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DAILY rjflO.Y SERIES -YOli so. 9193.
DALLY RIX-OKD _**_£!££ -VOL. XX II -J O. 419».
THE DAILY RECORD-UNION.
Entered « the Tost Office at Sacramento as second class matter
PUBLISHED BY THE
Sacramento Publishing Company,
WM. 11. .HILLS. General . Manager.
Publication Office, Third si., bet. J and K.
'.', TIIK DAILY RECORD-I MON -';-/»
Is published every da; of the week. Sundays excepted.
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three months 3 00
Ten copies one year, to one address 80 00
Subscribers served by Carriers at Twenty-Five
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paper can be had of the principal Periodical Dealers.
Newsmen and Agents.
Advertising Kates In Dally Itecord-l'nion.
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Each additional time 50
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Star Notices, to follow reading matter, twenty-fire
Dents a line for each insertion.
Advertisements or' Situations Wanted, Houses t Let,
Society Meetings, etc., of five t.ixes or less, will be
Inserted in the Daily Record-Union as follows :
Onetime 25 cents
Three times '. 50 cents
One week . . . 75 cent*
Seven words to constitute a Mis*.
THE WEEKLY UNION
[Published in semi-weekly parts],
Is issued on Wednesday and Saturday of each wee>,
comprising Eight Pages in each issue, or Sixteen Pages
each we k. ami is the cheapest and most desirable
Home, News and Literary Journal published on the
Paciti -• coa t.
Terms, One Year ..-. $2 50
WANTED, LOST AND FOUND.
Advertisement* of five lines in this department arc
Inserted for 25 cents for one time ; three time* for 50
cants or 75 oents per week.
PERSONAL— IF THIS SHOULD MEET THE
eve of MARK EDWARDS, who left Duckei-
field, Cheshire, England, for Australia, in or about
1339, and when last heard from was in Sacramento,
or any person who could give any information of his
whereabouts, would communicate with his brother,
EMANUEL EDWARDS, cf Coal City, Grundy coun-
ty, Illinois, would hear something to his advantage.
1 /\rw TEAMS WANTED TO WORK ON LEVEE.
I If If Wages for two-horse teams, 31 Jo per day
and feed ; wages for driver, $1 25 p r day and board.
Apply at once to C. A. STRATTON k CX, Marvs-
ville, or to the undersigned at the works on Tuba'
rivor. ts2llw) - - JOHN WELCH. •
GTRAYED OR STOLEN— n-j.,
_^> Thirty-first and H streets, on M ■}
Friday night, September 17th, Two YfMji
Largo MILCH COWS— dark red it , if
and the other lis lit red. A liberal reward will be
paid for their recovery. . W. A. McCOY, Thirty-first
and H streets. : .;■'.- s?o"-lw
SK AAA WANTED— A MAN WITH FROM
OiUUUs *5,000 to 810,000 to take control
for Sacramento and the upper country of the
agency for the most complete sewing-machine ever
invented. The Company's sales now amount to
over one thousand machines per week. Only prin-
cipals need apply. A splendid opportunity for a
thorough business man to make money. Address,
lor one week. N. E. C, this office. " sl7 6t*
QAA MEN TO WORK ON THE YUBA DAM;
/V"\J wages, $35 per month. One hundred
teams, SI 25 per day. Inquire of Vi. TURTON, on
the work. 816-lw
CARPENTERS WANTED. I
p-/v GOOD, ABLE-BODIED CARPENTERS
iy\j Wanted on Miscene Mining Company's
Flumes, Dear Oroville, Butte county. Wages, _■_:(
per day. Board, 45 per week. Apply to
G. W. CUMMINGS,
815 Iplw Oroville, Butte county.
WANTED— ALL KINDS HELP, MALE AND
Female. Particular attention paid to Furnish-
ing Hotels, Private Families and Farmers with Help,
Free of Charge to employers. HOUSTON k CO,,
one door south of Fourth and X streets, Sacra*
mento city. 2_ ' T aul3-lptf
TO LET 0B FOB SALE. "
Advertisements of five lines in this department are
Inserted for 25 a*nt_i for one time ; three times for 50
cents or 75 cents ncr week.
FOX SALE-A FAMILY CARRIAGE, NEARLY
' new, at a very low price; a Buggy, Harness
and Horse, at til ; also, ' Single Open Buggy, for
$75. Inquire if CAUL STROBKL, Commission
Agent, No. SZI .1 street. 121-lplw*
fl^O LET— TWO FURNISHED ROOMS, AT NO.
JL 731 1 street, corner of Eighth. sls-lw*
nV> LET— TUE CHEAPEN AND NEATEST
X Furnished Rooms in the city is at G LEEMAN
HOUSE No. 1018 Fourth stroet, between J and K.
Also, Lodging during Fair, 50 cents sIS-tf
TO RENT- 1,. 100 ACRES OF PASTURE
LAND, five miles east of Woodland. Will
rent until the Ist of December. Address S. WATER-
.MAN, No 512 Van Ness Avenue ; or,T. C. HOPPIN,
MONEY TO LOAN ON REAL ESTATE, AT
a low rate of interest, by P. BOHL.
I7VJR SALE— A PLATFORM SPRING WAOON,
JP suitable for trying fruit, and will hold from
4.000 to 6,000 p .un )_. Apply to W. KUHNLE, X
street, between Eleventh and Twelfth air.!"
TO LET— SAIL AND LOW BOATS, FOR FISH-
JL Ing or pleasure parties, by A. BREWER,
Eagle Hotel, Front street, between M and N.
ITU'RNISIIED ROOMS. -CLUNIE'SNEW BUILD-
-1 ing, northeast corner Eighth and X streets,
Fine Newly Furnished Bonus, in suits or single, by
tli ■ day or for th.- week, at reasonable rates. 811-lpt
ritllE FAST TROTTING MARE. .A.
M. " DUTCHE3S." formerly owned by isSC^
IV C. Patten. Has Colt by her side /XT 7 .
sire. Great Western, he by Rsmbletonian. Also, tne
Fas) Pacing Mare, "EDGERTON." They would
make the finest Brood Mires in the State.
For particulars, inquire of 11. S. DEALS,
s»l-3ptf No. 415 J street.
1 k y ?* ACRFS OF FINE BOTTOM LAND ON AN-
A fit) ins Island, Wing a portion of Mr. Drew's
ram n, and adjoint!..: the beet sugar factory land.
The land ii in a good state of cultivation and will
be sold at -. '•nr.-.i.in. Apply to SWEETSER i
ALMI'. Real Estate and Insurance Agents, 1015
Fourth street, _-._.-r..non!t... au2lTm
FBUITSTSEEDS AND PRODUCE.
B. LEVY, ~
TtXTHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANT
T V and dewier in Foreign and Domeetic Fruits
Cigars and Tobacco, Pipes and Smokers' Articles,
Cutlery and Notions, Nuts, Candies, etc, No. M J
Street. Sacramento. sll-lplm
D. DEBERNARDI & CO.,
WHOLESALE COMMISSION w — dbgm^
Dealers In _7^^9__33_9
Butter, Eggs, Poultry, Vegetables,
Frail, Fish and General I'roilurc.
AST All orders will I* carefully packed. Basins
had long exi>erirn^- in shipping, we have confidence
that we will be able to give satisfaction. Send for
D. DEBERNARDI & CO..
W. R. STRONG CO.,
Wholesale Commission Merchants
AM" S-ULKKS Xt AIL KIKDS Or
CALIFORNIA fiKFF.N AMI DRIED FBI ITH,
NUTS, HONEF, SEEDS,
And General -Merchandise.
tS All orders promptly attended to. Address.
W. R. STRONG & CO..
sS-lplm Nos. B. 8 and 10 J street. S.«- .-ar-r r'-
-31. T. BBEWEB A CO.,
Commission Merchants and -fVnolesatt
Ir'.M T..- tic
ORES FRUIT, DRIED FRUIT, PRODUCT
Vegetables, Honey, Seeds, Alfalfa Seed, Etc ,
Bos. 39 and .1 * J Pfreet, Bacramento.
LION A l;.tn-|r.ii
COMMISSION MERCHANTS AND DEALERS IB
Pro4n-e*,Tejr.«table», Kntt»i\ Egg*, Chees
Poultry , Oreen and Dry Fruits, Honey, Beans, eto.
tS Potatoes in oar-load lets or 'ew.
Jya-'-iitl . Nos. 21 and 53 J «tr 7"
SACRAMENTO DAILY RECORD-UNION.
HALE & CO., CRITERION STORE. ;
THAT WE ARE SELLING OUR GOODS
COST OR BELOW COST!
tS In our long and successful mercantile career, we have never done any but a
.-'---.. ■ * .r- . .-t}.-%jr>4. ■--:.: yr. -r 2?:'.~ 7 -.*-: ..2. ,
legitimate and honorable business. We certainly do not propose to change our
system now. - . - .■
WHY SHOULD WE?
We are not foolish enough to start in business in any place where we cannot
make a reasonable profit, enabling us to cater successfully for the interests of the
public, as well as ourselves.
J If anyone doubts the justice of our methods, we would simply ask :
WHY HAVE WE OPENED THE BUSLYESS HOUSE
OF HALE BROS. & CO. IX SACRAMENTO?
WAS IT TO LOSE MONEY, BY SELLING OUR GOODS
AT COST OR BELOW COST ?
NO; What Then?
tS We paid Sacramento a visit before we opened here ; we examined every store
in the city ; we looked through their goods ; we investigated their expenses, finding
them, in some instances, ridiculously high ; we reviewed their various methods ; and
we came to the conclusion that
The People of Sacramento have been humbugged by
those Business Houses who most loudly profess to
be their friends.
Prices hare not been kept down as they should, and
have never been as low as the market will justly
THE RESULT IS, that Houses starting with almost nothing a few short years
ago, now confess and advertise the fact that their stock is anywhere from .$lOO,OOO to
How, where does the Money come from that
these people hoast of ?
Out of the Pockets of their Cus-
tomers, of course.
We propose to act differently, for the following reasons :
We have now all the Capital necessary to carry on an extensive business.
We don't want to amass a rapid fortune, by making as large profits as the
merchants here expect.
We merely want an investment for our Capital that will yield U3 a reasonable
rate of interest.
: -■: -r-- .■■■■,- ■'';■: v r.:2y yr.[, 'y-. . ■ ;.;,.. . .'- ■■:■ -VViVy : -;y . 2. 7■ . -■- : ■V _ --.l^yy. 7; .V-; 777: : r:7;7.' f
. :. ; _:..*,. i -;*-. r.
WE SHALL MAKE NO ADSURD SPLURGES, AND TELL
NO LIES I
And we will only increase the extent of our business as fast as we see that tho
trade demand! it, and the public appreciate the change. We will not deceive the
people (on paper), nor humbug them when they visit us.
Being Eastern People ourselves, we propose to conduct onr
business on the true Eastern basis, and " Neither toady to anyone,
nor act the tyrant over any !'-,
HALE BROS. & CO.,
No. 812 E street,
BETWEEX EIGHTH AXD NINTH, SACRAMEXTO.
STREET CARS PASS THE DOOR.
COUNTRY ORDERS RECEIVE SPECIAL ATTENTION.
SACRAMENTO, WEDNESDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 22, 1880.
OsiP^ __3C"E\ H ___• B_K Ha 4g£ a
*8 -^ I 'SBi'BiliHl 13P &
Visitors to the State Fair
"Will do well to visit one of
the distinctive features of
"THE MECHANICS' STORE"
An Establishment covering over 15,000 Square Feet,
occupying Five Buildings, and carrying within its
walls anything and everything needed
by the human form.
Our Methods of Business are as well known as they are
simple and perfect.
Our Terms Are Cash
Our System is, Strictly
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pnpppppp RRRRRRRR 1111 CCCCCCCO EEEEEEE Mil
PPP PPP RKR RKR 1111 CCC CCO EEE Mil
PPPPPPPP RRRRRRRB 1111 CCC BEE™,, 1111
PPPPPPP RRRRRRR 1111 CCO EEE 5 5 fill
PPP RRR RRR 1111 CCC CCO EEE"* 5 111
PPP RRR RRR 1111 CCC CCO EE3 II
PPP RRR RRR 1111 CCCCCCCO . EEEEEEE 1111
PPP RRR RR2 lUI CCCCCC EEEEEEB III!
OUR PRICES ARE MARKED PLAINLY
OUST ___rv__n_Etrsr _A.EtTICI.I_J I
W* Oases of Goods are Daily Arriving
For all our Departments, from the Principal Markets of
the United States.
We deem it scarcely necessary to enumerate the decided advantage our
house offers to the public. The fact that we carry the Largest Assortment,
the Choicest Goods, the Best Selections, the Greatest Number of Lines of
Goods, and offer them at the Most Favorable Prices, are fasts long e3tab
lished and beyond dispute.
Our present immense and constantly increasing trade, as well as our
Crowded Stores, are sufficient indications that wa are well understood, end
that our efforts are fully appreciated.
*;>...; Our past record is a sufficient guarant3e that, as heretofore, we will
never permit ourselves to be undersold, bu 1 . shall always undersoil any and
'-■■ The recent arrivals of New Goods consist of; Domestics, Flannels, Silks
Satins, Velvet*, Fashionable Dress Goods, Black Cashmeres, Blankets, Cloaks
Shawls, Hosiery, Ribbons, Coraets, Underwear, Glovas, Men's and Boys' Over-
coats, Fall and Winter Business and Dress Suits, Merino and Flannel Under-
wear, Boys' School Suits, Dres? Suits, Users and Ove coats, Stylish Stiff and
Soft Hats, in the latest fashions; Men's and Youths' Frmch Calf; Hand sewed
Shoes; Rubber Boots, short and leng; Overshoes, Slippers, Ladies' Fine
French Kid Shoes, Embroidered Slippers, Children's School Shoes, French
Bonnets, Felt Shapes, Feathers, Flowers, Silks and Ornaments, as well as
thousands of other items that would raquire columns to enumerate.
During the present week, an EXTRA FORCE OF SALESMEN will be
on hand, in all Departments, to serve customers promptly and facilitate tha
rush of trade. .
■ - ■ . ' 7'
... For the' accommodation of visitors to the Fair, our Business
Houra, during Fair Week, will 1)3 from 8:30 A. M. to 9 o'clock P. M.,
and Saturday until 10 P. M,
— r-KOFRIETORS OF
THE MECHANICS' STORE,
Xos. 400, .402,: 404, 406, 40S X street, Sacramento^
TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION
OF THE STATE AGRICULTURAL
Delivered In the Pavilion, Eacramento,
P Tuesday Evening, September 21,
2.V. V' 1880, by H. M. Larue, President
of the State Board of .
Ladies and Gentlemen : Long established custom
has assigned to the President of the State Board of
Agriculture the duty of extending a formal welcome
and courteous greeting to members of the State Agri
cultural Society, and visitors to the annual exhibi
tion. It is also an established custom on these oc
casions to inaugurate the annual exhibition by the
formality of an opening address. . In its inception
nothing beyond the welcome already alluded to, and
an official declaration that all parts of the exhibi
tion were completely organized and fully opened to
inspection, ", was contemplated by this ceremony.
But custom has enlarged upon this original idea
and has expanded the opening address Into the
proportions of an annual message from the execu
tive head of the society, in which tho largest latitude
in the way of report, suggestion and discussion baa
been indulged. In discharging the duty thus
made incumbent upon the President of the State
Board at Agriculture, permit me to call your atten
tion first to the changes made in the laws of our
Stat* concerning the organization, appointment and
powers of the Board. Very early in the history of
this State the people recognized the great educa
tional advantage* of agricultural and mechanical
exhibitions, and the value to intelligent industry of
agricultural and mechanical Societies. The law or
ganizing a State Board of Agriculture and incor
porating the State Agricultural Society was among
the earliest placed upon our statute books. From
time to time liberal appropriations from the
State Treasury in aid of the Society and
in promotion of its annual exhibitions have
been made. But the new Constitution ratified
in I__7D contained a sweeping prohibition against ap
propriations from the public treasury- for the benefit
of any corporations or associations not under the
exclusive management and control of the State.
While under the law of 1»52 the State Board of Ag
riculture was the creature of the State, and while
by that Act a Department of Agriculture wascrca'edr
as a department of State Government, still the
members of the Board were chosen by annual
mass meetings of members of the State Agricultural
Society, in which only members of the Society were
eligible to vote, i The State Agricultural Society
also possessed the right of control of the annual
exhibitions, and the power to adopt, alter or amend
the articles of association and the rules governing
the Board. The corporation was not under the ex
clusive control of tbe State as a distinctively State
institution, and therefore within the category of as
sociations ineligible to receive any gift, grant, aid or
subsidy from the State Treasury. All this has been
changed. By the Act of 1830 the Board of Agri
culture is appointed by the Governor of the
State. All laws, rules, articles of association,
with all legislative authority formerly be
longing to the State Agricultural Society, are now
by law vested solely in the Board of Agriculture.
This, the twenty-seventh annual exhibition of
the Society, is the first held under the
new , order of things. . The law creates
a . Board of twelve Directors, and requires
the appointment of the members thereof by the
Governor. At the last annual meeting of the So
ciety three members were elected for the ensuing
three years. At th? close of that meeting the
Board as constituted stood as follows : 11. M. Larue,
L. U. Shippee, S. J. Rose, G. Vi. Hancock, D. Flint,
O, Vi. Colby, R. H. Newton, Cyrus Jones, W. P.
Colman, P. A. Finnegan. The Governor of the
State in making appointments to fill the twelve po-
anions created by law appointed all the members of
the Board as constituted by the State Agricultural
Society, adding two additional names— M. D. Boruck
__.n<l Job 1 Boggs — to complete the additional num
ber. Thus the organization appears to be identical
with that existing before the passage of the
law of lSS I }, but, in fact, the entire legal
aspects of the Board and Society have
undergone a complete revolution. A Department of
Agriculture are been established as a department of
State government; the members of the Board of
Agriculture and State officers, the rules of this ex
hibition, have the sanction of statutory law; the ex
hibition itself is held by the authority and under
the protection of law ; the objects and aims of the
State Agricultural Society have been indorsed by
this commonwealth ; the whole people constitute
its membership, while its transactions and exhibi
tions, its efforts to dignify and enoble labor, dissem
inate information on subjects of practical and
scientific agriculture, manufactures, mechanics,
mining and the fine arts, have been placed side by
side with the State University and the common
schools— a recognized department in the great sys
tem of public education. In the law under consid
eration the State Agricultural Society is fully recog
nized. Its mission is by no means at an end. Its
annual meetings will still be continued and relieved
from many elements of intention growing out of
succession in office ; the Society can address its efforts
to still higher achievements in consonance with the
aim of it 4 founders. The agricultural societies of
California have accomplished more for the cause of
practical education than all the schools of the State.
The public recognition of the importance of this de
partment of [ üblie instruction is a high achieve
ment, the honor of which belongs to the State Agri
cultural Society. But there remains other and
higher work to be performed, and Judging from the
past, I am justified in believing that the State Soci
ety will not be found wanting in that zeal for wl.i_h
it has been so distinguished.
THE LESSON OF THE BEASON.
The past season has been one of unusual produc
tiveness. The yield of all the staples has been
satisfactory.- There his been failure in none. The
wheat harvest, however, offers the broadest field of
suggestion, and to the lessons derived from the ex
periences of this year I will devote the full limit of
■ The product of the harvest his been variously
estimated at from 800,000 to 1,200,000 tons. From
reliable data I accept the mean figure between these
extremes and adopt the sum of 1,000,000 tons as the
aggregate yield of the season. This lam fully per
suaded is not an overestimate. At the low market
rate now ruling this wheat is worth £25,000,000. The
north winds of March an.l April inflicted great injury
upon the growing wheat in many locaities, reducing
the yield from 30 to 43 per cent, below a full crop.
The somewhat unusual occurrence of seeing the
wheat appear to ripen twice in the same season was
witnessed this year. After harvesting had begun
in many cases the apparently dried stalks freshened
and the process of filling was resumed. This did
not, however, fully compensate the bad effects of
the north wind. The aggregate yield has far-reach
ing significance. It establishes the persistency of
the wheat-growing capacity of our soil. I Many of
our friends who farm with the pen rather, thai, tne
plow have been warning us that our lands were
worn out. In some years past the average yield per
acre had fallen so low that many felt a serious dis
couragement. It was the - honest belief of many
that the day of large crops had past for California.
The splendid yield of this year proves that the char
acter of the season has almost everything to do with
the fluctuations of the yield from year to year. The
present 'season has clearly demonstrated the fact
that tho fertility of our oldest wheat lan ig is by no
means exhausted. The harvest of this year has
furnished countless instances whero lands which
had been cultivated to wheat for a long series of
years returned a crop equal to the yield of virgin
soil, In fact, it is the universal opinion of al
well-informed men that but for the deleterious
effect of the north wind early in the season, the
average yield of this year over the entire State
would have been equal to the best average ever
noted. As it is, however, if wo exclude the locali
ties injured by the .unfavorable character of the
season, the average yield per acre is fully equal to
the best average ever attained in any former season.
1 I desire to be understood not as undervaluing the
rotation of crops and the many highly valuable sug
gestions for restoring to the 41 its depleted fertil
ity. j I desire in this connection simply to assert
what has been fully established by the crop produc
tion of last year, to wit : That the wheat lands of
California are not depleted,' and that in seasons
equally favorable with those of former years, par
ticularly * those ' years which - are noted in \ the
agricultural history of the State for the high
average ; yield .per . acre of ■ their harvests,"
with ' a recurrence ■ of the rama character
of season we find a recurrence of the same hijh
average yield of whett per acre. .We have set the
production of wheat in th State for this year at
1,000,000 tons, which is equal to 33,000,000 bushels,
aad value 1 at *25,000,000. In comparison with
some other Stati'3 of the Union, thi.) amount does
not appear to be a very largo production, but when
we come to consider the comparative agricultural
population of these States, the productive capacity of
our soil and climate is brought into view. The en
tire population of California is about SOO.OOO. Of
these, one-third are engaged in mining, one-third
more form the metropolitan and manufacturing
population of the State, leaving about one-third of
the entire population engaged in agricultural pur
suits, or less than 300,000 people. "2'- J \'\
The State Board of Agriculture for the State of
Illinois reports the wheat product of that State for
this year at 40,000,000 bushels, but the State of Illi
nois contains about 2,400,0:0 inhabitants, at least
1,500,000 of whom are operative agriculturists - an
agricultural population five times lh.it of the State
of California. The large j ield of the harvest of this
year having established the persistence of our wheat
growing capacity, the next question is bow much
land remains to be added to the wheat-growing acre
age of the State. lam persuaded that already the
best wheat-growing sections of the State are fully
under cultivation of that cereal, except such sec
tions as require irrigation to make them productive.
With the aid of irrigation, however, the wheat lands
ofthe San Joaquin valley alone are capable of produc
ing a larger annual yield than the entire production
of the State for this year. There are also lands in
the sections of the State possessing sufficient annua]
rainfall to make a crop which have not as yet been
brought under cultivation. It is probably no exag
geration to claim for California a possible annual
production cf wheat equal to 100,000,000 bushel*.
This is presented as within the retch of early possi
The problems of both the present and future arc
transportation and market. We have from the har
vest of this year a surplus for export of 800,000
tons. To reach its market this wheat must be
transported to the seaboard by rail and thence
by ocean around Cap* Horn to Liverpool. . This is
the longest voyage made upon the earth for com
mercial purposes. Our v heat must make a longer
voyage and pay a higher rate of transportation than
any offered in the market at Liverpool. Owing to
this great distance we cannot take advantage of the
rise in the brcadstuffs in Europe, because we cannot
reach the European in irket until the dem uid has
been in a great measure supplied from the wheat
ports of our Atlantic seaboard and of the Black Sea.
A rise in the prices of breadstuffs in Europe to-day,
which would cause a general movement of wheat
from the interior to the seaboard, would at once
overtax the carrying capacity of the railroads
and the rivers of California. The first great need of
the producers of this State is cheap warehouse
facilities at tidewater. This is the one impenthe
necessity of the California farmer. As soon as the
harvest begins the wheat should be moved
to the seaboard and stored in ware*
houses accessible to sea - going vessels.
We have produced 53,000,0C0 bushels of wheat, but
when we offer this in the market we find a combi
nation of forces producing a low price. The market
is in the hands of merchants, commission men and
brokers. The large ) ield for export has raised the
rate of ocean tonnage, while the storage capacity of
our warehouses is hopelessly inadequate. To ever
come these disadvantages it will be necessary to form
associations of wheat producers to build and own
wharves and warehcuses st the seaboard. These
associations, holding large quantities of wheat ready
■ to ship, could be placed in receipt of the same infor
mation as to mo.-ements in brcadstuffs in the lead
ing markets of the world now monopolized by the
The great natural outlet for the products of the
Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys is at the St raits of
Carquinez. It is already clearly manifest that this
natural outlet will in ti.e near future be tbe point
of the largest export commerce of any port on the
Pacific. Whether by rail or by water, all commer
cial lines converge at Carquinez. "The construction
of warehouses and wharves at that p 'rt of sufficient
capacity to answer the demands for storage of our
export surplus would confer th* largest benefit upon
the grain-producers of the State. But the grain
growers can- confer this gieat benefit upon them
selves, and to the advantage of facilitating tha sur
plus product to its market add the saving of com
mission and brokerage, and reap ti.e j refit of wharf
age and storage. The aggregate of these items upon
this year's surplus will not fall short of $3,000,010.
I most earnestly commend ibid suggestion to the j
c ireful consideration of the intelligent and enterpris
ing tujtum of this State.
PRODUCTION ASP TRANSPORTATION.
During the year our State has been visited by a
gentleman holding credentials as Commissioner of
Agriculture for the Government of Great Britain.
The object of his visit to Ca'ifornia was to
ascertain, first, our capacity for the produc
duciion of breadstuffs and beef, and second,
the probable future persistency of this capa
city. This inquiry on the part of the Govern
ment of Great Britain grows out of the fact that the
facilities for transportation of beef and brea 1 stuffs
are such, that they may be produced in this coun
try and transported to the consumers in
England cheap*, r than they can be produced on
the other side of tho ocean. The freight rates from
the great centers of the West and from the Atlantic
seaboard, are so low that the beef and breadstuffs
raised in Nebraska and Kansas are delivered in the
markets of England at a rate below the co-it of home
products of that country. The question is already
mooted as to whether the lands of England and
Ireland may not be more profitably devoted to
other products than breadstuffs and . beef.
The present disturbed relation between the tenantry
and the landlords of Ireland grows out of the fact
that the staple articles of human food are produced
in America and transported at such low rates as to
veiy greatly reduce the profits of the tenants, thus
reducing his ability to pay the rents heretofore ob
taining. It is already manifest that America will
raise all the breadstuffs and beef for the European
market, and more than successfully compete with
the production of these staples in those countries.
This result is due to two leading causes. First, the
progress made in the invention and application of
agricultural machinery. Within a quarter (fa
century the labor of each operative agriculturist has
been supplemented by saving machinery,
augmenting the productive power to an almost in
credible degree. It is the sober conclusion of in
vestigators that the agricultural machinery em
ployed in the United States is equal tothe productive
capacity- of 300,000,000 of men. A single farmer in
this State has chiefly, through the aid of agricult
ural machinery, raised nearly one million
bushels of wheat in a single season. There is an
instance in this State of a single farm of 50,000 acres
being cultivated by the employment of less than 300
men. Before tbe advent of machinery the same re
sults could not not have been attained by the em
ploy ment of 5,000 men.
The st Mild cause is to be found in the increased
facilities and constant downward tendency in ratrM
of transportation The beef raised in the very
heart of this continent, even at the foot of the
Rocky mountains, is served fresh on the tables of
England. In both these directions the limit of pos
sibilities has not been reached. : We have scarcely
entered the broad domain of labor-saving invention,
while the great science of transportation is scarcely
beyond its first infancy. From where we now stand
we see approaching the time when the fruits of our
valleys will appear on the tables of London and
Paris as fresh as when picked from the tree and
vine. Estimated by a comparison of tho cos, and
facilities of transportation, San Francisco is nearer
to London to-day than the city of Buffalo wast) the
city of New York at the beginning of the
century. ■ The unmistakable tendency is to
cult iva c . every product where nature lends
the largest measure of assistance. The - great
advancement made in the means of transportation
and communication is working radical changes in
the industrial pursuits of the world. The grain
fields of the West have forced the almost entire
abandonment of grain-growing in New England for
the more diligent and more profitable attention to
dairy products. In this we find an instance fully
illustrating the tendency already alluded to. The
same principle has equal application to all produc
tions, whether of the farm or the factory. The pe
culiar and special advantages possessed by any
locality inures to the benefit .of all the world.
Tie distribution and assignment of all productions
to the soils and climates best adapted to their
growth, will prove as advantageous to mankind as
has been the division of labor into the various
trades, arts and professions. In the production of
breadstuffs Ca ifornia possesses in her peculiar
climate an advantage enjoyed by no other country
of which we have any knowledge. I refer to the
absence of rain during the period of harvest/ In
all other wheat regions of the world ineloment and
unfavorable weather during harvest time is one of
thi te iding obstacles to successful wheat farming.
Rains and storms during the period of harvest
throughout the temperate ' zone often inflict the
heaviest damage, not ti._frei|-,ently reuniting in the
total losi of crops. In California a disaster from
this source is never known or apprehended. ! From
May to Xove-nho- our grain ripens siid is harvested
under cloudless s-ttios. ThU is an advantage not
i easily over-estimated. '". y<. ."
D *l lT .__,* tCO » , »- ln """» ™S
I*l.ll i. V.l-\I mi i X..
, The queuion as to whether all these great disco v.
•Tiot ol science and mechanical Intention, by whnh
the productive opacity * aM is Increased aid
manual labor saved tend to disturb the mote equal
distribution of wealth, and increase the disparity of
condition between the rich and the poor, is one that
has engaged the attention of the most profound
thinkers and employed the pens of the ablest
writers of modern times. Ido not propose to enter
the arena of discussion with these learned . men
either to dispute . or agree with their
conclusions. I do, however, beg your in
dulgence while I present a few obvious
considerations bearing upon the general subject of
the effect of a'l progress in labor-saving discoveries
and machinery. Labor is the chief factor in the ;
production of wealth. Wealth, then, as the product
of labor, must become more easily attainable in pro
portion as the facilities for it's creation increases.
The harvesting machinery and the more scientific
methods of agriculture may diminish the demand
for labor iti the production of bread, but tbe coet of
bread will be correspondingly diminished. The
wants of civilized iren multiply and Increase
with the possibilities cf supplying them,
and rise higher as the problem of supplying the more
primitive wants reaches a more satisfactory solution.
The demand for labor to supply the higher com
forts, and the intellectual wants of life in
creases in exact | mport ion as the demand for labc r
to supply the physical want diminishes. The Vi
of occupations increases with every new census.
New industries and new arts are constantly being
added to the profitable occupation of industry.
These new occupations relate to the higher tastes
and »spir»u< ns as mankind is elevated from lowi r
to higher planes of civilized want.
A SEW LINE 01 TaASSPOBTATIO!".
The close identity between the inttreeta of pro
duction and transportation justifies some reference
to the approaching cmt<js..tion vl the Southern
l'aeific Kailroal. I have already alladed to the prob
lem of transportation as " lending factor in the
profitable production of our staple*. The comple
tion of tho Southern l'aeific Railroad will bay* an
important bearing upon all the leading industries
of this State. When the great heat -grow it g valleys
of California are connected with New Orleans by rail
over the level grades of the southern route, the
commercial lines to the final market for our wheat
will ba shortened by 10,000 miles. We will then
have a constantly operative means of transporta
tion at what I have reason to hope and believe w ill
be reduced rn'cs. Tho average inland tonnage on our
grair now is about £3 50 per ton. The average ocean
tonnage to Liverpool about Jl3 per ton, aggregating
?16 50 per ton from the station or landing to the
ultimate market. By the Southern Pacific Railroad
the pro rata of ocean to rail transportation wil' be
reverse^. The tonnage rate from New Or
leans to Liverpool will not excee iss per ton. Thus
leaving $11 50 per ton as the pro rata to rail trans
portation, and without increasing the aggregate
rate. If expectation in this direction is well founded,
the wheat product of California will possess higher
advantages in the market than hitherto enjoyed.
The completion of this southern route will intro
duce the now wanting element of competition with
the long voyage around Cape Horn. It will also
enable the shipper t.t receive quicker returns. Its
further advantages will be found iv the opening it
markets for the orchard and dairy products of south,
crn California, and it is within the range of possi
bilities to ship green fruit and fresh beef to the Eng
lish market by that r-uie. At this time fresh beef
is shipped from points on the Missouri and Missis
sippi rivers by way of New Orleans to England, and
the time from Sacramento by rail to the Crescent
City is shorter than the time from Kansas City to
tbe same , pint by water.
WELCOME TO THE PRESIDENT.
For the first time in the history of this Society
our annual exhibition is honored by the presence
of the Chief Magistrate of the nation. As a pioneer
looking back to the early isolation of this State,
this event has more significai ie than it can have
for those whose residence in California dates since
the era of transcontinental railroads. It impresses
upon my mind a most forcible realization of the
wonderful changes a few years have wrought in the
means of communication. From tho capital of this
great Republic, on the opposite shore of this
mighty continent, the President of the nation comes
as a visitor to spend a few days with us, and then
to return to the seat of government, having enjoyed
but a brief vacation from the full burden of i tlicial
duty. None but a pioneer can know how
grateful is the task of extending to him a welcome
among us, for none but a pioneer can so well feel
that by his presence here we realize anew the near
ness of this land of our love and adoption to the homes
of ourcarly and hallowed associations. His Excellen
cy will never realize a continent so broad in extent
as that still lingering in the consciousness of those
who made its transit by ox teams. Ho will scarcely
comprehend the vastness of mountain ranges exist
ing in the geography of those only who toiled on
foot up their wearisome slopes. Hut it will be
borne in upon our people by his coming here that
all parts of our belot ed country are being brought
closer and closer together by the discoveries' of
science, the triumphs of skill and tbe energies of
our civilization. These combined have annihilated
time and space, until no part of our common coun
try is distant, no portion of our people neglected or
forgotten. In honoring the President of this nation,
we do homage to the dignity and majesty of the
people. On behalf of the State Board of Agricult
ure and the members of the State Agricultural
Society, I extend a sincere welcome to the Presi
dent of the United States to this annual exhibition.
And finally let us remember the labors of the past
year only in the light of the blessings honest toil
ever confers. We sowed the seed in hope and tout ;
we have garnered a bountiful harvest with earnest
gratitude. From the path of every industry we
have come, bringing the fruits of our toil, the
skill of our hands, the inventions of our
genius, the inspiration of our minds. All
are trophies of that peace and prosper
ity which rests like a benediction upon our
loved California and our honored nation, and not
unmindful of that devoui gratitude due to the
bountiful Giver of all good, I now declare the
twenty-seventh exhibition of the State Agricultural
Society of the State of California duly open.
BOUND TO SEE THE PRESIDENT.
The Pajuronian, published at 'Watson,
ville, is responsible for the following :
Our friend, Duncan McPherson, editor
of the Santa Cruz Sentinel, went to San
Francisco last week to receive President
Hayes. He thought he would surprise the
President by being the only country editor
in the State to receive him, but when he
arrived in San Francisco Duncan found
about five hundred other country editors
on the same mission, their pockets filled
with crackers, cheese, note books | and
copies of their papers, roaming along the
street! in droves like the famished dogs of
Constantinople. Duncan got to bed that
night at an unusual | hour, owing to his
fruitless attempts to get a word with the
President. Next day Duncan and his broth
er editors went to see President Hayes. All
the editors were bounced. . But Duncan is
persistent ; if he were not he would never
have risen to an editor's chair, and hence
couldnever have received the nomination for
Treasurer. So Duncan persisted and resist
ed the posterior beffetings of fortune, and
at length was admitted to the presence of
Mr. and Mrs. Hayes. " How do you do,"
said Mac, "My name is Duncan McPher
son of the. city of Santa Cruz, State of
California lam a self made man and my
friends say my teacher was of no account
but I publish a paper the Santa Cruz Sen
tinel which many people say is of no earthly
possible use but they lie and I am candidate
for County Treasurer and I hope you are
well Mrs. Hayes and the Pajaronlania not
better paper than mine although the ma
jority of the people say so just to bother
me and I am going to be elected and I
don't give a damn and won't you take a
drink Hayes old boy and you are a brick
any way." Mr. Hayes greeted the Santa
Cruz editor affably, while General Sherman
was holding his breath for a hearty and
long laugh r after the ; Santa . Cruz . man
departed. /An hour or so after. the
above notable meeting, the President
received . a J telegram from ""-Mayor
Chace of Santa ■ Cruz, -asking' him to
accept, for a day, the i hospitalities of that
city. rg Mr. Hayes laughed heartily, when he
received it, and said he had already had _..
much fun out of a small county as he could
stand, and Sherman' acquiescing, the invi
tation was respectfully declined. .''..,
- I Consider _ Hammer's Cascara ; Sagrada
Bitters a superior medicine.
;••*-■-. John : Cleave. Sacramento. -
lIAMM-tR-s CMtyM Sa«raoa Bitters for habitual
constipation., .... .