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HIS EX. W. W. ARMSTRONG,
HIS HAWAIIAN MAJESTY'S
(iommtoiionM of Jmmijgnificm.
To Hia Ex. H. A. P. CiiiTEn,
President ef the Hoard rf Immigration.
Stnr On the I Ith of January Inst, I wns instructed by you
to investigate, in connection with His Majesty's travel around
the world, tho subject of Immigration, and you directed my
attention to thu following points for careful obsorvntion:
Firit That of scenrim: a class of immigrants who might
become n desimble population for this Kingdom, mid at
same time furnish tho labor which is required.
Second Thnt of correcting the disparity in tho proportion
of tho sexes among the Hawaiian people.
Thirtl That of securing a sufficient and reliablo supply of
Fourth Thnt of obtaining statistics and iuformntion on thu
'subject of immigration.
11 I do report as follows :
I have visited Japan, China, tho Malay Peninsula, tho
" Straits Settlements," tho Kast Indies, some of tho Kuropean
countries especially Portugal and in each country have in-
Moreover, tho strict laws demanded by the Iniporinl Govern
ment, including the "protector" provisions, extend to tho
Hrilih Col nie and any exception made in favor of tho
Hawaiian Government would bo quite 4 incon-i-tont. Tho
Hawaiian Gotetnmeiit makes no distinctions in favor of nny
nntion, in the matter of native seamen, for it considers its laws
on that subject just and reasonable. So tho Imperial Gov
ernment considers tho tonus it exacts from foreign countries,
aa condition of obtaining weak and ignorant British subjects,
as just and reasonable.
The Kst Indians as buioncns.
There is a great difference of opinion on tho value of Indian
cooiio labor ; but I boliove the prevailing opinion is, that, tho
Chinese are superior to Indians at tho sumo time tlii cooiio
labor is used with profit in many countries, and it might bo
und with profit horo. All of tlio Chinese are not superior to
all of the Indians ; but the emigrant laborers from Ohinanru
rather superior to tho emigrant laborers from India. This is
owing to n difference, in the social and religion- thought of the
two countries. Tho natives of the Coruuiundel eoasl, who do
work on tho nluntntioin of tho Malay Peninsula rcueivo
the ' double tho wages given to the Bengalee coolie in tho same
pincC. jUlll 1110 native irum .uruiiiiiiiii-i iu nui. milium
I long in the Mitlav country. Ho returns homo at tho end of
j six months. It is so in Uurmiih, where thousands of coolies
emigrate Jrom India, work a lew niontns nnu return iiome.
The East Indian nre nut an emigrating, people. Thoy nre.
not disposed t move from one part of India to another, or
from India to foreign coiouries. Orent eflorts have boon
made to movo them Irom crowded parts to the scantily sottlcd
portions, but with little effect. The 'tea planters in tho dis
trict of Assam havo great difficulty in getting laborers, and
already find that the high cost of getting them is making, in
many instance-", ilia cultivation of the ten plant quito unprofit
able! The Indian nrefois suffuriinr and famine at homo to n
removal even to another part of India. (Seu Indian Piiininu
vcstigntinl the subject of emigration to this Kingdom, both in ; 1t,por,j j)ur,ng the recent great and distressing famines
no considerable numbers offered to leave, or wore willing to
leave, their homos.. A fow living near the seaports offered to
Across tho Bay of Bengal is Burundi, one of tho very richest
of tho Indian dependencies. Tho demand there for labor is
very great, and the wage high. It is so scantily populated
thnt ten millions of iwonln could rcaimr nnu support, wnnin
aheffoliv -was this information given that mr short stay in In-1 scantily supplied. My own observations on tin
din was "sufficiently long to enable me to obtain tho facts which' confirmed by Mr. Co lard m his report pubhshe
- i i , ii ., I iwimn Gazette, June zi, lobl. i lie statistics pu
its bearings on tho question of labor and on tho question of
papulation. The official position, which 1 held as a member
of-His Majesty's suite, gavo me excellent fneilitios in rapidly t
pursuing my investigations. It enabled mo to obtain inter- f
views with persons in high authority, and to obtain access to
records without delay. This was the eio especially in India. '
Tho Government in Calcutta having been informed of His 1 its boundaries. But thu Indian coolie, though fully protected,
Majesty's proposed visit, and his desire to obtaiu information refuses to settle there, prolerring rather to cross the Hay of
"li. " t i r i .i i i i i i ' Bengal, labor a few months, and return to Iiulia anil ltvo at
on the subject of emigration without delay, made such arrange- , "'' .'..' ', . l . rpt, i ,,. ; ,iw, Ari.. i
, , f , . , ,. i t ii , ! homo till his money i spent. I ho planters in tho lunlti le
nient, that on his arrival the official papers were placed beforo njMSMm r0 sorciy prcs.ed for labor in working tho sugar, cuf
mi) for full examination, and the person who worebestablo to j reu nnd gumbier plantations. So tiro tho planters of Sumatra,
give mo reliable information wcro in attendance. So cordially i nnd comoararivelv high wages are offered, but tho demand is
- .. .. . . . ... . ....1M.. .... .....II rt. I Mi nn.li nKjti...itmiu mi 1IJ C1l1llift 1111
.....J .,...JW ...
eu m tlio -
blishcd by the
Indian Govornment for the year 1S79, offer strong proof oil
ibis point. There are nine foreign agencies for obtaining
emigrants in India. These aro located in Calcutta, and rep
resent Dcmurura, Trinidad, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent,
Mauritius, Natal, Fiji, Surinam and Gundidoupe. Each ngent,
by the requirements of the Indian laws, mnst be n salaried
oiliccr (See. 5). The agents employ "recruiters" to scour tho
country, nnd these :uo "licenced by tho Indian Government.
During thu year 1S79-SU tho 'JSli "'recruiters" obtained 20,000
persons ho registered as emigrants in tho different districts.
Of theso 20,000 only 1S000 camo into the depots at Calcutta.
Ten per centum abandoned their contracts. Thou 2S0 "re
cruiters" wero paid S-A 50 for every emigrant fi-ialh o.itetod in
tho denot. Tlie navmcul of this comuiu-.itively larce mi in
shows the difficulties of obtaining emigrants. Although the
agencies are located in Calcutta, the capital of tho province
of Bengal, which holds thirty millions of people, there wore
only three hundred and mx(306) emigrants from that Province.
Central India, comprising tho great districts of Indore, May
pore Jubblepore, lluyporo, lie wall nnd Gwalior, furnished
only ouo hundred and twenty altogether. Now here, in an
Empire of two hundred nnd fifty millions of people, in perhaps
tho poorest country in the world, famine prevailing soiuewheio
nearly every year, the rate of wages not reachiug live cents a
day in soma places, thopeoplu must be solicited aud bogged to
emigrate, and only 20,000 aro obtained in one year from these
millions. Moreover, tho licenses of one-seventh part of tho
"recruiters" were cancelled in this one year for false represent
ation to the proposed emigrant, showing that the recruiters re
sort to most questionable means to secure people. Tho cooiio
is unwilling to go. MUorable nnd starving as tho poorest
clasfes are, they aro not greatly tempted by a rise in wages from
1 to 2t couta per day. Experience shows that social, religious
and fiunncitil reasons, lfv no means creditable to tho coolie, aro
quito as influential as the prospect of increased wages. No
Indian, ns a rule, who has nny '"prospects" at homo seems wil
ling to leave. M'iny who nre Mckly try emigration, but aro
refused. The returns to tho Iniporinl Government from the
Island of Jamaica show that tho medical attendance on the
cooiio in that most healthy country, averages $12.50 per head
per an mini, uuriug tlio year J.s&-U, Uemarara, Liranncia, ana
' mainly determine tho question of immigration.
I will consider the subject or East Indian or cooiio labor
first becauo it has been more prominently beforo the Hn
I dcir hero to state that I concur fully in the views and
sentiments presented by 3-011 in your reply, dated March 0,
1881, to a "Icmorial on East Indian Emigration," excepting
only tho statement mnde by you that thu Indian Government
is opposed to emigration. Recent intorveiws with that Gov
ernment convince mo that they will not oppose it, if conducted
under strict treaties and conventions. I believe that there
has been, latterly, a change of opinion in this respect. In nil
other statements made in your reply I agree with you, and will
avoid a repetition of tho matters considered by you.
Before reaching India I found that the subject of coolie
labor was familiar to English statesmen in the East. In Sing
apore the subject presented a very interesting phase, owing
to a difference of opinion between the Colonial Governor and
tlio Secretary of State for India. Siugaporo is ihe leading
one of tho "Straits Settlements," Sir'Frederick "Weld is the
Governor. Adjoining this colony aro seiernl "Protected
States," t. e. States which allow, by convention, nn English
official to reside near its government and act as an " adviser."
It may bo readily inferred that the " advice ' of the Resident
is regarded as a command. Theio "Protected States" are
sorely in need of laborers. "With a view to obtaining Indian
coolies tho Governor of Singapore induced tho Governor ol 1
Madras to send Mr. McGreggor, the Protector of Emigrants in
tho Madras Presidency, to the?o States with directions to
fully investigate the Mibject of emigration. He did so, and
made an elaborate report, urging the propriety, safety, and
necessity of immigration. Upon this, the Governor of Singa
pore, Sir F. Weld, wrote to Lord Kimberlv, Secretary of State
for the Colonies, endorsing tho views of Mr. McGreggor, and
urging tho great benefit which would orio to the-o States if
immigration was allowed. Ho said, " My opinion is that
" thero is no reason why tho interests and 'welfare of tho In
Jt dian emigrant should not be as well secured in the native
"Protected States, under their present administration a
" within our own setlements." Lord Kitnberly, nnder date ol
November 20, 1SS0, says: " There is no doubt that the material
"prosperity of tho native States would be advanced by such
"an increase in the supply of labor, as could be afforded by
" a systematic immigration of Indian coolies : but lookim.' to
" thoserions difticnlties in the way of securing proper treatment fi . , ,1
"of tho coolies in tho States which aro not British territory, 1 7-?j
"do not feel justified in recommending to the Secretary of W,,"1W.
" State for India that the experiment should bo tried."
lonTnll therefore porceivo that the views taken by the
Colonial Department, and thoso taken by tho Indian Depart
ment do not coincide. "While passing by the Strait's Settle-
meutsi I met officials, and planters who wero f.nniliar wiih
K j$ Indian cooiio labor in tho settlements, thesu coolies being,
glTnerally "free emigrants," though' thero aro many working I
tinuer " contract and protected by British laws. The coolies
do not understand tho duties of tho "protector." Thoy bclievo
he is put in office to back them up in any complaint. Tho
planters are dragged off to distant Courts on frivolous pre
tences, and thoy urge that thoy aro at tho mercy of a despots
But thuv accent Ihn siln.ilinn na fliov -nti rlit-.i.."lli-i.-.r..... ,.
other place. These planters generally hold the opinion "that
Chinese labor is much superior to Indian j somosay that "one
Chinaman is equal to threo coolies." But thev aro rather afraid
of tho Chinese, becauo they refuse to make long contracts,
and, moreover, are intractable.
On my arrival in Calcutta. Mr. M. Macauley, one of tho
Secretaries of thu Bengal Government, at ouce put his services
at tho disposal of His Majesty, and brought mo in communi
cation with Dr. Grant, the authorized "Protector of Emigrants,"
under the Indian law,. It is the business of the Protector to
8bo that tho Jaws regarding emigration nre enforced. Dr.
Grant's cxporienco covered every point on tho subject of coolie
emigration. His reports on tin cuhject aro of great mliio,
clear and exhaustive. Both Mr. Macauloy and Dr. Grant en
couraged, instead of discouraged, emigration to theso Islands.
Bat Iv.au informed that no steps could bo taken by us towards
securing emigrants until wo hud entered into a " convention "
with the Imperial Government in England, as tho Indian Gov-
erntaeat did sot enter into direct relations with foreign goveru
k enU. On reaching England, I was promptly accorded an
interview with Sir Louis lallet, Under e'ecrotnry of Stato for
India. Ho informed mo that thero was no objection to tho
emigration of coolies to the Hawaiian Ld.inds, but that it
would bo necessary to enter into a " convention on tho sub
- ject," a other countries had done ; that in order to do so, lawi
should bo passed by tho Hawaiian Government himilar to tho.so
passed by other countries ; that these laws would ho submitted
to tho Indian tiovernuieut, anil, if regarded a tatisfactor-, a
convention would bo entered into. One of thu permanent
secretaries of tho India office called my attention to the fact
that tho subject had already been discu-sod with you, when
you repteeentcd oar govornment at tho Court of St. Juntos,
cm that a himilar statement had been mado to yon ; bnt that
no intimation had yet been mado that ouch laws had been
.passed. On mysuggoiting that in view of the kind treatment
accorded by u. to emigrant laborers, such au elaborate con
tention might be diiponsod with in our case, I was promptly
informed that the ncccsity for such a convention was impcra
it.'A tl.i 11. t ;..i ft ..., .. i?-i a . . ..
mu, nut mil iuijfunuj iiuvurtiiui-iii. uiu uui consider mis ro-1
quiremenl barsli or tiukind ; that unless thero wai tnch a con
uriitiottawi;? protection" the most salutary laws might remain
without force, and British subjects bo mado thu objecu of
" most iahumsa treatment ; that if foreign countries wi.hed to
employ Urge number ol British subjects, it wosoulv reason
able that British reprBUtivo tdiould bo prejeut toaco Lt
tho laws were enforced.
It will be efident to you that any modification, in our favor,
of the requirement of the present conventions existing bo
tweeu Great Britaia sad other countries, would be immediately
followed by a demand for modification by other countries ;
that the kind treatment now accorded to emigrants might not
bo continued ; that tho Indian coolies aro weak and ignorant,
and are considered (he "ward" of the British nation, and'
that the willed policy of a giaat and powerful satios will not
be ckasf ed at the requaa ol Um Hawaiian GovaruMitt.
at. Liucia did not secure tlio sniajl number ol emigrants they
required, and during the year lSfU -SO (tho last year in which
an official rotum was made), Demarara and Trinidad failed to
secure tho few which thoy required. (Seo official report to the
Indian Government.) At tho same tinio Demnrara is quite
popular with tho reluming emigrants. It must be remembered
these foreign S-tate.s aro working for emigrants 111 India,
well constructed depots, nnd tho business is managod bj-
men highly paid, and who uro experienced iu all tlio best and
most successful methods ot inducing the pcoplo to leave homo.
As about 20,000 people do emigrate every year, the question
urines, from what class do they come? If tho peoplo generally
aro not disposed to emigrate, is it not quito safe to conclude
that thoso who do emigrato are not tho most de.sirablo V Dr.
Grant informed mo that, ns a rulo, thoy tiro from the lowest,
the most servile casta in India.
With respect to tho expense connected with Indian emi
gration, tho rates of wages allowed, ,tho terms of service re
quired, I will horeaftcr present such detailed report ns you
may require. I will state, however, that iu the competition
for obtaining coolies, Surinam, for instance, requires only fivo
days work in tho week, seven hours eich dav, and gives a re
turn passage at tho end of five years. Tho official returns from
the Islaud of Jamaica show that the cost of securing the emi
grant, of defraying his passago to nnd fro, amounts to $280.
Etsr Indians as a Basis of Population.
In considering this branch of tho subject it would bo neces
sary to enter into a most careful cpiisiderntion of tho moral,
physical ..ud intellectual condition of tlie clnss of East Indians
from which tho emigrants come. I nsMimu that ynu and those.
interested in this question nre laminar with tho literature 011
tho subject. I shall, therefore, preccut only a few facts, which
in mv opinion should settle this question." Tho Hindoos aro
divided into mk Tho lines between theso castes nro strictly
drawn. Every Hindoo child is born in ouo or tho other of them,
nnd remains so for lifo. The higher cities hold tho intelligence
nnd wealth of the country. As you descend through tho lower
catt-s, wealth and intelligence deorenbe until the lowest is
reached, which contains thu ignorant and those with tho least
moral and intellectual power. Agos of social, religious and
political despotism havo kept this lowest etistu in such n mis
erable condition that thnt ttiey have become thu least valuable
" stock" :n tho Indian population.
Now tho majority of tho emigrating Indians como from this
clasv Low us thu'Indiatis rank bosiilu the European, tho em
igrating Indian comes from tho lowest class. No doubt some
of tho upper casto Hindoos do tmigrute, but I am informed
thoy are generally under a cloud.
1 do not believe that much can bo said in favor of tho moral
condition of these Hindoos. Their religion consists iu tho
worship of uutiorous hideout, and in many cases, grossly indo
cetil looking idols. Monkeys aro worshipped, nnd tomplus aro
contructud for, and aro tilled with, these Simian divinities.
Thq pcoplu in great crowds worship them. I entered a Hindoo
temple iu Benares, tho acrod city. Its dark rcccss.es ns well
as tlio open spaces woiu filled with most hideous uud
grinning idols, mado of wood and bronze. Before an altar
tho imvomcnt was, clotted with thu blood of butchered goats.
In the court-yard wero sovor.il '"sacred wclls.r A crowd of men
and women wore drawing out and using the filthy water. Un
dor tho porticoes stood tho "sacred" bulls and cows, standing
and receiving the worship of tho v&st crowd of peoplo who
thronged the place, while women gathered ''sacred" urino in
cups. Fat, hleek Btuhmiu priests stood about receiving offer
ings of money. I do not boliuvo that the-o religious rites are
in advance of thu ancient Hawaiian idolatry. If the Iudiuus
aro to bo taken' as a ban's of population in these Island-', they
must bo ttikou 111 their low intellectual aud moral condition,
and with all their revolting ceremonies, An attempt to build
up a nation, in the.e days with such material would not only be
offensive to the civilizud world, but would bo even ludicrous.
They kuow nothing of our political system, and would, remiiru
year of caieful instruction before tficy could understand it.
As these people aro protected by British laws iu the exercise
of their religious rites, howover revolting they ore, thoy would
have to be protected beie.
It mnv bo said that these peoplo would bo "absorbed" or
"assimilated " here, and their heathenish practices would soon
disappear. I do not know whoro tho powor of nssiinilation
lies. C01 tainly not in tho Hawaiian for it is generally admitted
that ho needs nid and support himsolf. Nor is thoro powor in
the foreign race, tho European, to reconstruct the Hindoo until
it has greatly increased its numbers. In the Aiiioricnu States
tho great vigor of the Anglo-Saxon stock, nnd tho largo popu
lation, working through a long settled and well defined organ
ism, has assimilated, partially, tho numerous emigrants Irom
alien states, but it has not boon without danger. Heru thoro
is liltlo conservative powor, and nnv large inilux of foreigners
of 0110 race, would iu time establish n controlling intluciicu,
which would necessarily modify mid oven revolutionize our
political institutions. Especially would this bo tho case if thu
now population received thu nght of suffrage, mid held n
majority of votes.
Tho ehiirnctor of tho woinun who should emigrate is of tho
utmost importance. Now it would hardly be expected that
the women of tlie class who da emigrato from India would bo
very desirable ns tho mothers of our future nation. Ucspcct
ablo u omen of tho Hindoo class do nolappenr in public, except
ing only tlmso belonging to thu menial class. Their religion
forbids them to cross the seas, nnd thu public exposure on
shipboard would be deemed a gross act of indolicacy. The
present emigration laws of India remiiro forty wotnoii to
accompany ovory one hundred men. It does not require thnt
marriage should exist. Tho " recruiters " meet with very great
difficulty in obtaining thu required nuinbor of women. In
sovornl instances the law was relaxod in order to permit a
largo number 01 ttieii to leave. Thu Into t rotector of hini
grants in India, says iu his oilicial report tl870): "The class
" of women willing to emigrato nro young widows, married or
"singlu women who havu gone astray, and aro therefore most
" anxious to avoid their homes nnd coucenl their antecedents."
Thoso familiar with Hindoo customs know thnt widows are
outcasts, women who lead misoriiblo lives, and nro hardly tol
erated in Hindoo society. I usked the present Protector of
Emigrants how many women out of tho forty who emigrated
wt-ro decent or rcspcctablu women. Ho said "hardly ton."
Wln'Io a few woiuott tlo accompany their husbands, thu larger
number aro recruited as singlu women, brought down to the
depots and turned loose with tho men, and herd toiethur like
cattle. It would hardly bo possiblo to predict n vory brilliant
future for n population coining from such women.
It nppears, also, by tho oilicial reports in India, that noxl to
tho Hindoos, thu MobamuH'deus rank next in numbers ns
emigrants. While tbuir religious ceremonies nro not as revolt
ing ns thoso of the Hindoos, they nro objectionable to us,
inasmuch n polygamy is u strong feoturu in their socinl life.
Besides this they tiro aggressive in their tendencies, and might
as they nro well united, make n dangerous element in tho Statu.
I repeatedly asked this question of Europeans who have long
resided iu India, "If 11 hotter class of Hindoos and Muhtim
niedeus should be willing to emigrate to ri' foreign country, nnd
they wero frankly told that idol worship and polygamy would
not'bo tolerated in tho countries to which thoy proposed to
go, what would be the ell'eut?" I was told in reply that
' liaidly onu person would emigrate" No doubt they might,
bo .seduced or trapped into emigrating ; but nny desirable
Schauta of populating the Islands must start with giving the
proposed emigrant n correct statemout of tho political and
social condition of the country which invites them. It is well
known that the most extravagant inducements aro now held
out to invito omigration. 0110 of the most common being that
tho coolie can marry n white woman with 11 largo fortune.
In addition to tho nbovo statements, I desire to copy nn ex
tract from a document presented to tlio Governor iu Chief of
Jamaica, and by him submitted to tho Imperial Government
in England, being 11 part of tho memorial of tho North Corn
wall Association of Baptist Churches in the Island of Jamaica,
representing sixteen congregations, numbering about 12,0011
persons. It says: "Your memorialists have repuntedh
" expressed and 'published their concurrence with the opinion
" of the Hon. (J. C. Bravo, that before a country can receive
" general material benefit from the introduction of popuhi
" tion, the bulk of the individuals emigrating to that country
"must havu ono or tho other of tho following qualifications:
" religious and moral education, industry, energy, enterprise.
" manufacturing skill, educated intelligence, or money capital, and
"your memorialists positively nflirm that tho coolies who have
"been introduced year nftur year into theso Islands do not.
" fulfill any ono of theso important conditions." Thoso men
wcro not speculating on what the cooiio may be. They nro
men who nro face to face with tho coolie laborer. It would
hardly bo wise to cast aside- this pnsifivo testimony, especially
as, it comes from men who from a religious standpoint have no
selfish end to worvo. -
As yon have not defined the term "population," in your
instructions, I have allowed myself some latitude in discussing
tlio question. Tho standard by which tho moral, intellectual,
and physical character of tho proposed population is to bo
determined hns not been fixed. Tho geographical position of
tho Islands will place its population between two immense,
energetic, nnd relentless civilizations, tho Amorican and tho
Chinese. It would bo a political blunder to initiato the
growth of a new people here, which cannot bold thoir own
in .every way against theso forces pushing hard from tho East
and tlio West. Np nation camo out of barbarism with less
friction than the Hawaiian, no peoplo evor received such
tender caio from tho fierco, powerful and oft on brutal races
wiich now mninly rulo the world. But in spito of giving it
tho best political wisdom of the world, and in spite of tho
most intelligent Christian attention and watchfnlnoss.the race
feols itself 111 a hard struggle for oxistenco. To put besidu
this rnco another thnt cannot hold its own, would bo to sin
against light, and would involvo thoso who did it inn gross
blunder. Only thoso should becomo tho basis of population
hero, who nre, or may become capable of fronting nntl stand
ing effect'inlly beforo tho stronger races which are now here.
With this standard boforo us, and after reviewing tho facts
bearing on the East Indian emigration, I do not ncsitato to
report that tho East Indians uro not suitable or dosirablu 119
Singapore, nt tho southern oxtreniityof tho Ms-tiny Poninsulity
affords tho best advantages for studying this branch of thir
snbjcct. In 131'J this pluco wan n village, but it law sinco bo
come n colony of alnnit L 10,000 inhabitants. It has afforded
tint Malay nico ovury cbancu to show its diameter, both as
regards labor, niul fitness for civilized socioty. Tho pcop'o of
that rnco meet nt this place, coming from tho roniivsuln country"
mi tho north uud tho great Islands on tho south ami west. Upto
tho present tinto this rnco has mado no murk irv tho colony.
Every opportunity lm.s been given it to niako n permanent,
settlement thero, bnt it has neither the thrift or cnuigy to
istubl.s.i ilselt .11 a YHAihil, linnncinl, or political forco. .Tin
tho colony the "Klitv's'' from India taku its nlnen iw
farmers, wliilo the Malays do somo business ns potty traders,.
tin inaiio goon servants in mo earn 111 iiuiscs,nsn ruio may
ivo way to tlio Chiticso in all occupations requiring thrifty
abits and steady industry. Throughout thu Malay .Peninsula,
in Java and Sumatra, lalorors nro needed, but tho Malays do
not supply tho demand. Tho Maharajah of Johoro, ono of tlio
iWnltiy btutes unjoining Singapore, has lately iimlortakun to
cultivnto calico and gambier. Ho informed 1110 that h own
pcoplo wero loo idle and thriftless to bo depended ipouritnd
ho wns therefore looking to China nnd thu East Todies for
laborers. It was in part in behalf of this sovereign, that tho
Governor of Singapore mado application to thu colonial oflico
for Indian coolies, nnd was refused. It is well known thnt the
Dutch authorities will not pormit emigration from thoir own
vast possessions. Thero in a vast amount of land lying idlo
in tho countries inhabited by thu Malays. If tho people of
this raco will not build themselves up in communities whilo
iindor tho protection of tho British Hag, or will not supply
the labor demand in thoir own Slates, it would bo idlo for in "
to hope that thoy might bocomu vnhiablu laborers or cilizons
of thesu Islands,. If the planters athe Malay Stales tire looking
to fitditt and China for lalnrers, it is id!c for ns to be lookiwj to
the same Malay Slates for our lalncrs.
I will not consider tho chnrncter of thu Portuguese emigrant,
for tho Hawaiian planters havo nlrenily had full opportunities
to judgo of the fitness of this race, both as regards labor and
population. AVhilu in Lisbon I obtained much information
regarding tlie utnigrants from tho Island of St. Michaels. Mr.
Seuinain, Vice-Consul for tho United States, ciiino especially
from that Island to meet His Majosty, and as ho has acted for
somo tinio us the agent of Mr. Hoffuung of London, iu pro
curing emigrants, his kuowledgo wits accurate ami intorcHting.
Tho number of peoplo on tho Island is about 100,000. For
sovornl, I think fivo years, tho oratigo has failed owing to
blight upon tho trees. Besides this tho inoreasing oratigo
crop of tho Mediterranean litis brought about low prices, con
sequently tho peoplo uro iu distress, nnd nro now willing to
lenvo their homes. Ah a rulu thoy prefer to go to Brazil.
hko its elimiito and thoir friends nro thoro. Bnt thov
Tho Jnpano'0 nro not nn emigrating rnco. Although Japan
is nearer to California than Chiua, and the Japanese not ou'y
havo nono of tho prejudices against foreigners which tho
Chinese have ; bnt nlto havo a great admiration nnd respect
for them, there is still 110 disposition to venture into Califor
nia, or other States iu largo numbors. Nor is it from want of
kuowledgo of the opportunities offered in foreign countries.
Tho high rates or wages paid iu California, and in Australia
am well known to them. The people mako no effort to emi
grate. Japan is not over-populated; onlynno-tenth of tho soil
is undor cultivation. On the island of Yezzo aro vast tracts
of land lying idlo. There is a Colonial Department in tho
Jiipaucso Government, and considornblo inducements nro
offered to peoplo living in the moro crowded parts to move
upon theso wntto lauds ; but, so far, thoro has beou little suc
cess in gutting emigrants. Tho Jnpuneso are not 11 thrifty
peoplu. In spite of the fine climate ami rich soil thoy aru
poor. Xo doubt that political conditions have had much to
do with their poverty ; but it still remuiiis that thuy aro not a
thriving peoplo, iu npito of tho groat resources of thu couutry.
Dr. J. C. Hepburn, now nnd fur many years a roaident mis
sionary in Yokohama, and the author of the English Japanese
dictionary, told 1110 that ho preferred and employed Ghinuo
labor. Ho said that there wore iudtibtrious Japanuso, but as a
rulu thoy were not ; that tho peoplu wore content with ricu
uud fish, and did not show thu energy of Chinese My own
observation showed mo that tho Chinese wero entering thu
country, uud wero showing themselves superior to tho natives
in the business of merchandizing. No doubt ns gardeners thu
Japanese rank high. I do not tny the laborers would not
meet tho wishes of our planters, but I beliovo thoy are not
equal to laborers from other racoi. Morality is low through
out Japan, and perhaps much lower than in China or tho
East Indios. White observers ducribo it as vory low. I do
not beliovo that thoir opinions nro ultogethor trustworthy.
Thu last census returns iu Japan show that the mules outnum
ber tho females by about fivo thousand. It is impossiblo to
lb 1 tell what a well-organized schema for immigration to those
Islands might accomplish. "Wliilo thu opiuiuns of foreigners
resident iu Japan is uguinst it, and tho high officials ot thu
Empire, though not opposed to it, believe it cannot succeed,
it is still possible that with great care, energy, tact, a consider
able number of emigrants might be obtained. But it must bu
remembered that there is really little moro pressure on tho
Jupaueso to leavo Japan, than thero is upon Hawuiiuus to
leave those Islands and emigrato to Peru. If u Japanese
wishes to obtaiu laud liu cu got it- His motive fur going
abroad would not bo that which come from great ueed, but
rather thu desire to get iiionuv rapidly and rUrs home to
spend it. According to tho ofccial report of Cutuui General
Van Buren the average rate of wages paid to the agricultural
laborer U $4.60 per mouth.
Undor tho present circumstances I will not consider this
brunch of the subject, but will, hereafter, maka a separate
report upoa it.
caniioi pay me passago money, nntl 1110 jjrazinnn planters aro
not in need of laborers tft present. Tho payment of passago
by tho Hawaiian Govornment is the inducement to ontor on n
long voyage to theso Islands. "While thu inhabitants henr
favorable reports from their friends hero, I do not think they
would be greatly disposed to fullow thorn, if thoy could find 1
labor nearer home. Limitations upon the number of children
retards this emigration. Married men only can leave freely.'
The unmarried only after a term of military service. Thu long
contract system of Jnlnir is not pwpnlar. It looks to thctnliko a
species of slavery. But they accent it Probably n superior
class to that now emigrating would leuvo if there was moro free- ,
doni allowed iu making labor contracts on arrival hero. Tho
Portuguese Government is encouraging emigration to its settle
ments on thu African coast. At the present moment a largo
iniiuignition may be obtained from the island of St. Michaels nnd
elsewhere ; but it may be terminated instantly by order of the
Portuguese Government. The emigration laws of Portugal are
very strict, and any vigorous enforcement of them wouldctn
bnrrahs thu immigration. It is most desirable that amingeiiicnts
bo mndu as quickly as jwssible with ti view to placing this business
on u more satisfactory foundation. If these Portuguese' are de
sirable it is of the utmost importance that us many us possiblo' bo
obtained at once, aud before' unforeseen events shall stop them from
immigrating. The fact that no treaty exists between this country
and Portugal ; that the emigration laws of that country, if en
forced, might abruptly terminate emigration ; that this Kingdom
is at present entirely deendciit upon this immigration for labor
ers who bring women with them ; that the Government has no '
representative there, of high diplomatic standing, who is ablo to
meet emergencies which may arise, cither from the Portuguese '
authorities or from the emigrants- themselves; that the whoW
business is in the hands of contractors, who may abandon' it nny
moment if interfered with; and that every possible precaution
should bo adopted to forestall any difficulties, urge me to impress
upon the Government thu necessity of sending somo cotniietyritj
person, without delay, to tlmtcoiintry for the purpose of estab
lishing permanent diplomatic" relations, und at tho same time of
putting the iniiuignition business on a more satisfactory basis.
Other and important reasons 1 have communicated directly to tho
Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Genkhal EunopRAN Immigration
While in England and on the continent I investigated this sub
ject, and ciimo to the conclusion that immigrants could buobtiiimd
from several of tho countries of Northern Europe Generally
tho Gerniutis, the Scandinavians and tho English laborers prefer
to emigrato to thoso countries which are already settled by their
own countrymen. But there is in every nation 11 considerable
class who desiru changu of some kind, and will ulwuys be attracted
n uiu iuiiiciu countries, j. nts cioss can uo mieiieu py our
Whether theso immigrants could bu retained in tlio
country, utter immigration, is n very serious question. The high
wages iid on the Pacific Coast will tempt the Northern Euro
peans away, wliilo tho Portuguese would not bo disposed to leave.
Thero nro in Euroo largo numbers of artisans, trudaimenj'aiid
manufacturers, who havo not been very successiul in business, or
nru restless in disposition, or believe that in somo distant country
they will bo sure to prosper. Many of these nmdu application to
His Majesty, and also to 1110, requesting, in nearly every instance, 1
that money should bo furnished them for payment of passago,
and promises bo mado securing them " luemtivu offices" on arrival
hero 1 discouraged this kind of immigration.
I believe it will bo difficult, if not impassible to bring into
theso Islands many of the lest emigrants belonging to tho best
races. The United States, Canada, Australia and South America
offer to tho most desirable emigrants that which they desiruud
will have, the homestead. Tho cmigrunt wishes hmd, and a fee
siniilo tenure. Nothing is bo repulsive- to him as a tenancy.
While these other countries uro offering great inducements to
emigrants in thu way of abundant and rich lands, at very
moderate prices, thoo Islands, or this Kingdom i' offering noth
ing but " contract labor." Wo shill obtain only those who can
not pay their way to the countries which offer them just what
thuy want. It Iwcoines 11 serious mutter iu considering tlio future
of this Kingdom, that while then'i is now a population of about
b0.000 only, and while it is estimated that 11 iinmilutmn .f ..v.,-
700,000 may bo comfortably supporhd hero, there is little or no f" "' ,
public land, or land which is Biibject to immediate entry und occu-
juitioii by emigrants. I havo no "doubt that this fact will greatly '
iiiilueiiiv thu social and puliticul condition of thu Kingdom iu tti ,
On tho subject of tho immigration of women only, with a view ,
of supplying thu deficiency of Hawaiian women, I reiwrt that
it is not poisiuto, at present, to obtain women lor that pursue, iv
In Jatinii, there is now a deficiency of women. Chiua does not
furnish what is needed. In' tho Easl Indies, thuy cannot
bo got, for reasons which I havo already given. In tlio Mulnv "
countries, it would bo impossible to induce them to leave. Tlmv
nro Mohammedan, by religion, and will not firwsake tho people of
their own faith. Even iu the most enlightened countries, single
women though hi want uud misery, nt home; seldom einh'rate
Theru are n fuw instances when such woiiun, in coiiBiderahl
numbers, havo left huiim for nuw countries, but in tlu i- u
was only to reich thu s;oplo of a kindred nice. It would hardy
h) expected that ignorant women, without knowled"0 of thu cf
istonco of these islaml, their people, ciiktoms and hioguail"
Hiiiiiu tioanuQii relatives nnu menus to enter a distant and forcii
Statu to iiuitu in marriage with men of whom thoy know uothii!
111 view 01 mo mci imu wo loiuign races in tbw Kingdom o
iinjtortant duties to the Hawaiian raco ; that every ihmhs saou
1i adapted to preserve, strengthen and increase it ; that the pol
.. 1." . ...v, W..UM , Buuum wj bo pnwerveu or mod
as to secure its integrity and rstuity, I strongly raoama
wai, in imromicmg immigrants, grwM earn m takat tm
an advaaturoiw, restless, idle or criminal cUh, which would
Aral In nrnml llt.i ..1...... ...J I..I L - It ' .!! .
thu cad seriously jeojMirdize their rights.
Tho foregoing report U respectfully submitted.
WM. N. ARM8TK0NG,
CommiUmer cf Jnmifjn
aeiou uoooiuiu, jioveaew UK, 11,