Newspaper Page Text
SAIE.? EnOS Bebhfj-»oi. IIY-]M». nm,
SACRAMENTO BOARD OF TRADE,
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1880.
The City of Sacramento; its Trade History, its Present
Business Status, and Considerations Bearing
on Its Future.
The Aggregate Trade of Sacramento for 1880 Shown
to be $31,112,050.
The location of the city of Sacramento
was the result of those natural causes by
. which the sites of commercial marts are de
termined and maintained. The discovery of
gold mines in the mountain region lying east
of this city attracted to them a large popula
tion. The supplies for this population en
tered the then new territory of California by
way of the ocean through the Golden Gate.
The only practicable means of transporta
tion was by the Sacramento river, then, as
now, a navigable stream for boats of large
class. Sacramento was the nearest point of
supplies for ths mining population of El Do
rado, Amador and Placer counties, and later
for the population of Nevada. From its
earliest history Sacramento has been the seat
■of a large trade, but until the building of the
overland railroad this trade sustained a sec
ondary relttion to that of Sin Francisco,
which latter city by reason of its po
sition on the nearest - ocean harbor
made it the primary point of im
port and export of products and supplies,
and T.y.--;.y.lj the chief seat of the rapidly
developing commerce of this coast. Later,
the construction of the railway system with
in the State, with a grand trans-continental
line for its base and main trunk, developed
an overland and inland commerce of which
Sacramento is the natural center of distribu
tion. The steady augmentation of this in
land commerce has been reflected in the con
stantly increasing trade of this city. This
trade, now upon a firm basis, exists by virtue
of the substantial advantages the location of
this city affords. It is a commerce primary
in its character, sustaining no secondary re
lation to tbat of any other city. Its rapid
growth having attracted attention the statis
tics of its volume became a subject of inter
est. " At the close of the year 1877 these sta
tistics were collected, and presented a volume
of commercial transactions amounting in the
aggregate to $25,500,000. This volume had
increased at the close of 1878 to $27,600,000,
and at the close of 1879 to $29,273,300, and
for the year 1880, as the facts herein pre
sented show, to $31,112,050. For the better
promotion of community interests, the
tnaintainance of commercial honor, the asso-
c iation of effort to extend this trade, the Sac
ramento Board of Trade was formed on the
'24th day of October, 1877. Its membership
ie composed as follows :
y ACKERMAN ft CO.
ADAMS. mcneill & co.
ALSIP. E. K.
BAKER & HAMILTON.
BILLINOSLEY & CO.,
BOOTH ft CO. -
BREWER & CO.
CAPITAL FURNITURE COMPANY.
COLEMAN, W. P.
COMSTOCK, W. D.
H CROCKER. H. S. & CO.
HENNERY, A. &. CO. t_
DREW, N. L. & CO.
ELKUS, L. & CO.
Fi-LTbR, J. 1. & CO. -
FISHER, H. ■ ■ ■: '
FRIEND & TERRY LUMBER CO.
Gregory, J. yyyyyy
HALL, LUHRS & CO.
HAWLEY. M. C. ft CO.
HAMILTON, E. R.
HOUGHTON, W. A. k C. S.
HOLBROOK, MERRILL & STETSON.
HUNTINGTON, HOPKINS & CO.
KIRK, H. C. & CO. J
KNIGHTS, W. R.
LIPMAN & CO.
LEWIS. L. L. & CO.
LINDLEY & CO
LYON ft BARNES
McCREARY, C. ft CO.
MILLS, D. O. ft CO.
NATHAN, SAMUEL & CO.
PETERSON, W. F.
ROOT, NEILSON & CO.
SACRAMENTO LUMBER CO.
SACRAMENTO PUBLISHING CO.
BAWTELLE, C. A.
ROTH, GEORGE. . ;
SMITH. H. G. S: CO.
STEVENS, C. H. & CO.
STRONG, W. R. & CO.
STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO.
WATERHOUSE ft LESTER.
WEINREICH, BARTELS & CO.
WEINSTOCK & LUBIN.
WHITHER, FULLER ft CO.
WIEDIIANN ii Il'-OMADA.
After due consideration of its value and
importance this Board of Trade has author
ized its Directory to collate and compile the
illustrative statistics of the trade of Sacra
mento, and to publish the same, with just
•considerations of the present advantages
and future prospects of that trade. This
duty having been discharged in a spirit of
candor and fairness, the results, conclusions
and arguments are submitted to the impartial
judgment of the public.
What Will be Proven.
The considerations and statistical facts
presented in the report to follow will, we are
confident, justify and establish in the opin
ion of all fair minds the following specific
Sacramento is the natural collecting
and distributing point for the inland com
merce of the Pacific coast.
Second— lt is the pivotal center of the
railroad system of the Pacific States and Ter
Third— lt is the cheapest and most conve
nient point of commercial exchange for ex
port or import commercial transactions.
, Fourth The completion of the Southern
Pacific Railroad to an Atlantic port will es
tablish a channel of export and import com
merce .in successful competition with the
ocean voyage by Cape Horn, of which Sacra
mento will be the base.
" Fifth The development of an overland
and railroad commerce in the States and Ter
ritories of the Pacific will eliminate ocean
transportation as a controlling factor in the
growth of cities, and establish the great lead
. ing markets of that commerce at railroad
-centers rather than at seaport towns.
— The growth of travel and popula
tion in Sacramento will keep pace with the
-growth of the interior.
Seventh— the completion of the
■quicker and cheaper route of transportation
by rail to a Gulf port will greatly enhance
the prosperity ;of our people, and stimulate
•our growth in wealth and population. .
Eighth— That the cost of transacting busi
ness, in the important elements of rent, insur- |
ance and ingot is less at Sacramento than ]
-any other leading point. .
Ninth— That the : trade of Sacramento is
now permanently established, and is founded
in enduring advantages which will constantly
augment its volume. . ' . '...'.
Tenth— That as . a seat of : manufactures
Sacramento possesses advantages enjoyed by j
no other city in the State.
\ Eleventh— That as a point of distribution j
the trade of Sacramento will always possess i
: the T valuable l consideration cf cheapness of i
: freights advantage of time, which inures j
to the benefit of the purchaser am] consun||^
iZ, ■_ .-_.-.7._fc-nK^Mt-s.__,s: stßaKsß&i-&isfit____rJ^ma^U_
SACRAMENTO DAILY RECORD-UNION.
Twelfth— Northern and Central Cali
fornia, of which section Sacramento is th?
trading center, by reason of their breadth of
area of agricultural land and sufficient annual
rainfall to make a crop, will be the seat of
Thirteenth That as a place of residence
Sacramento presents high moral, social and
Is Sacramento the Center of the Railroad
In its early history Sacramento was merely
the head of navigation forthe class of steam
ers deemed safe for navigating the waters of
the inland bays. At this point freights were
reshipped on boats adapted to the upper
courses ol the Sacramento and Feather rivers.
The construction of the Sacramento Valley
Railroad, in 1852, afforded quick transporta
tion to the foothills in the direction of the
mines of El Dorado and Placer counties.
The large agricultural district surrounding
the city also found this a convenient base
of supplies. Thus early in its history
Sacramento became a distributing point
and manufacturing center for the mining
region embraced within the central portion
of the State. Its importance as a distribut
ing point was limited to the area of profitable
transportation by wagon roads from the head
of navigation by bay-going steamers. , Event
ually a new era dawned upon the history of
California. The construction of the Central
Pacific Railroad eastward from Sacramento
was the first real step in laying the lines of
rail communication now steadily progressing
toward the completion of a vast railway sys
tem. That system of railroads has, and will
continue, to control the channels of the
great inland commerce of the entire Pacific
coast, and from the first Sacramento has been,
and will continue to be, the focal center ot
that system. At Sacramento the great over
land railroad, which is the highway of com
merce and travel between the populations
of the Atlantic and Pacific divisions of the
country, found a tide-water terminus. This
line extends eastward 3,000 miles. Sacra
mento at once became a "through point," a
position she has ever since maintained, en
joying terminal rates for Eastern freight. As
relating to all commerce carried by railroad
between California and the Atlantic States,
Sacramento is the great natural center of col
lection and distribution. At Sacramento this
commerce finds, for collection, converging
lines of railroad, as follows :
FROM THE NORTH.
From Redding, by the California and Ore
gon Railroad, throughout all the fertile Sac
ramento valley east of the Sacramento river,
a distance of 170 miles.
At Marysville connection is made with the
line running to Oroville, a distance of 28
From Willows, on the west side of the
Sacramento river, through the great grain
fields of Colusa and Yolo, a distance of 88
At Woodland connection is also made with
the branch line to Knight's Landing, a dis
tance of 17 miles.
FROM THE EAST.
\ From Ogden, in Utah Territory, through
the length of the great mining region of Ne
vada, a distance of 744 miles.
At Ogden the Utah Central and Southern
open up railroad communication southward
over lines bow extended 141 miles, and by
the Montana Railroad, now completed a dis
tance of 348 miles northward.
Connection is also made at Palisade with
the line running to Eureka, a distance of 90
miles, and at Battle Mountain with the line
to Austin, a distance of 93 miles.
At Reno, connecting the cities of Carson,
the capital of Nevada, and Virginia City,
the metropolis of that State, by the Virginia
and Truckee Railroad, a distance of 52 miles.
The Nevada County Railroad, following a
line parallel with the trend of the mountains
from the cities of Nevada and Grass Valley,
the largest mining cities of the State, con
nects at Colfax, a distance of 22 miles.
From Shingle Springs, by the Placerville
and Sacramento Valley Railroad, penetrating
the heart of the gold mining region, 47 miles.
■ FROM THE SOUTH.
From El Paso, in New Mexico, and travers
ing the entire Tulare and San Joaquin val
leys — the largest and most fertile body of
land embraced within the territory of Cali
fornia — distance of 1,218 miles.
This line connects at Lathrop with lines oi
railroad from San Francisco on the west and
Soledad on the South, a distance of 101 miles.
Also at Goshen, with the line from Huron, a
distance of 40 miles. ■V- p
From Oakdale and Milton, to Stockton, by
the Stockton and Copperopolis Railroad, 49
miles, and from lone Valley to Gait, by the
Amador branch, 27 miles.
FROM THE WEST.
From Calistoga to Suisun, through the en
tire Napa Valley, 62 miles.
From Oakland to Fairfield, a distance of
48 miles. 7
From Vallejo and Benicia, traversing the
productive Solano plains, a distance of 60
At Elmira connection is made with the
Vsca Valley railroad from Madison, in Yolo
couaty, a distance of 17 miles.
By these lines the products of a vast and
productive territory converge in their move
ment at Sacramento, and by the same lines
the supplies for the populations of these re
gions reach Sacramento to find a point of dis
tribution by lines of transportation diverging
like rays from a center of light. In addition
to these, the navigation of the inland waters
of the State still continue to confer upon Sac
ramento the advantages • which her central
locality with reference to this river commerce
guaranteed to her from the first settlement of
j the State.;
i- For a better presentation of the lines of
transportation available to the commerce of
which Sacramento is the natural center and
base, they are briefly recapitulated :'•":-.',-
Sacramento to Redding, miles "...v.". .... 170 •■'.:
Sacramento to Willows . . : :. . . . iT: ....... 8S - ; •-
Marvsville to 0r0vi11e.. ::.... ...... ..:... 28
Woodland to Knight's Landing...:...:... - 17 -
. ... .303
[ Sacramento to Ogden, miles... 744*
' Ogden to Juab (south)... ...v: ..".-... ■":• -vf 11l ggg
; o_rrten to Dillon (north) ............i. 348 ' ,'
j Palisade to Eureka ". 90
Battle Mountain to Austin ;.:r.r...V.~.T; '•?. 93 :-y
i Reno to Virginia City.*: : '. . :2i:7.7f.-iTi7. "g 62 s^.£
: Colfax to Nevada City.*..-.". .".-. .\ . : ... : . . 22 ■■; ..
1 i-acramento to Shingle Springs. ;"...': ." . . : 47 t
•^^-^^ 1 . 537
________________________■__.' 7*777. ..;*Tr-,V7
SACRAMENTO, SATURDAY MORNING, JANUARY 1, 1881.
Sacramento to El Paso, miles. 1,218
Lathrop to Soledad ' 161
Goshen to Huron 40
Oakdale and Milton to Stockton. 49 '-
lone Valley to Gait....... ......-..: ....27
Sacramento to Vallejo, miles ... ..... 60 ,
Suisunto Calistoga :.........: ... ; 02-'
Fairfield to Oakland. .....:. :...... 48".
Elmira to Madi50n. . :.:.:....... ..... 17
Total of converging and tributary 1ine5. ...... .3,522
With all the sections of country traversed
by these 3,522 miles of railroad, to which
must be added our 300 miles of river and bay
navigation, Sacramento already enjoys a
large trade. _____
■ To further illustrate the importance of
Sacramento as a distributing point, the fol
lowing statistics of shipments are presented.
It will be seen that shipments to Sacramento
by rail are not given, the facts under that
head being inaccessible. It will also be
noted that the freight statement by steamers
covers a period of only ten months. . The
large tonnage carried by sailing vessels could
not be ascertained with accuracy.
EASTBOUND SHIPMENTS BY KAIL FROM SAC
- t - BAMENTO:
December, lSiii. 'Machinery 23,100
800k5... 330 Malt 21,990
Brandy 1,290 Miscellaneous.. 3,450
Drug 5.......;. 1,260 M0hair........ 5,560
Fruit, dry..... 2,210 Personal eflects 4,360
Glue 1,960 Salmon 150,210
Hardware..... 2,29o Tank car 20,000
Hides..... 62,460 Tools 2,120
H. H. goods. . . 7,110! Wine '..'-r 81,750
Miscellaneous . 4.150 Wool ' 522,810
Raisins 64,580 Total pounds.. 1,880,400
Seed, alfalfa... 41,490 =====
Tank car 40,000 August, ISSO.
Wine. 139,500! Books. 820
Total, pounds. 373,020 Canned fruit.. 718,270
— .Canned goods. 21,630
January, ISSti. Drugs 1,660
Barley 834,320 Fruit, green . . . 312,900
Books.. 1,190 Hides 184,760
Brandy 49,660' Honey ,370
Drugs...' 390 Hops 11,220
Fruit, dried... 1,310 H. H. goods... 43,130
Hides 54.240, Leather 20,700
H. H. goods... 9,790 Miscellaneous . 2,200
Miscellaneous.. 4,050 Personal effects 4,810
Per. effects.... 2,770 Salmon 82,910
Itaisiiis 42,8*1 Shells 0,880
Seed, alfalfa... 2,200 Skins, deer.... 200
Tools 390T001s 850
Vegetables.... 20,300, Wine 62,410
Wine 30,350 Wool 138,54
Total pounds. 1,103,670.T0tal pounds.. 1,686,700
7 February, ISSO J September, 1830.
B^s ,%'t™ Books . ,„;„
£»"? ' 39,'«| Brandy 22,260
Hide 5.. ...... 63,150 Canned fruit _ 1,030,260
H. H goods... h,040. C anned goods. 20,910
Miscellaneous.. 2,b90: c fc 126,500
Per. effects.... 1,300 D ';~ ' 6 ,
Plants*: berries '-' ° Drvl-oods 060
Raisins 21>15 ° ££ dry BW
Tank car 80,030 Fruit ; -;„ .. . 310,770
''„',. ,'„', .060 Hide 5.!....... 102,580
Vegetables.... 10 ,900 H 7 490
X 6 * ?*>^Jl Hops' 124,7=0
Woo > '■ °°°rH.H. goods... 14,530
__. , , T.TTrrt! Leather 20,370
Total pounds. __^6^. Miscellaneous ." 2,500
■_• , ,_,,„ : Personal effects 9,710
March, ISsO. l Salmon ,000
f arl «}' r?'>"SjTankcar 20,000
£°<* ? •- ra^Tools 410
Brandy...... ©,130 wine USB - 0
Canned goods. 80,860 Woo , „- m
Druss 1»310 '__
Fruit, dry..... Total pounds.. 2,050,630
Fruit, green... 180 * ■;-—-— = ' ~
s id^-^-— ™'?£i OJober, ISSO.
H. H. goods... 1°. 590 Books 4 , 0
Miscellaneous . 2,490 Brandy ; ; ; " ' / \; 31 0
M0hair. ....... J.'M Canne i mit . 622 S.-J0
£'•■ c™ l • ; 22,700 Copper 282.180
Per. effects . . . 3,880 Dl ™^ - 40
Pianos&organs _|.2^iFruU,'.iry_. .'_. '400
Plants & berries . W«^prs?gri_m... 667.370
I* 318 , 42 '" 1 • Hides.: 40,640
l?^, 3 ' .£*!. Honey 4,640
SI""* *'S2O[Jo P 3 106,940
£«*««; goods.. 13140
Tool chest 1,640 Leather. 1,010
Vegetables.... 162,840 Miscellaneous- 34,860
S. ln ? IW) '°?° Personal effects 8,350
Wool 210 Salmon 184,840
ni.', i Z7, nin T;ink =» • 20,000
Total pound j.._B3l o4or Tools ' m
—~ Wine ....'119,950
April, ISSO. W001":........ 25,670
Bears 21,300 Total pounds.. 2,063,290
Books 5,170 ==
Brandy 9,470 November, ISSO.
Fruit.dry 250 Blankets..".... 140
Fruit, green... 100 Books 1,880
Hides 84,350! Brandy 38,820
Horns ...... 860 Canned fruit.. 237,630
H. H. goods... 19,560 Canned goods. 21,530
Leather 21,000 ; Copper ; - 434,480
Miscellaneous.. ' 3,840 .-rugs 360
Mohair: 830 Fruit, dry 1,040
Per. effects ... 3,730 Fruit, green. . . 334,300
Raisins. . '. 42,690 Hides 82,410
Salmon 61,680 ' Honey 9,650
Shells 3,290 Hops 152,500
Tools .. 440 Horses (2). .... 3,500
Vegetables.... 122,350; H. H. goods.. 0,200
Wine 117,260; Leather 22.800
Total pounds . . 518.440- Miscellaneous.. 14,190
I Nuts ' 20,120
, May, 1880. i Personal effects '• 7,190
Books 590 Raisins 200,720
Brandy 4,410 Salmon 61,960
Canned fruit.. 210 Tank car 20,600
Drugs...:. '850 Tools.". 500
Dry g00d5..... 300 Wine -.. 101,730
Fruit.dry 400 Wool 3,204
Fruit, green... " 210
Hides 105,510 Total pounds. . 1,820,604
U. H. goods. . . 18,860 =====
Miscellaneous.. 4,400 1 From December 1, 1879,
Ore... 20,030 to November SO, 1880.
Per.effects . . . 6,430 Barley 1,091,930
Salmon 046,660; Beans 81,800
Skins and furs, i Blankets. .7. ... 350
deer 300 Books 15,719
Tools, chests.. 1,330 Brandy 303,120
.Vine 100,190 Canned fruit.. 2,708,390
Wool 86,230 Cinued goods. 518,660
Total pounds.. 996,910 Curios 100
===== 1 Drugs 9,490
Jane, 1880. I Dry goods - 960
Books 200 r<ruit, dry. 7,210
Brandy 10.640 Fruit, green ... 1 ,873,28!)
Canned fruit.. £0,700 Slue 1,960
Canned goods. 21,760 Hardware 2,290
Curios 100 Hides 1,163,720
Fruit.dry..... 100 Honey 81,530
Hides (-O.SHi Hoes 395,440
H0ney........ 200 Horns 860
H. H. goods. . . 8,060 Horses (2). .... ' 3,500
Leather.. . 950 H. H. goods. . 169,550
Malt 22,000 Leather.. 86,890
Miscellaneous. , 31,410 Lumber 20,550
Mohair .... 2,590 Machinery . 23,100
Ore, copper... 20,250 Malt 43,990
Per.effects.... 5,520 Miscellaneous.. 110,460
Salmon 249,900 Mohair 10,760
Shells.: 15,950 -S'uts 20,120
Skins an. furs, Oil, coal 22,700
deer ISO. Ore 20,030
Skins and furs, '-*•.'-" • Personal effects 62,410
fox 100. Pianos & org's. 1,930
Tobacco 580 Plants tt ber'is. 4,340
T0015......... 400 Raisins 414,350
Wine 64,990!?'a1m0n : 1,449,160
Wool 116,660 Seed, alfalfa . . . 44,37 >
- Shells 30,940
Total pounds. . 654,090 Skins and furs,
===== deer .... 6SO
July, ISSO. Skins and furs,
Books.: 1,120 fox 100
Brandy.. 14,220 Tank cars 160,600
Canned fruit.. 148,490 Tobacco 580
Canned goods. 442,080 Tools and tool
Drugs 7SO 'chests.. 9,130
Fruit, dry 100 Vegetables .... 406,390
Fruit, green... 247,450 Wine 1,169,180
Hides 230,540 W001..' 971,574
H0nev........ 8,180 :
H. H* goods.. 9,190 Total pounds. . 14,348.224
SHIPMENTS BT C. P. R. R. STEAMERS. :
Statement showing the freight shipped to
and from Sacramentc for the ten months end
ing October 31, 1880 :
. FSOM AND TO FOISTS BELOW.
To ■ ' v . 'p- From
Month. Pounds. Pounds.
January..... 4,139,349 ""-':'; 957,155
February."........:..... 4,115.758 : 729,660
March.................. 5,044,948 1,054,039
April ...... i 5,596,160 - 1,206,825
May...;.......:....:... 5,984,280 926,854
June...... 6737,602 >: 1,065,875
Ju1y...:................ 6,787,539 1,418,341
Augu5t.......... 7,541,217 1,587,408
September 6,725,634 1,972,908
October..... 7,511,504 2,075,055
Totals ................ . .60,214,041 13,294,020
FROM ASD TO FOISTS ABOVE.
From - To .V
- Sacramento. Sacramento.
Month. Pounds. - Pounds.
January 335,039 : - 146,92«
Febrnarv.. .:.....:-.. 272.166 119.021
March. ......... .... T.... S6o.4vi 312,431
Apri1 . . . .". .... .".'.'. ........ 513,757 174,633
May........ 824,309- 392,360
June..........-.....' 554,293 . - 523,084
July .: - 354,735 62.737
August.".:.-.": :.. 589,647 . '_ _ 98,233
September..:. :. 269,544 .'.■■;-' 68,030
0ct0ber......:........... 112,450. iy 11,750
T0ta15. ............. 4,136,422 1,914,211
T0ta1... '...........:........ .•......•■-•. 79,603.673
:'■ To the above must be added the tonnage of
the Sacramento Wood and Navigation Com-'
pany, which ' reports a total tonnage of 38,
--422,279 pounds as - the transactions ■ of ; the
same period. By recapitulation we find the
following :.._ -p.' ' ■-
Freight distributed by . rail : from Sacra- - * .- » ".- •: •->.
■7-- mento, poin__ds.7"-... i .-.'.:;'."..'.t.V^;':.14,345,224
By river from Sacramento. :..-.';.'..':.'...'.26,540,422
Total distribution* from this point ?. I tV. > 41,138,646
My. ■■ lw> _. l .i | y f ■ <|tf. "j^^rg 1 n 1 fl arrtJry^-^-^U-H^ |MBlrtl_gß
""• It will afford an additional idea of : the vol
ume of distribution to say . that ' duringt^g
■7_^-.----.",.*i_~7..y_7 ..--_> >.--,--r«.7; 77C7_7-._->-i _ 7 _*-.-._.-.■. .»._»-• ■ ______%
entire year of 1880 the shipments by rail of
freight originating at Sacramento averaged
,40 full freight cars for each day in the year.
i'Pyp The Southern Pacific Railroad. •
~ The completion of the ] Southern Pacific
Railroad to its objective terminus at New
Orleans an event now distant in the future
only a few months will place California in
communication with an Atlantic seaport by
shortest and cheapest possible route across the
the continent."/ Following that completion, it
is now the intention of the builders of .that
line to complete the connection of the Cali
fornia system with that of Oregon and Wash
ington Territory, by building the short con
necting link between Redding, in California,
i and Roseburg, in Oregon. This will give a
continuous . line of ' railroad from Puget
Sound to the principal port on the Gulf of
Mexico, through the heart of a productive re
gion, and as a triumph ' of ' railroad-building
enterprise will be second to no other under
taking of like character on this continent. I
The important influence and bearing the
completion of thii line will have upon the
inland commerce and material interests of the
great commonwealth of States and Territories
lying west of the Rocky Mountains, cannot be
overestimated, and deserves thoughtful pre
sentation here. . Its bearings upon the future
trade of Sacramento should also receive can
did consideration. California, Oregon and
Nevada have hitherto depended upon the
route by way of Cape Horn as the commer
cial line of export for their products. The
voyage these products must now make to'
reach their market is the longest made for
commercial purposes on the chart of the
world. The disadvantages at which our pro
ducts have been placed by reason of this fact
are numerous and obvious. Chief among
these may be noted the influence of the high
freight standing charged against our products
in their final market. This cause has oper
ated to admit our products only when the
surplus from nearer ports fell short of supply
\ N--^2laMdy^/ Fo|om oP.acervii/e j \
ill ')! ©Soip Luis Obi spV y / '■ j
RAILROAD CONNECTIONS OF SACRAMENTO.
ing the demand. This high cost of trans
portation has also been deducted from the
profit of our producing classes. The second
leading consideration against us was that of
time. ; An average passage of 120 days is far
too long for profitaUe shipment of annual
products. The recurrence of annual harvest
and crop periods disturbs and , unsettles the
market for products carried over a line of
transportation requiring over one-third
of a year from the hands _of v the
producer to ' ; ■' market. , The comple
tion of the Southern ; Pacific . Railroad
will change all this.;- By that line the wheat,
_ wine, wool and other 2 crops of % the Pacific
States will be delivered at an Atlantic port
it from ten to fifteen days. It is within the
. bounds of every reasonable probability that
. the i average ; time i occupied _in conveying
wheat irom stations in all the Sacramento
and San Joaquin valleys to Liverpool will
not exceed thirty days. ':,. This valuable con
sideration of time is ; reinforced by the fact
that the harvest time , in California is one
month earlier in the ; year than in any other
section of - the wheat-growing ■ belt of i the
world, and the further very important : con
sideration that by that route grain may be
shipped in bulk, thus dispensing with the cost
of sacks. Thus the important change to be
wrought is nothing less than a complete revo
lution in our favor in the (important element
of time. Instead of being last in the world's
great grain market, the \ rapid . transit ! and
early harvest combined will place the wheat
of California first as i to . time, as ;it always
has been first as to quality. By this change
we will be master instead of subject to the
- market. PP. .pyy 2 2yy pPii-.p yiy "x ' • -V-v'-'r
i'P In view of these considerations, it is within
reasonable estimate to predict an export ton
nage over the j Southern ' Pacific '■ Railroad of
[ one million . tons per annum of grain alone.
g^Mnr^e reexport * trade __? by/; any line i in
variably develops a supplementary im
port : tonnage over , the same line. - A
transportation capacity equal to the de
mands of the export commerce of this coast
by the cheaper and shorter route to the
Gulf of Mexico, gives a corresponding trans
portation capacity . for incoming tonnage.
This will be utilized, the entire situation
pointing plainly to low rates as inducements.
The Southern Pac'fic Railroad will obviously
be the great highway of the export and im
port commerce of the entire Pacific coast.
Its line lies through the heart of the most
productive regions of Washington, Oregon
and California. Its point of intersection
with the transcontinental line of the Central
Pacific will be at Sacramento. The great
system of railroads, of which Sacramento is
now the center, will collect at this point the
products of the central regions of California,
Nevada, Oregon and Washington, and by
virtue of its location, Sacramento will be the
first and most important distributing point
in that system. The continental road now in
operation proved a formidable competitor
with the ocean lice of transportation by Cape
Horn. : For all commodities shipped from
the East by rail, Sacramento has, from the
first, enjoyed equal advantages with San
Francisco as a wholesale market. The arti
cles of Western manufacture could be im
ported by rail and sold in this market on
terms equally favorable to the purchaser with
those obtainable in San Francisco. To pur
chasers in Northern and Central California,
\ Nevada, Idaho and Montana, an important
advantage accrued by reason of the lower
freight from Sacramento— by reason of
the shorter distance — than ; from San
i Francisco. The completion of other
transcontinental lines .will offer still stronger
competition with Cape Horn. The Southern
Pacific Railroad becoming, as it will, the
channel of export of the gross products of
this coast, will be a far more formidable com
petitor with the ocean for the carrying trade
of this coast, both as to export and import
tonnage, than any other practicable route.
To the extent that the inland commerce of
this coast can be done over these lines, the
importance of ocean transportation via Cape
Horn will decline. The commerce carried
on between the people of . the Atlantic and
Pacific seaboards will not double the Cape if
equal facilities can be offered by more direct
lines. . To whatever extent the export or im
port commerce of this coast is carried by
transcontinental lines of railroad, to that ex
. tent - Sacramento,' as a trade center, is put
upon equal footing with the chief seaport of
the Pacific. ■_, Sacramento, enjoying termi
nal rates, and ' located at the very heart
of the railroad system of the coast, is the prac
tical terminus of the Southern Pacific and
is in a position to reap her full share of the
benefits all railroad competition offers to the
ocean route by Cape Horn, for the trade and
commerce of this coast. ' The completion of
the Southern Pacific Bailroad will greatly
enhance the profit and thereby stimulate the
production of all the staple products of this
State.'' The great interior valleys" are on the
threshold of the highest state of ; prosperity
they have ever' known. . In confirmation of
this opinion we take the liberty of quoting
from the annual opening address of Hon. H.
M.'f .Larue, ;■ President bf . the ! State i Board
of Agriculture, delivered at the Pavillioii,' at
Sacramento, September 21st,) 1880, at ] the
formal opening of the late State Fair Mr.
Larue said :
;a"The close identity tet ween the interests
of | production I and transportation | justifies
some reference to the approaching comple
tion jof | the ! Southern Parific : Railroad .-•; I
have already alluded to the Problem of . trans
portation as a leading factor in the profitable
production of our, staples. *.r. The' completion
of the Southern Pacific Railroad will have an
important bearing upon all the leading indus
tries -:" o t jj* this ;; State. When i? the S t reat
| wheat growing ,-. valleys ' of ft paL : f ore ia ja; c i
connected with New i Orleans ;by rail
over the level grades of the southern route,
the commercial lines 'to the final market for
our wheat will be shortened by 10,000 miles.
We will then have a constantly operative
means of transportation at what I have rea
son to hope and believe will be reduced rates. .
The average inland tonnage on our grain now
is about S3 50 per ton. The average ocean
tonnage to Liverpool about $13 per ton, ag
gregating §10 50 per ton from the station or
landing to the ultimate market. By the
Southern Pacific Railroad the pro rata of
ocean to rail transportation will be reversed.
1 The tonnage rate from New (fr.'sans to Liv
erpool will not exceed 55 y^x ton ; thus
leaving Sll 50 per ton as the pro rata to rail
transportation, and without increasing the
aggregate rate. If expectation in this direc
tion is . well founded, the wheat product of
California will possess higher advantages in
the market than hitherto enjoyed. The com
pletion of this southern route will introduce
the now wanting element of competition with
the long voyage around Cape Horn. Sj It will
also enable the shipper to receive quicker re
turns. Its further advantages will be found
in the opening of markets for the orchard and
dairy products of southern California, and it
is within the range of possibilities to ship
green fruit and fresh beef to the English
market by that route. At this time fresh
beef is shipped from points on the Missouri
and Mississippi rivers by way of New Orleans
to England, and the time from Sacramento
by rail to the Crescent City is shorter than
the time from Kansas City to the same point
by water." "iiy-y
That Sacramento is the natural base for the
inland commerce of the coast is no longer dis
puted or doubted by those who have given
the changes to be wrought in the immediate
future thoughtful and intelligent considera
tion. With the growth of population in the
great inlying valleys the population of Sacra
mento will keep even pace.
ANNUAL RAINFALL, AND POPULATION.
A consideration of the highest importance,
as influencing the location of the seat of
, densest population on this coast, is that of
sufficient rainfall to produce agricultural
crops. Northern and Central California, of
which region Sacramento is the trade center,
possess the two leading elements necessary to
' the inducement and support of a large popu
lation, namely : breadth of area of cultivable
lands and sufficient annual rainfall to produce
a crop. Whatever may be the value of irri
gation, when developed, to other sections of
this State, it is certain that the sections re
quiring neither irrigation nor reclamation will
first be occupied and cultivated. For many
years to come the great body of the popula
tion of California will occupy the territorial
area of which Sacramento is the trade center.
The section alluded to embraces 20,000 square
miles, an area over three times that embraced
within the State of Massachusetts, and equal
to one- half of the State of Ohio. It is capa
ble of supporting a population of more den
sity than that of Ohio or Illinois. Upon an
equal area to that under consideration in the
agricultural States of the West will be found
a population of from one and a half to two
millions of people. At no distant time in the
future the territory of Northern and Cen
tral California will hold a population of equal
density with the older settled portions of our
country. ■ By virtue of her location Sacra
mento, will remain in future what she has
been, and continue to be the trade center for
the region destined to lie by far the most
populous west of the Rocky mountains.
Central Pacific EaUroad.
It is not herein assumed that the commerce
carried by the Central [ Pacific - Railroad will
be diminished in volume or importance. 1 The
Southern route will, as a line of commnnica-.
t'oii, create its own carrying-trade. -■;;. It will i
develop a tonnage ; not - heretofore carried by .
rail, either as export or import. :: The Central ;
route will still remain a continental trunk line, _■
connecting the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards
through the heart of the most wealthy and 7
populous f regions f of the United States. 2 It ;
.will', intersect the. Southern route at ' Sacra
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mento — a fact alreaiy noted, &_1 one which :
brings into view the advantages of Sacra
mento's position in the railroad system. , For
both freight and passage, the Central will
still possess the important advantage of
quicker communication. All the benefits
heretofore derived from our advantageous
position with reference to that line will con
tinue undiminished. By that line and its
branches our trade, with Montana, Utah, Colo
rado, Idaho and Nevada, will continue. The
construction of all overland lines, as already
shown, tends to the establishment of an over
land commerce in competition with Cape
Horn, and hastens the development of the
resources of the interior, and it is through
that development the future of Sacramento is
California and Oregon Railroad.
Reference has already been made to the
prospect of the early completion of the Cali
fornia and Oregon Railroad. This line ex
tends now to Bedding, a distance of 196
miles. Its present terminus is at the head of
the Sacramento valley, lying on the west side
of the Sacramento river. Its line is located
through the rich and populous district em
braced within the counties of Tehama, Butte,
Yuba, Sutter, and the agricultural portion of
Placer county.: The extension of the
line to Roseburg in Oregon will com
plete the connection of the California
system of railroads with that of Oregon
and Washington Territory. By this line the
fertile and productive regions of the Will
amette, Columbia and Puget Sound will
be placed in communication with this city.
The line will be a successful competitor with
the ocean for the carrying trade of the re
gion traversed by it, and will be the channel
of a large commerce. While this commerce
was carried on by way of the mouth of the
Columbia and the Golden Gate, Sacramento
could hope to enjoy but a limited share.
With the completion of a connecting line of
railroads Sacramento will be able to offer
superior inducements to the trade of Oregon
and Washington, For all trade developed by
that line and carried by it, Sacramento will
sustain a primary relation.
The route of carriage from this point wil
be cheaper and shorter.
Orders for renewals of stock can be filled
in less time.
The freight from San Francisco to this city
can be saved. ,
In short, the inland commerce with that
section developed by the railroad must have
its chief seat here by the force of all the
reasons which grow out of superior facilities
of communication. The relations of Sacra
mento and San Francisco, so far as applicable
to inland commerce, will then be reversed.
That Sacramento will become the base of
supplies for the section under consideration is
amply proved by the fact that we now enjoy
a large and profitable wholesale trade with
Idaho, Colorado, Montana and Arizona a
trade developed by and dependent upon rail
The advantages of Sacramento as a manu
facturing point may be briefly presented. In
the manufacture ot all mill work for build
ings, the heavy pine regions lying immedi
ately eastward of the city afford an inex
haustible supply of lumber. For the manu
facture of woolens it offers the advantage of
being at the central point for the receipt of
wool, and is the point of the largest receipt
and shipment cf that staple. By rail or
river coal or other fuel consumed in creating
power can be had as cheap as at any other
point. For the manufacture of wheeled
vehicles or agricultural implements the dry
ness of the climate is peculiarly adapted to
the production of superior articles. Equal
advantages might be enumerated relating to
manufactures of pails, tubs, boxes, cord
age, cabinet furniture, sash, doors, blinds
and house mill-work, etc. In the near
future the permanent manufacturing inter
est of this coast will enter upon its period of
real development. The one chief factor in
successful manufactures is cheap power,
and such a power is now in rapid
process of development at the town of Fol
som, twenty miles east of this city. At
that town the American river breaks through
a granite canyon, acquiring a fall of eighty
feet in a distance of two miles, affording a
practically unlimited power to be utilized
by manufactories. It has always been
the confident prediction of practical men
that this vast power, located as it is in the
very heart of the State, and at a point so
favorable to that result, would become the
seat of the largest manufacturing interest on
this coast. This opinion is justified by every
reasonable and practical consideration bear
ing on the subject. The inconsiderable cost
at which this vast and valuable power may
be developed affords ample guarantee of
early development. As a factor in profitable
manufactures, cheap power' possesses a high
intrinsic pecuniary value. This water power
at Folsom will be utilized because it
is located convenient to the center
of • the railroad system, and because,
when estimated by its value as a producer, it
surpasses that of the richest mine. But the
prospect of its early development is far
more than merely theoretical. A branch of
the State Prison of California is now located
at Folsom. Its buildings and grounds are
situated on the line of the proposed pioneer
canal. To augment the fall a granite dam
has been constructed at the head of the
canyon. This location was made under con
tracts between the State and the company
owning the water power, by the terms of which
the canal is to be constructed with convict
labor. Portions of the excavations for this
work have already been made, and within a
short period the entire work will have been
The bearings the establishment of a large
manufacturing interest at Folsom will have
upon the trade of this city are obvious. Sac
ramento will be the exchange market of the
products of such manufactures. Business
firms now established in this city as import
ers of many lines of wares and goods will
become manufacturers of these wares, and
in many other ways the commerce of Sacra
mento will derive important advantages by
reason of its superior relations with this im
portant manufacturing : interest. The de
tails of existing manufactures are presented
elsewhere in this report.
yy The Population of Cities.
Owing to the prevalence of a general and
popular opinion, leading to the conclusion
that the principal seaport of this State would
be and remain j the one overshadowing me
tropolis, the growth of Sacramento and her
trade, while steady in their progress, have
not been subject to periods of : spas
modic inflation nor discouraged by : the
failure of extra hazardous enterprise. ,
The manufactures and commerce of Sacra
mento are the result of legitimate demand.
For this reason : The trade of this city has
suffered no depression, and the growth of ite
population has experienced no check. By
the returns of the census just taken, the popu
lation of ; the city shows an increase over the
census of 1870 of over 5,000, being a gain of 30
per cent, in ten year.-". The present popula
tion of 23,000 bears the j ordinary relation of
proportion yto ~i its -.'supporting -' popula
tion. '■ The growth ; . of the , interior
will ?| continue y to ':: ; be ',: reflected f; in ; - the
growth of this city. -] For many years the city
of San Francisco drt laed ' all other parts of _$
. -r-T-. ------ ' ' "" . .7 '7- .--"- -■.'-"-.- ".' -77^-"- --V L 7 -_. 77 7,^77.7.7,^7
o ( «i.v BECOKD-innoir ser ns_%,
VOLUME XII -X -DUKES 114.
-the coast of their wealth and population.
This tendency has been entirely arrested.
The reasons are obvious, and a brief consider
ation of them here significant. In the growth
of cities an adjustment of the balance between
a metropolitan population and its supporting
population will sooner or later be reached.
We have been able to find no instance in the
older settled parts of the country where
the proportion of metropolitan i": popula
tion to the whole population support
ing such metropolis exceeds ten per cent.
The populous cities of Cincinnati and St. '
Louis have but 8 per cent., Chicago 11 per
cent., Philadelphia and Baltimore 9 percent.
The great metropolis of j this nation, the rity
of New York, even, when combined ,'th
Brooklyn, has less than 4 per cent., whu ■ ie"
combined populations of New York, Bos a,
Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Louis, etc., agj'.
gate but 10 per cent, of the whole population
supporting them as centers :of commercial "
transaction. The cities of , San . Fian- -
cisco . and Oakland contain nearly 33 -
per cent., an abnormal - propoition
due to causes now rapidly passing ■
away. The arrest of the now past tendency
of these cities to absorb the capital and pop
ulation of the interior is due to the operation
of those commercial forces which eventually
adjust the balance of metropolitan and sup- *
portive populations to their normal propor
tions. A further cogent reason will bo found I
in the development cf an inland and owte
land commerce, in the transaction of jfchich
ocean transportation is not a conti oiling
The foregoing presents the general . onsid
erations which justify some of the cmc usions
set forth at the opening of this report Tha
following is a detailed description of ilie city,
its government, public buildings, etc., J with a
careful analysis of its trade for 1880 J
Sacramento— Location. j
The city of Sacramento is situated very
nearly in the geographical center cf the State
of California, ,of which, by contli.utional
declaration, it is the permanent Capital. It
is located ninety miles easterly frrtn the
Golden Gate, the entrance to the chief har
bor of the Pacific coast. Its site is upon tha
east bank of the Sacramento river, the chief
navigable stream of the State, at the con
fluence of the American river with that
stream. Its location is upon be Horn lands
of those streams, which lands are almost fab
ulously fertile and yield nearly all growth
both of the temperate and tropic zones in
great abundance. Immediately east and
north of the city begin the up or table-lands,
which stretch north and east to the foothills
of the Sierras, and southerly down the great
valley, while the Sacramento valley extends
its broad plains in the opposite direc
tion. These lands, mostly, yield abund
antly of wheat, barley and other cereals, and
of fruits and berries, while the bottom lands
along the rivers are unequaled for bops, fruit
The city is laid out with exceedingly broad
streets running at right angles to cich other,
northerly and southerly, and easttrly and
westerly. These are from the water front
eastward designated by numbers up to 31,
. while from the north to the couth they are
, known by the letters of the alphabet, from
■ Ato Y. The system of house numbering
; begins at Front and at A streets with 100,
; and only 100 numbers are alloted to a block.
. But practically the numbers end in each casa
with 30 and 31. Thus a number once given
, instantly designates the locality with regard
to cross-streets— No. 1015 J street must bo
between Tenth and Eleventh streets, and COG
M street must between Sixth and Seventh
streets, and 304 Seventh street must be be
tween C and D streets, because C is the
third, and D the fourth letter of the alpha
bet. This system is one of great convenience
— especially to strangers visiting the city.
The streets in the central portions o£
the city are either graveled or paved,
and are admittedly superior at all
seasons. The outer streets are kept
well rounded up and graded, and seldom cut
up to an extent to render them lung incon
venient, even in the wettest season. rfy '
The walk-ways are broad and good, and
there is scarcely a street in the city which , is :
not well shaded by a close growth of elm, pop
lar, cottonwood, walnut and other large
spreading shade trees ; indeed, this ample
foliage is one of the chief charms of the city
and the pride of its inhabitants.
I, J, X, Front, Second, Third, Fourth,
Fifth, and the streets up to Twelfth, are tha
chief business avenues, the others bring resi
dence streets in the main. The streets are
thoroughly lighted with gas, and a compre
hensive sewerage system underlies them. " ' V
THE PUBLIC BUJLDINCS.
The city is not devoid of fine public struct
ures, and chief among these may be briefly
referred to the State Capitol, between L and
X, Tenth and Fifteenth streets. It : is .a '
superb structure, modeled closely after; the
National Capitol at Washington, with a dome
rising 220 feet above the street level. It isap- -
proached through a beautiful park broken into
two terraces, upon the upper of which tha
building stands. The Capitol cost nearly
§3,000,000, and in its construction the high
est skill of architect and builder was brought
to bear. While the exterior of the Capitol is
attractive in an exalted sense and impresses
the beholder with its grace of outline, mass
iveness cf construction, its finish and general
beauty and lofty grandeur, yet its interior is
equally worthy of admiration. Its Assembly
chamber is one of the finest rooms in the
Union, and the Senate-chamber falls below it
only in size. The State Library is a circular
room with tiers of surrounding galleries sup
ported by elegant fluted columns, and
crowned with a dome- like roof, and for beauty
is admittedly unsurpassed upon the coast and
has but few rivals in the Union. Connected
with this library is an apartment containing
a cabinet of minerals owned by the State of
California, and which is very large and of
great and rare value.
The State Printing Office is a large and
handsome building standing in' the easterly
section of the Capitol grounds;; The Odd
Fellows' Temple, Ninth and X streets, is a
building of imposing presence and architect
ural beauty. The Sacramento ' Grammar
School building, between I and J, Fifteenth
and Sixteenth streets, is a lofty 'and ele
gant structure, one of the finest echoed build
ings upon the coast, and considered a model
in all respects.' The High School, Ninth and
M ' streets, and Capital Grammar School,
Tenth and Q streets, are . conspicuous > and
handsome buildings, while the school build
ings at Fifteenth and X, Fourteenth and G,
Seventh and G and Fourth and Q streets,
are structures creditable to the city and the
liberal sentiment of . her people in* making
ample provision '. for : educational : ; purposes.
Masonic Hall, Sixth ; and X '-. streets, , the
handsome and spacious county government
buildings, Seventh and I. streets, the Golden 'xi
Eagle, Capital, - Langham; Arcade, Union, '
Western, State • House, ;"■; International,
Morse, . Tremont and Ebner hotels are all
large and ' substantial, and add to the archi- .
tectural importance c-f ; the place.'; Among
the more striking business buildings may bo
named ' the \ Orleans i Building, occupied by
Whittier, Fuller & Co. and James I. Felter
& Co.; the business buildings of Huntington,
Hopkins & Co.; the business , structure occu- '■] ]
pied ?by Lipman & Co.; the Pavilion build
f. ing, occupied |by Parsons, :i Kilgour .' & ' Co, '
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