is consequently most urgent.
What is now required is the union of
public sentiment upon some practical
scheme of relief. It must he a comprehen
sive scheme, or it will be of no avail. It
must meet the danger both in the mount
ains and in the plains. It must be iv the
hands of skilled and tried engineers.
These are the principal requirements.
Nor can we too strongly insist on the fact
that it is not enough to impound the de
bris in the mountains. Sue!' a plan cannot
affect that great mass of debris which has
already left the mines, and is therefore be
yond the influence of dams or reservoirs.
But prompt action oi&ght to be the watch
word of the hour, and none should be de
ceived into furthering the schemes of those
interested parties whose only aim is to
prevent practical legislation of any kind.
Meetings to oppose the Turks hill have
been held, and resolutions liave been ful
minated against that measure. That kind
of negative action Is admirably adap
ted to hinder remedial action, but it only
tends to break up publics sentiment into
small discordant sections. What the pub
lic want is manifestly what has been shown
to be necessary for their protection. Xo
legislation whatever can be had which will
not cost sometl ing, and it' the people are
going to oppose every proposition on the
ground of expense, the rivers and the
bottom lands ' will be ruined together
while those whose destinies depend on
their preservation are bickering over
a penny-wise and pound-foolish pol
icy. Nothing can be done without
union. Nothing can be done unless the
public resolve to make up their minds
upon what they are willing to support, and
cease wasting time in merely obstructive
action. We have endeavored to show
what the situation demanded. We have
expressed the opinion that the Parks bill,
with some animdments (among which we
must place a provision for securing the
control of her own levees to Sacramento),
is the most practical and comprehensive
plan yet offered. If the people do not agree
with us, let them say what kind of bill
tluy do want, remembering all the time
that the emergency calls for Kmt legisla
tion, and that apathy nic;ui3 ruin to all
concerned.
TREATMENT OF THE INSANE.
In the last number of the International
Review Dr. Hammond has an article on
the treatment of the insane, in which he
asserts that we are behind all other civilized
countries in this matter. He states that the
use of restrictive agencies, which has long
been completely abandoned in the asylums
of England and the Continent generally, is
still retained in most, if not all, the asy
lums of the United States. His most
curious assertion, however, is that Ameri
can Superintendents of Insane Asylums
hold • a theory that though non-restraint
may do very well in Europe, it is impossi
ble here, because of climatic and physical
differences. "Thus," he says, "at a
" meeting of the Association of Superin
tendents, Dr. Wilkins,. the President,
"gravely told his fellow-members that he
"supposed if anything had been settled to
" the satisfaction of members of this As
sociation, it is that in this country our
"patients, by original temperament, or by
"some inherent quality of the universal
"Yankee, will not submit to the control
"of any person they consider their equal
"or inferior so readily as to that of me
"chanical appliances." Dr. Bucknill was
very much surprised atithis kind of argu
ment, the more so as he remembered that
it had been used in England and France
and Germany before. To the observer of
American progress, or indeed of any pro
gress, it will, however, not seem astonish
ing. For is it not the familiar argument with
which politicians and amateur economists
have sought to rally patriotic imbecility to !
the standards 'of fossilism and fallacy, lo
these many years? When Mr. Pig-iron
Kelly tells us that though Free Trade has
made England great, yet it would not do
[ for America because there are special dif
ferences in the situation of the countries';
when Mr. De La Matyr tells us that though
irredeemable paper has proved a disastrous
fallacy everywhere else, yet it is the very
best kind of money for the United States ;
when the" Chicago Tribune declares that
though the law of (iresham has always op
erated everywhere else, yet in this country
there is no ground for apprehending that
an inferior currency would drive out a su
perior one; when the • "Stalwarts" tell
us that though Civil Service Reform an
swers admirably in England, it is not cal
culated for these latitudes ; when any
quack or demagogue comes forward to ad
vocate some ' nostrum .whose worthlessness
has been exposed over and over again, in
short, he is sure to employ the formula
which the Associated Superintendents ap
pear to have adopted so naturally and inno
cently. In effect the argument is the last
refuge of beaten toryisni. When every
reason fails, and the badness of an old
method and the goodness of ". a', new
one stand . demonstrated, it ii the almost
inevitable ] subterfuge of the advocates of
fossilism.' . Of course it has no more founda
tion in fact in the case of the insane than it
has in any other regard. »'. American ' luna
tics are as other lunatics, neither more nor
less violent. They are in every respect as
capable of restraint ; without violence or
mechanical appliances as , are the people of
any other country, : and it may safely be
concluded that the real : motive of ;' those
who ' contend < for * the fossil ' view iis; to
save trouble in ; increased attendance.
We ' are, however, ; specially : interested in
this matter, because we wish to know how
our own Superintendents, . Drs. * Shurtleff
and Wilkins, stand on the general proposi
tion. We have had reason to 'believe that
in the treatment of ' the \ insane California
was fully abreast of the age. ' Dr. Ham
mond, however, impeaches the Superin
tendents of every American asylum, and
therefore we think some explanation on the
subject would be seasonable. The princi
ple of non-restraint is so thoroughly vindi
cated by practice in Europe that no other
system can now be regarded as having any
KMMM it'ttre, and we should consequently
be pleased to learn that the California asy
lums are conducted on this method.
THE REPUBLICANS IN THE LEGISLA
TURE.
We desire to suggest to the Republicans
in t.he Legislature the apparently obvious
consideration that they were not sent here
to set up an opposition to Kearneyism in
the demagogic line, and that they would
never have been elected had not the peo
ple believed that they would pursue a con
servative policy. We should have thought
that the most purblind politician couui see
that the disastrous effects of Kearneyism,
as illustrated both in and out of the new
Constitution, must in the near future ren
der that kind of policy thoroughly odious
to the voters of California. Depend upon
it, the Sandlotti rs have had their day, and
those who desire to escape the judgment
that will be visited upon them by an in
jured and outraged community must avoid
taking them for a pattern. It is a fact of
which we have ample evidence that a very
strong and growing sentiment of disgust
is being engendered by the tendency of
a&ny Republican members to demagogum.
Of these men, who were elected expressly
that they might counteract the communis
tic elemtnt, not a few have seemed ambi
tious to emulate the reckless legislation of
the Sandlotters. As the Republican party
will be held responsible for the legislation
of this winter, and as it is of the utmost
importance that the party should be able to
enter the approaching campaign with a
strong record, the danger of slieh coquet
ries is very considerable. For some time
to come public attention in this State must
be directed to the restoration of confidence
and the elimination of communism, and
the party which affords the strongest
guarantees against the evils which have
almost paralyzed the community, will then
be the favorite. If the Republican mem
bers possess any sagacity they will trim
their sails accordingly. Nothing is to be
gained by a rivalry in demagogism with the
Kearneyites, but very much is to be
jeopardized by such a programme.
THE NEED OF A STATE CONSTABULARY.
The other day, at Anaheim, seven
masked men rode up to a store, bound and
gagged all who were in it. and rode off
with the contents of the safe, consisting of
several hundred dollars. It is probable
that these robbers will escape capture, be
cause the local authorities are not stronc
enough to take up the pursuit. Had
the State Constabulary law been in
operation, however, trained and picked
men would have been on the trail of
the robbers before now, and "they would
have been followed wherever they went
until they were brought to bay and
taken. So long as there is no spe
cial force available for dealing with
bold crimes like this, they will
continue, and the smaller villages and
settlements must always be exposed to
such sudden raids. It is to be hoped that
the Legislature will realize the necessity
of such a police force as has been pro
posed. The State cannot afford to let the
list of unpunished crimes which have been
committed within the past few years go
abroad as an evidence alike of her barbar
ism and stolidity. No community can
prosper which neglects the paramount
duty of protecting the lives and property
of its citizens. Hitherto we have had
much more regular taxation than protec
tion. It is time the duty of the Govern
ment was recognized, anil we know of no
way by which it can be more effectively
performed in this connection than by the
creation of the proposed State Constabu
lary.
A NIHILIST MANIFESTO.
What purports to be a Nihilist manifesto
has been published. It justifies the recent
attempt to blow np the Czar and the
Imperial family, and announces that de
signs against his life will not be abandoned
until he abdicates, or grants a Constitution.
Thare is another contingency which the
Nihilists do not seem to have considered,
anil that is the contingency of his death in
consequence of the success of one of their
pints. Should he be killed it is quite out
of the question to suppose that his suc
cessor would grant aConstitution, and should
he abdicate the Nihilists would be no
better off than at present. It seem?,
however, that they have at last male
something like a definite statement as
to what they want. It is, a Constitu
tion. The Czar might easily give them
one which would prove of very little
use to them. He might reasonably ask
what kind of a Constitution they want,
and we venture to say that such a question
would not be easily answered, since it is
very doubtful whether they have really
gone so far as to formulate a clear policy.
The cry of "a Constitution," however,
serves them as a pretense, and evidently
they do not intend to hesitate for more
plausible watchwords. Their vagueness
and uncertainty of purpose make it the
more difficult to deal with them, and the im
placable fierceness of their pursuit renders
the position of the Czar intolerable. If
they do not succeed in blowing him up or
shooting him, they will yet kill him
through his nervous system.
THE CHINESE QUESTION AT WASH
INGTON.
A Washington dispatch states that the
settlement of the Chinese question there
has been very much embarassed by the
turbulent proceedings ot the San Francisco
Kearneyites. Public opinion at the East,
which was almost prepared to accept the
California view of the Chinese question,
has suffered a reaction, and the Federal
Government has taken alarm at what it is
disposed to interpret as an attempt at
intimidation. There is nothing surprising
in this news. In fact, it is the only in
telligence that could have reasonably
been expected. The Sandlottere have clone
their very best to prevent the accomplish
ment of any good for themselves by
their foolish threats and bluster. They have
given the Chinese question a set-back at
Washington which our representatives feel
already, aud it is to be feared that a good
deal of the work of persuasion will have to
be done all over again, in consequence. If
this kind of programme is pursued much
lenger by the Kearneyitea it will have to
be concluded that they do not really desire
the Chinese to go, after all their demonstra
tions, for it is very certain that they have
thus far taken the best possible methods to
prevent the Government from entering into
any negotiations with China for that pur
pose.
PACIFIC SLOPE NEWS.
DISPATCHES OP LAST NIGHT.
THE DIATH PxSALT? LNrLICTED.
Charles Colby Hanged at Santa Cruz for
Mulder.
PASSENGERS FSOM THE EAST BT RAIL.
Man Found Frozen to Death near the Town
of Truckse.
ok: GOH a\i> wa->hix«;tox tekisitokt
Continued Severity of the Weather in
British Columbia.
< ALIHHEMA.
A Slight Wl-.:!pi>ri'!i<nvion- Vrrillet for
r-ni.-ilill" of -Sale* of Silver— Assess
ment.
San Francisco, March sth.— The follow
ing is a copy of a telegram received to-day by
William 1". Babcook, President of the Cham
ber of Commerce :
Nkw Orleaks, March 4, ISBO.
William F. Baboocic, President Chamber of Com
merce, San Franciscn : Labor can be had in sugar,
cotton and rice-fields of Louisiana for large num
bers of Chinese. We surest, if transportation is
being furnished to get them out of San Francisco,
that they be sum to New urlcin*.
CYRUS SUBSET,
Presidf nt Chamber of Commerce.
WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM,
President New Orleans Cotton Exchange.
The gentlemen signing the telegram are
evidently laboring under a misapprehension
that San Francisco is paying the expenses of
these Chinese emigrants.
The trial of the case of the North Noon
day Mining Company vs. the Orient Mining
Company, which has occupied the United
States Circuit Court since the 10th ultimo,
has been concluded. The case was given to
the jury yesterday afternoon. They came
into Court this morning with a verdict in
favor of plaintiff, and assess the damages at
SI. The action was brought to recover 85,000
damages for ore removed from plaintiff's
ground.
The Nevada Bank has sold 50,000 ounces
of hue silver to the San Francisco Mint, at
the equivalent of oljd. The Mint also pur
chased '20,000 ounces from another source on
the same terms.
The Keal del Monte Mining Company has
levied an assessment of 50 cents, delinquent
April 10th. '
Primaries Dune Away With.
San FraHOISCO, March sth.— The Repub- |
lican Cuuuty Committee this evening -lecided
to appoint delegates to the State Convention
| to be held in April, thus doing away with
primaries.
— ■
The Death reunify— i:\prntiou or Charles
Colby at Sauta Cruz.
Santa Crcz, March sth.— ln conform
ity with the order of the Supreme
Court, Charles Colby was executed at
Santa Cruz to-day at 2 i: M. A vast
concourse was present to witness the
execution, numbering some 1,500 persons.
The execution passed off peaceably ami
quietly, Colby apparently the least excited of
any in the crowd. His neck was not broken,
owing to the slipping of the rope, and he
consequently died by slow strangulation, his
chest heaving in regular intervals for some
twelve minutes. Otherwise he showed no
struggles. The following was left by Colby
for publication :
Pasta Crfz, March 5, 1-- ■.
To the People of the State of C:t ifornia— Friends :
I have been illegally aiid unjustly executed upon
perjured testimony and the fraudulent administra
tion of the Courts. My conviction was to all apnesr
ance premeditated, in order to cater to the depraved
nature of the turbulent mob element of this com
munity. I was not aware that I had committed a
crime, if self-defense is legitimate. The witnesses
stand branded before society, the angel world and
the Divine Deity as perjurers, as they furnished the
basis for my unjust persecution. 1 was misrepre
sented and improperly defended by attorneys, from
which an over ambitious prosecution and an over
zealous jury took their cue. With compassion I for
give, knowing that retributive justice wil is time
overtake all concerned Your Ignorance and blind
ness has been your weakness, for which you are to
be pitied. Knowing the judiciaries are -Dupa
ble of d'stinguishing right from wrong, and
as a compensation for the injustice done me, I
beg yon from henceforth and forever to abolish that
relic of barlrtirism— capital punishment. It belongs
to an age long since past and gone, especially as
there are some men so morally depraved as to have no
regard for the sacred natui eof an oath. As long I s
such a state of affairs continues, so long will the
temple of justice be defiled and tie Con imbrue
themselves in innocent blood. Commit no judicial
murders, for the deathless love of freedom, the ma
jesty of right in all kindred and all nations is rising
in its might, and words el solemn warning come from
the oppressd, if righteous blood be seed. Rush not
blindly on the future. Heed the lessons of the past,
for the feebl.'.ind the faithful are the conquerors
at last. If my unjust sacrifice has been the means
of benefiting humanity in forever abolishing an un
just law, I shall feel greatly compensated. l earn
estly thank ex -chief Justice Wallace for so elabo
■ rately dis.enting from the decision, ther by proving
that he possessed judicial inspiration. With sincere
thanks t > Mrs. Clara S. Foltz for her earnest and
zealous labors in mv behalf.
CHARLES COLBY. ,
Santa CRrz, March 5, 1880.
To Charles Miller : ■ Let this ever haunt your
memory, until you exonerate my character before
the world. You cannot in \ our conscience deny that
after I stepped back to escape, Williams quickly pur
sued, graspini: a dish from the table ; that I shouted
to him, "-top! (top! stop!" 1 again sought to
escape, when he again sprang after me, overtook
me across the room, when I stamped my foot hard
on the floor, shouting to him, " Don't you do it;"
that 1 caught up my cue, and also shouted to him in
a stern, commanding way, "No; don't you do
that;" but that he still would not (least. When
the Chinaman scooped in all the knives, Williams,
seeing himself di-appoiuted, grasped the pistol. All
this yen both saw and heard, but withhe d it in
your statement before that over-zealous jury.
CHAKLKS COLBY. -
About 11 o'clock A. M. Colby gent word to
the County Clerk that he had a last request
to make, and wished it placed on file in the
office, as follows :
Know all men by these presents : I, Charles Col
by, of the county of Santa Cruz, State of California,
believing that 1 am to be executed this day, and de
siring that after my death my body may rest in
peace, do make this mv last request and solemn pro
test, and ask that my body may be decently buried,
and forever remain so, anil that no mutilation or ex
amination of my body be permitted, in the interest
of science or otherwise. ■ CHARLES COLBY.
Santa Cruz. March 5, IS3O.
The above was' written in a bold, firm,
round hand. .
AsaaHHlnation at San Unfurl.
San Rafael, I larch sth.— At 8 o'clock
this evening a Chinaman named Ah Ling,
while buying cigars from a China itoic in
Chinatown' was shot at twice by Ah Jim.
One ball took effect in the arm, the other in
i the groin. The wounds will prove fatal. The
assassin fled, but the officers are on his track.
Found Frozen to Death.
Trickef, March — Truman Griffith
was found frozen to death about half a mile
from thin place this evening. Deceased wag
the owner of a small farm near Campbell's
Hot Springs, Lake Tali c He started from
the lake Wednesday afternoon. A severe j
snow-storm prevailed at the time. His horse i
became exhausted, and was found dead about
a mile from where Griffith was found.
Griffith had evidently started for town, and
losing the road became exhausted, took off
hi* coat to protect the horse, and crawled one !
hundred yards, npon his hands and knees.
Deceased was the putative husband of the
abandoned woman, Jennie Stanley, who was
found frozen to death in a brothel here two
months ago. She was the adopted daughter
of a Methodist Episcopal minister.
Shipment of. Iron '■ Ore— Branch Normal
: Srboiil Wanted. * ?
Redding, March ; sth. — There was shipped
from here to-day three tons of iron ore from
the iron mine near the United States Fishery
on the McCloud river to the Pacific Iron
Works at San Francisco." , ■""•.,
: Petition * for the location of a branch Nor
mal School at this place are being received
daily by the Citizens' Committee from various
parts of th<» northern portion of the State.
There jis greater ; interest | manifested every
day, and an earnest desire with all clashes
that the Legislature do something in the in
terest of the northern part of the State. ". <
The Meadoelno Murder Trial Testimony
:-':; -vXv"--^;v,:aii in. ■>•.■. .-■■..■
■ Ukuh, March sth.— The prosecution in ■:
-'-.-- - > • . - : - -.-.■■ -.. .;■■..*:■
the case of H. E. Brown, after the introduc- '
tion of ten witnesses, rested ; the case at a
quarter to 3 o'clock P. M. The defense asked
tor i thirty minutes to ; prepare. The Court ,
took a recess of one hour, after which the de
fense introduced two witnesses for the pur
pose of impeaching Carr us to who fired the
first shot, and as to who was captain ' of the
gang. Carr _ claimed that Brown was the
leader, when the defense closed their case, not
putting a witness on. There appears thus
far to be no dtfei.'se. The interest is una
bated, but all is quiet, r.
Death Rather than Defalcation— Snirldc
at A Inmrtl:*.
Oakland, March sth. — remains of E.
G. Cotton, well known in theatrical circle?, ■
were found Friday morning in a vacant lot
at Alaineda, belonging to A. A. Cohen. A
revolver lay by bin side, and a wound near
the right ear showed that he had taken his
own life. Coroner At*. T. Hamilton had his
remains removed to the Morjjne, and will
hold an inquest Saturday. On his remains
was found the following letter: >
On Ferryboat, March 4th--8:45 P. v.
My Dear Wile : You will in all probability receive
this after i! y death. I have worked bard to get the
I money due me, also money promised. All parties
have failed. lly pride 'vou't alow me to be a de
f.m tcr. I cannot suffer the disgrace. If my debt
ors would only pay me the amount they owe, I
would be in easy circumstances; but I cannot colli •>
one dollar. Go to Mr. Locke. lam sure he will
send you Kant. The Klks will bury me, and also
give you the benefit of the insurance ou my lif*.
God bless and protect the best wile in the world,
is the heartfelt wish of your unfortunate husband,
II '.;. CUITON.
Fire— Earthquake.
San Beksasdixo, March sth.— A fire
occurred here last night about 11 o'clock,
burning a dwelling and contents. The cans*
of the fire was a defective chimney. Lost,
$2,500; no insurance.
A heavy shock of earthquake was felt here
last vi 6 'lit at half-past 10 o'clock.
iVKVA:.!,
fMStlifns r»Ht»a rmlin.
Carlis. March sth. — The following passen
gers passed Carlin to-day, to arrive in Sacnv>
mento to-nmnov : 10. li. Uapp, ,1. B. Sefacit
liu, Illinois; F. .1. Barns, Ira Toinbiin, Chi
cago; H. T. T; nrher and wife, H. Newell,
Edward T. Sopke, A. P. Broke, Melver
Regensburger, New Fork; John C. Jewett
and «ife. Miss K. Jewett, Buffalo, N. V.;
Seth Marshall, Jr.. D. Samuels, B. Rich, P.
P. Butler, U. B. Walter, 0. Spreektea, Chas.
Watson, J. .1. O'Brien, Wm. Rataey, San
Francisco; .1. S. Thompson, Loa Angeles;
.1. S. Stockdale, Bodie, Cal.; Ben Fitch, de
puty and thied prisoners, Cat>on, Nev.; A.
R. Gillett, Reno, Nev.; E. 11. Sirtver, Lon
don, England ; James K. McGowen and wife,
Mis- Margaret Hike, Belfast, Ireland; D.
P. Roberta, Independei cc, Mo.; 47 1 migrants,
including ;>7 males, to arrive in Sucramentu
March 7th.
UTAH.
Mi .mid be I'l.ijMl Alive.
Salt Lake, March oth.— Yesterday the
Sheriff of Cache county, Utah, brought to
this city a Mormon Elder by the name of
Pitkiu, who has confessed to the heinous
crime of incest with his 12-year-old daughter,
which has been kept up for the past four
years. Lynching was threatened by his
neighbors, and he was brought to Salt Lake
for safety. He is now in the Penitentiary.
He has a wife and a married daughter.
ost:«o\.
Weather— K> al INt iic TrwnmrtttsM -Faial
twMtil- Railroad Work — ateieaaesi
from < n-l'.il' .
FOSTLAND, March sth. — The weather ig
cool and cloudy.
The number of real estate transactions re
corded at the Clerk's urtice during the week
is 34, and the total amount 924,608. The re
corded purchases and sales, however, do not
include several large transactions made in
city property not yet recorded, which, if
added, wotdd swell the amount to little short
of -->ir>o,ooo.
■\Vltile out hunting yesterday ■ German
named Angustua Pboert, who lives on Sandy
river, accidentally shot himself in the abdo
men, inflicting injori - from which he died in
a few hours. Deceased was aged 86 years,
and leaves a wife ud three children.
Work on the Oregon Railway and Naviga
tion Company 9 ! ro.nl is being pushed vigor
ously. All the timbers for the foundations,
bridges across li^s < Jhnttes, John Day's and
Willow creek have been delivered. Those at
the l)e> Chattel river are partially in, and
work will be commenced at John Day's to
day. Between 000 and 800 men are at work.
Bernard and Fairchild, the young men who
were indicted and tried for the mmder of
Barbara H^ar, and in whose ca<e the jury
failed to agree, have been released on motion
of the District Attorney. The reasons as
signed are : r'iist, thai since the trial four
teen reliable witnesses have been found who
are willing to testify that they saw Bernard
and Fairchild below Kalama on the day of
the murder ; second, that Ivip™, who has been
.sentenced to life imprisonment for the mnr
der, ha? confessed that the boys had nothing
to do with it ; third, that a large number of
citizens of Clackainas county were in favor
of releasing them.
Illinium SiH-i, (i «>r^aiii/<'fl at Portland.
Portland, March ">th. — The Oregon Hu
mane Society otnoiad to-nij;ht by the elec
tion of the following officers : President,
Mayor D. P. Thompson : Vice-President, H.
W. Corbett; Correapoi.'ii:'!.' Secretary, \V.
T. Shanrahan ; Treasurer, James* Steel. A
constitution was also adopted. The meeting
WM lir^ely attended. Addresses were made
by several prominent speakers.
Fit Cnnilirialr lor I lie Calls) ■■
Aktohia, March Tith. — A brut-»t attempt
to commit a rape was inude today on Ida
Doffler, aged y years, by Charles liem-ichsen,
a l'russiap. a.rd 10. The girl'l screams
brought aid. Durnif,' the excitement Hen
richwn escaped, but has since been arrested
by Chief BafTT, who found him secreted
behind a pile of sacked grain in a farmer's
warehouse. There was some talk of lynch
ing, but Barry «ot him into tlje jail. t Hen
rlefaaen only arrived in this city last night
from Portland.
WASIII\«.T<»\ 7KKRITOKT.
(•uillr .in < li.njitil Sealing »ra»o»
Weather.
i Port Townsexd, March 4th.— ln the case
of the Territory vs. Thomas McGra'h, for
assault on James McDonnell with intent to
kill, the jury returned to-day a verdict of
guilty as charged.
The sealing season hag commenced earlier
than last year, and already about 800 seals
have been taken. The Indians report an un
usually large number of teals this year out
side Cape Hatteras.
The weather here and along the Sound is
colder and more stormy than ever before
known. Snow, frost and high winds have
predominated since January Ist, causing con
siderable delay to farmers in putting in their
spring crops, especially in the bottom lands,
which cannot be worked on account of the
snow.' '
Three Year* in the Penitentiary-Marine
few*.
Port TowssEsn, March sth.— rath,
convicted of stabbing McDonald, wag sen
tenced to-day to three years in the Peniten
tiary.
The bark David Hoodley and ship Shirley
were obliged to put back here to-day for shel
ter, disabled.
• The bark Oregon will leave for Seabeck to
morrow. ..■- „ .-.. .msms^m
BRITISH COMMKIA.
Id m» from lii-loria.
Victoria. March 4th. — It has been defi
nitely ascertained that the Germania was
the vessel with which the Oregon came in
collision on Tuesday night, under circum
stance* previously reported. The Germania
sustained very little injury.
At yuesne'lle on the sth of February tba
thermometer was 30' below zero, and the
cold strengthening. The roads were in a very
bad condition, although open. In Caribou
the weather was intensely cold, and at Yala
it was freezing hard when the express left to
come down. The hardy little cayuse hor.-es in
the interior were suffering for want of food,
in common with the Btock. Christian
Brothers, at Okanau-an, have turned out 100
head of tine beeves to shift for themselves,
having uo feed.
Important Case. — The case of Tiburcio
Parrott comes up in the United States Cir
cuit Court at San Francisco to-day. It in
volves the question as to whether the legisla
tion prohibiting computations from employing
Chinese is constitutional.
Charles N. Felton, Assemblyman from
Baa Mateo county, has subscribed $500 to
the fund for which David Bush is solicit
ing, and with which such persons of the
unemployed as are really willing to work
at all will be paid for work on Golden Gate
Park.

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