Newspaper Page Text
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 3.
HOW TO CHOOSf THM AWIt HOW TO CIVF THTM
The art of fjlt-lnj; ami tMrtg presents h
not an intuition. People ma) male n gro
failure of It, tvrn with a nr-ie full of money.
Am! )et there are few more charming na
tion than that of Iniying a prenenl ami of re.
ceiving one, epedallylienlt its liowght In that
royal spirit which ha no other Mevi than that
of spcmtlnf: ever)' cent we can sjnre, and re
ceived In that spirit of conpiciiou enjojment
which mark a frank and lilicral nnttire. Kvery
Wly with a few dollar to sire gives a pret-
ent at Chrlttma. A a nictlml of expressing
the good-will which the aoiwn represents it
Union? in consonance with the refinement of our
age than the lmlsteroin effusion of earlier cpo
chs liut it ft n hard to know what thing are
fcuitnlde to give, and this is partictdaily the
case where the reci)ient itolfcsi father, brother
or lover. Gentletnen do not care for the
r it MTV Tmtt.n
And decoration that delight ladle; and a for
real necewltlc, they arc very apt to go and
huy an) tiling that I a convenience just a
soon a it I iliacovcreil. Knickknack, article
of china, etc., ate generally iicIct to them;
they do not know where to put them or what
to do with them. Wc nw a gentleman last
Christmas receive from his niece an Inkstand
in the shape of a dog's head. To tisc It at all
was to lift off the half of the head, and make
a montnwit) of it. Kven If a person could
persuade himself to sit and write before such
an object, It held mi little Ink as to be practi
cally a great trouble, anil he would gladly
have exchartged the thing for the commonest
common-sense inkstand. Another Inly gase
her brother a carved hunter whose quiver held
a few wax matches. Of course a Ikix of ordi
nary lucifcrs would hac been far more conve
Are the most unexceptionable of holiday
gifts; but there is alwa) the danger, in choos
ing standard vvnts, the recipient may have it
already, in his favorite binding, in his own li
brary. It should be Ixirne in mind, moreover,
that men prefer book u)Maiitially liound in
Mbcr morocco or calf, to the dainty, fanciful
volumes which tarnish in the first reading.
Then, again, a lady cannot give a gentleman
a gift of great value, because he would certain
ly feet liound to return one still more valuable,
and thus the gift would lose all its grace ami
retain only a selfish commercial aspect. What,
then, shall wc give? Ilcie is a woman's advan
tage ; she his her hands, while men must trans
act all their present giving in hard cash.
She tmifcl give something that represent her
own life, and breathe of the qualities and
tattcs of the giver. She can hem some find
handkerchiefs gentlemen alwa) want hand
kerchiefs and in order to give them Intrinsic
value, if their relationship warrants ticli a
favor, she Ian embroider the name or mono
gram with her own hair. If the hair is dark,
it hi a very pretty, graceful effect, and the
design tnty lie shaded by mingling the diTcrcnt
hair of a family. Wc knew a gentleman who
forvear lost every handkerchief he took to
hi ofRce. At length his wife marked them
with her own hair, and he never lost another.
Such gifts arc made precious by love, lime
HIT 1IAKK PACT 01- KAKITV
v..in raise an object, commercially valueless, to
an esthetic level. Souvenirs from famous
places or of famous people, a lxmquct of wild
lh) me from Mount Hymcttus, an autographic
..,... ..I -...nil: gicai persoingc, nil ancient Jewish
shekel or Unman coin, home niece of iininue
or curious workmanship from Indian isles or
iiiiuiiu oaiars, etc an such things are very
suitable for presents to gentlemen, and will be
Tar more valued than pins, studs, etc, which
only represents n number of dollars and cents,
(jcnerally speaking, a gift only needs to be
wisely chosen to be as acceptable now as it was
m Ihcdavs of Solomon. Children nny leach
us a lesson on this subject worth noting. They
class their presents tinder two great heads
those valuable enough to be stored away in
their little rcKsitories for precious things, and
those tacitly condemned to be destroved, the
pleasure In the latter consisting in the fun of
destroying them. Now all adult presents are
USKI'UI. AND VAI UAULF,
Or else they are in'cnded to perish in the using.
Ilic latter class are by no means poor presents.
Among tin m must be named flowers, always a
suitable gift, because they are "an assertion
that beauty outlives all the utilities in the
uoiltl. Another expression of this class of
menu is something gool to eat. There is no
greater mistake than to suppose such presents
are not welcome. None bring the giver more
pleasantly to mind, and if the satisfaction is
short, it i nt least genuine and unallovcil.
Why should there not, also, be a touch of a
graceful sentiment In sending a friend a case of
wine of exceptionally rare iKimpiet as in send
ing him a case of silver snnns? Perhaps those
gifts are best which ate acceptable from their
htness, which ate litllejielps and facilities, and
hi into need. It is easy to believe in the kind
ness of a Christmas with. Unit is father not only
to the thought, but to a pretty dress or cloak,
or to some little luxury which the receiver has
longed to nosscM, though cihaps is not j'usti
lied In purchasing for licrsvlf. Such presents
as these show a thoughtful and painstaking af
lection i ; they have cost time and consideration
as well as monc), and have a peculiar flavor of
svnipatliy and good nature aliout them. The
expression of pleasant emotions naturally falls
,....,..,., uuu Ki.u.cmi lorms, out II a senti
ment of resK-ct Is also to be com ev cd, then the
gift should not only I beautiful, but also as
valuable as the donor can afford.
Your own gift; if it j, ,xx)r )ou lwM ,,,
have offered it at all. Avoid, also, such pre
tenses a "I could get no better," "It ai all
II had, etc.! and never ask, "How do
vou like It? 'or, "Does it fit?" If )ou givca
IWifil. .1.1 ,l .. .!... .. n
.....,.....,, ...,iv. nny names or cuiKirnli-
ought not to look auift-horse in ilir m,V ,.
wchave no tight togivc things nway because we
have no use for them ourselves. When a thlnn
is not giiod enough for Its present possessor, ten
to one it will U of no seivlce to a friend. It
may, indeed, l given to the poor, but charity
is not friendship. U js a teal li.irdship to liavc
to say thank ) ou " for w tut w c do not w ant,
and Tor what we know hat cost the giver
neither money nor sacrifice of any kind. Do
not give a person who is socially vour enual a
licher ptessiu than she is able to give )ou.
She will he mote mortified than pleasol. lie
tvvcen equals it Isoncnanilcgancelodistcgard
cost and dcend on rarity, because gold cannot
alwavs puahase it. Still, between very licit
people, ptesents should also be very rich, or
and g'nltulit'r " "' '"" '"eir i,tmm
NTAtR KEHJSK A I'RfcstST
However liumh e or valueless the gift, acccp
thego.H wit tlut dictated ,,. ActnowlVslie
but do no follow ,t b) an iiiimevlUtc return
-s..i.jjv. mi person ought to
r,....'. ; v." "i.V ,u "etain a lively
memory of his own munificence. Whatever
he receiver feels, the donor must .vol re.nem
her it as an obligation. It takes as lilxral a
lutute to receive as tq give-not to show heu
Uton.noi tobechuiirsh.and think lum.evli
atel) or luv ng Jo give one In ictutnt not tg
lw sensitively aiiiwjed at the obligation, but
?LZVX V"f"s l'l''c. lofcook u,,
It as w much gain -not in goods, bul In good
vill-and to W gUd rf the fc.Js.Ucsc it .S
to expre, our on ferling, a si,iJr liay.
Ilut they who would know
TIK HJIL MCASUHt: Of DtUOIIT
.te',."11 T8 lhc i'-"o of Eracein
rr,uM1.i t tlw.lr v-eJg,, nwu. H,, l(. w
scrlption In it. unless vou ate certain, first, that
he book will be well received ; second, that"
the gift will be tendered more valuable by such
aulocraphic diil.iv nf niT.vit,,., i:..f.
doubts, no anV.tati.W'-, and no suspicious con
siuerauons. ,ow, an ennuren expect pre
enln at Christmas, and their desire i mainly
for to). It is a wise desire, ami ought to lie
gratified, for toys are the alphabet of life, and
tnrmtgn them tney learn wnat poetry ami
property mean. Other thing will tie pla)cl
with, broken and thrown away after yearn, liut
they make their drt excrimenl in the art of
living with toys, fvo to)- are so good lor
bright, inquiitive children a magnetic and
mechanical one. A toy that ha nothing
movable nlwut It oort wearie a child after
the c)e iatls(led, if it cannot pull it about,
and pull it to pieces, it is a delusion, Then
Inly toy which excite wonder and specvilation,
for through wonder children attain unto know I
MAKP UP VOI'R VIIVII
That toy are Ixjughl to lie deliberately de
stroved. A child i haunted by an unifying
eagerness to know the cause of things I hence
the doll is merciless!) conceit, and the lamb
torn to piece. Don't scold if this i done- a
it nearly alwa)' Is In secret. "The youngest
chilil hat an inherited idea that all attempt to
see lielow the surface of things will be frowned
upon by the party of order. Though thee
arc such earnest and intellectual days, it is a
mistake to give children nothing Imt liooks.
Hut if liook arc chosen, then buy those that
appeal to the imiglnation. Reason will soon
enough turn them out of tint world of splendid
impossibilities, but they will le much the lict
ter for every vWt to it. Tor the Imaginative
facul'y is the precursor of the
I MlbRSTA.NDINO IACUITV. ;
The mind must be formed before it can be
filled, and imagination is the creative power.
"Woultlit thou Kiint for eternity," fl) Car
Ivlc, " plant Into the deep ficultics of man, hi
fantasy and his heart. Would! thou plant for
a )ear and a day, then plant in hi ha!low
facultic, hi self-love, and his arithmetical un
derstanding." Still it would Iw a dull Christ
mas If all the children sat reading C'liristm-i
Ixwks i therefore, buy them plenty of play,
things; as before said, they ate the alphabet
of life. Much of the existence of three-) car
olds consists in raid and recoveries of to)s,
A child who cannot take care of his to)s In
hah) hood is likcl) enough to fail in more im
portant things in after life, while the little ones
who can keep their own, and have no objec
tions to those of others, who can play with
ihcm cheerfully, arc not too curious aliout
what I below the surfacc.hivcalrcadyin them
the elements of successful men and women.
TF UQO'OK TRAFFIC.
W the recent Massachusetts State Temperance
Convention held in Hoslon President Seelye
maintained in his clal-oratc address that all other
questions now before parties and people, how
ever Important in themselves, are dwarfed in
comparison with this, lie cited the highest
I'nglish a well as American authoritcs, ami
gave carefully collated figures and fact in sub
stantiation of the ground he assumed, lie
"It Is admitted on all hands that some sort of
Ciovcriimcntal supervision and control of the
liquor traffic is necessary. The Western Liquor
Dealers mm .Manulaeturers I'rotccliveAssocia.
lion, at its recent meeting at Kock Island, III.,
expresses itself as decidedly in favor of a license
system, quite forgetting the argument often
used that more liquor is sold under the Pro
hibitory than under the License law. Hut the
licensing of intoxicationg liquors carried with it
a greater peril than their unrestricted sale, be
cause while the license practically puts no bar
upon the bu)cr, and thus makes it just as easy
to obtain anil use intoxicating liquors as if their
sale were free to cvcr)!ody, it docs waken the
force of the great moral restraint which ought
to control the seller; it does encourage him
in his buisness with the nominal support of the
community, and worse than all, it perverts
and blinds the moral vision of the community
itself. If the sale of intoxicating liquors as a
beverage, licensed or unlicensed, tends toward
the intemperance, the impoverishment, the
vice and the crime of the community and that
it docs have this influence is so plain that it no
longer needs proof with intelligent men then
such a sale is clearly wrong and to call it right
by act of legislature, or to suppose it made
right by the pa)ment of a sum of money and a
license, not Only leaves the wrong just where
it was before and does not chance its essential
character in the least but it makes the community
a parly in the w rung. When any cople comes
to icei mat tne tigni iiepenus tqion statutes,
and can be made or unmade by acts of Leg
islature or voles of a Commonwealth, and that
what is wrong can be turned into right by a
license or an)lhing else, than the vigor and
purity of that people's moral life have begun to
decay. I hold, therefore, that prohibition in
in this matter is wise statesmanship as well as
sound ethics, ami while I do not anticipate an
immediate ictory from the use of this weapon,
nor an ultimate victory if we do not employ
other wea)onsalso; while I do not believe that
prohibition atone will stop the use of strong drink
any more than it will stop the prevalence of
gambling, or of theft, or any other crime, I
would make it clear by statute that it is a crime,
because in the language of the great English
statcman now leading the Government of the
British Umpire, 'It is the duty of the Govern
ment to make it as hard as KssibIe for a man
to go wrong, anil as easy as ossible for him to
FACTS ABOUT XEH'SirEKS.
lly some unaccountable misapprehension of
ucis, ooscrves an American contemporary,
there is a targe class of people in the world
who think that it costs little or notliini' to run
a new spaper, and if they buy a copy occasionally
iiicj- uic irgmar patrons, aim ciililleil to un
limited favors. Men ask for a copy of a news
paper who would never dream of begging a
jiockct handkerchief from a dry-goods store,
or a piece of canity from a confectioner, even
on the plea of having done buisness with them
once belore. One paper is not much, but
thirty or forty at each issue will amount to
something in the course of time, liut this is a
small dram compared to the free advertising a
newstraper is expected to do. Some iieople,
when thev once nav for an .-lilwitUiiu-ni. iliinL
they ate stockholders in the establishment forJ
eternity. nhout being represented ill its ad
vertising columns, we have had oeonlt- niiu.-si
us to gratuitously insert this notice, or draw at
tention to this article, with the slight suggestion
that "It will not cost vou an) thing to put this
In" which is lust as ridiculous as i asL a m-m
to grind your axe on his grindstone, and gra
ciously tell him it won't cos! him a cent. It
takes money to run a newspaper as well as
-11 unit, uiisiucssi no inner can succeed finan
cially that carries a dead-head s)stem. Any
mention ofjseople's affairs that they are anxious
to see in print is worth luting for, and when
printed is generally worth as much as any other
investment of the same amount. The news
paiier business is very exacting on alt con
nected with it, and the uy is comparatively
small; the proprietor risks more money for small
profits, and the editors, reporters, and printers
work harder and cheaper than the same number
of men In any other profession requiting the
given amount ofiiitelligence.lraining.anddiudg.
eiy. The life has its charms and pleasant as
sociations, scarcely knownto the outside world,
but has its earnest work and anxieties, and hours
of exhaustioiij which also are not known to
those who think the business all fun. The
Idea that new spai-erdoin is a dunned circle,
whete the favored members lite a life of case,
and free from care, and git to the circus at
night on free tickets, and to Coney island on
free passes in the summer, is an idea which
should lie exploded. Ilusiness Is business, and
the journal tful succeeds is one that is run on a
squaie business fooling, the same as banking,
building biidges, or keeping a hotel, A' r.
rOH'KCS OF A GKKAT MOXCIAD.
The new twin-sctew double turret vessel
IXxnJol, belonging to the Ko)al Italian Navy,
has just completed lhc trials of the machinery
previous to joining the squadron in the Med
iterranean, Kxcepting the omission of the In
tcinal tortvedo deck, she resembles the sister
ship Lhitlh in tier general arrangement, but she
has considerably turiusscd her in sixxd. The
IXntihU was built at the Koval Navv Annul
at Spcuion, under the supervision of Dncctor
-..h.,., -, -n sukkcsuuii me wnoieoi tn
bow plating is wotktxj flush. Instead of tin
plate overlapping, as usual. The length of the
k T J-'7 ,,:v, mcnci lhe '"' draught at
the tiul with armament mi lui.ir.1 u& -fi r.. n
lhc lutlery is heavily armed, and is iilaced In
lhc middle of the vessel; the two turrets use
abovethe weather deck, and are placed di
agonally in the battery, so as to enable all four
guiu to be fired fore and aft. The armor of the
tuticts is impenetrable to all except the .heavi
est modem attilleiy, Kachlurtct contains two
loo-ton Armstrong guns, made at Klswick, hav
ingaboie seventeen and seventy-two one-hun-ilrcdths
inches, throwing a shot i.oiS iwunds,
with a maximum of 511 pounds of powder, the
ordinary etiarge being 335 pound. The tur
rits and guns are moved and worked by a com
plete system ofh)draulicgeainudeat Klswick.
The loading U also dqnc by the same means,
the rammer being below, the weather dk and
arranged to enter the gun when the muule are
I depressed lur that nurDose. Iklvvecn the lur
j ret I situited the mast, which really assume
the function of a look out tower, a there are no
The Djihfoh carries four large steam lau e
dies and eight other Usats, all hung upon
hinged davit, which arc wotked from the steam
capstan, and will hoist them right on board.
She is propelled by twin crews, wotked by
two indecndcnt iKtlrs of engines, which were
contracted to Indicate a maximum power of
7,500 horse. 1hec engine, together with
pumping and blowing engine, were constructed
by Mamlsley Sons .; Field, of Imdon. They
arc the first comxund engines which were or
dered for the royal Indian matinc, though the)
have lieen waiting the completion of the ship at
Spima since 187G, when they were brought
out in the ro)al transport Fmvv. Ilach set
of engine is placed In a cpiratc water-tight
compiitmcnt, one at each side of the vessel.
Instead of lieing side by side, the) arc situated
one In advance of the other, the alternate space
being occupied by the magazines, which are
placet! immediately below the turrets. litch
pair of engines has one high-pressure c) tinder,
b inches in diaineter, and one low-ptcssiire
120 inches in diameter, with a stroke of four
feet Steim of lxty-fire pound pressure Is
supplied h) eight large oval and double-ended
boilers, hiving thirtv two furnaces In nil, I'our
boilers arc placed orward of the engine, and
the other four aft; lull each pair of Ixjilcrs
is containcil in a separate water-tight compart
ment. The chimnc), which arc ample sire
and height, arc built of one-Inch plate from the
main deck to the (l)ingdeck .tlxivc the turrets,
so a to enable them to withstand the great
shock produced by the discharge of the guns.
On the 25 of May lhc IXiinhh proceeded to
sea for her first official triil, under the command
of Cnminandantc V,. Acton, who was accom
panied by Admirals Martin-1 rankhn and Cnimi.
I he run to Clenoi and back was accomplished
without stopping in six hours and twenty-eight
minutes, with a mean indicated horsc-powcr of
nearly 7,200, and a maximum of 7,415 and
the speed obtained was !$) knots, with a
consumption of 51 ton of coal. l.oinhn
WHEN F.ARTlll.Y LIGHTS FAILED.
Daniel Webster cast a spell over man. When
he s)okc, minds equal to his own wereswa)cd
by his power. Kven the sweep of his stalnatt
ami overcame them. The scholars among his
political foes appreciated his intellectual force
and his almost faultless use of the Knglish lan
guage. In the vigor of his manhood, sculptors and
printers thought him the pctfection of manly
beauty. To this day men show that they arc
fascinated by hi memory, for they talk much
aliout him, and earnestly discuss his character
They love to miiseotcr those last words, which
winged their way from his helmed Marshticld
home, in the cool New England October of
The great frame was shattered by the seventy
tears of liberal, energetic life, bul the giant's
mind was vigorous and reasonabe. Ill last
words were his weightiest words, for they are
permeated by lhc noblest things, sweetness and
"I shall die to-night," said Daniel Webster
to his friend and physician, Dr. Jeffries, on
Saturday, Oct. 3.
"Vou are right, sir," was all the reply
which grief permitted. In the evening his
last will was brought to him. Signing it, he
said, "Thank God for strength to do a sen
sible act; O God I I thank thee for all thy mer
cies!" Mr. George T. Curtis, his biographer, no
ticing that the dying statesman was about to
speak at some length, thought his words should
be recorded. Sealing himself at a little table,
near the bed, he carefully wrote down these
words, which were spoken slowly, and in a
tone that made them audible throughout the'
"My general wish on earth has been to do
my Master's will.
"That there is a God all must acknowledge.
I see Him in all these wondrous works. Him
self, how wondrous I
"What would be the condition of any of us if
wc had not the hope of immortality? What
ground is there to rest uxn but the Gospel?
" There were scattered hopes of the iinnv
tahty or the soul, especially among the J
The Jews believed in a spiritual origin of
uuu. me jsoiuaus never reached
Greeks never rached it.
"It is tradition that communication was
made to the Jews by God Himself through
Moses. There were intimations crepuscular,
"Hut but but thank God, the gospel
of Jesus Christ brought life and immortality to
light rescued it brought it to light."
Then in a voice in which there was no tone of
weakness, he repeated the Lord's Prater nml
closed it with this benediction: "Peace on earth
and good-will to iqcn, that is the happiness.
the essence good-will to man."
This was lhe last unrevised speech of the
great orator and logician. Hut his last revised
spech is engraved upon the marble of the tomb
stone that markes Ins grave. Written, revised,
and signed by Daniel Webster, a few days
before his death, they read as followcs:
"Philosophical argument, especially that
drawn from the vastness of the universe as com
pared with the apparent insignificance of the
globe lias often shaken my reason for the faith
that is in me; but my heart has assured and
reassured me the gospel of Jesus Christ must
be a devine reality.
"The sermon on the Mount cannot be a
merely human production. This lwlief enters
into thevety depth of iny conscience. The
whole history of man proves it."
THE ART PRESERVATIVE AXD
It is difficult to say at what period of the
world's history people did not have ideas uikii
this subject, which were the germs of what
us iu come in alter ages. Tie imini.s on
ol the hand or foot, or of some other object.
made in soft mud or clay and then hardened
by time, or baked by the heat of the sun, must
have suggested a simple and intcligcnt mode
of conveying an idea, before the invention
or any kind of writing. Accordingly these
and other signs are found to comivose the
chief characters of the earliest writings of
which wc have any knowledge, and which are
called S)mliolic. .
We find certain evidence that more that
2,000 v ears before our era a method of
multij)l)ing impressions, or, In oilier words,
printing existeif; and if we come down to
he tune of the great city of Itabylon,
which owed its chief greatness to Nebuchad,
nenar, vjlio died 561 years before Chrislt
we sec the btick with which everv Important
structure was composed the name -,( iir
wicked king Is stamped thereon; and the
tamping must have been done with a dis
or iv pe, on which was raised character
capable of producing an impression.
The ruins of Ilabtlon at this day consist
mainly or three nioundst 1. Ilabil, probably
...s. .....lu.i , Cius. . me ivasr, or
unite 01 wauuenannerrar. hi is m ,,.,.
gular square, about 700 yards each way
surmounted with the remains of a squares
structure, the walls of which are composed
or burnt brick or a pale yellow color, of ex.
celleni quality, bound together with lime
cement and stamped with the name of Nebu
chaducirar. J. A mound now called Amran,
of ii regular triangular shape, and supposed to
be the rums of a palace older than Nebucha.
dnemrs, for bricks have been found there
Inscribed with the names of more ancient kincs
than he. 1 hat it should hat e been iIhu.X
worth while to print inscriminns !.,., ,,,.fi.i
destined lo be buill into their ,kA.ii;t ...
gues thai the process was not only an uncom
mon one. but also that there nmlinhl,- .;.,.i
at the same time a more advanced am! more
elegant mule of imprinting in their domestic
and ornamental ails. In fict. uln...,i.
nuns existing of articles or different form and
sires, from a foot high lo the sire of a signet
to winch pimio.se lhc latter were prolubly
applied, a their shape Indicated they had lcen
worn as linger rings, or hung about the
ueck tike a cliaim or amulet and all
stamped with some characters. After this a
long lime elapcd Ufote the practice of trans-
inni'K siiaiatiers 110111 a tile in anv mlitim..
cc, or, iii other words, printing was known
u ;, eieu vuuquiaiivciy emitted people.
I here is reason to believe that punting
from characters engraved uiwn wooden blocks
was known to the Chinese in the sixth century
though we scarcely hear anything of its appls
cation for four centuries after, until the advan
tages of the art berime so manifest that we
aic told that In 932 Fung Taou and U Vu,
two ministers of the Latter Han, luemoraliied
the htone to have the ' Nine Classics "-,
which had hither to existed only in the
manuscript revised and mint.! .n.t 1.
about twenty year copies were in circulation.
Hut it was notfintil the close to the Ihirteenlh
century that 1110.1 of the literature of former
age, which had also existed only as writing
upon ntanusciints, had been printed.
1 T.hc "JS""' method of priming was from
blocks of wood. The subiect to Lenriml
,.. . .........
was written upon paper, which was then laid
face downward upon a smooth block of hard
wood, tothe surface of which the inkwas trans
ferred. All of the wood, except the inked
line, wa then cut away with a sharp Instru
ment, leaving the letters or characters In relief.
Each plate thu made formed a page, and
the printing wa done by firt inking lhe char
acters and then pressing a sheet of paper utwn
them, cither with the hand or a soft brush,
thus giving the impression. Illock printing,
after the l hinese method, vva practiced In
Italy, Siviin and Sicily for design nn fabric
of llk and cotton, which were printed In ink,
a early as the lat year of the twelfth century.
The next obvious advance wa the engrav
ing of picture upon wooden blocks, and it i
generally agreed that the art wa Invented
toward the end of the thirteenth century by a
member of the family of Cimiolordi of Imola
Movable tvpe, uch a arc now used in prin
ting, were a European invention sand practically
the art of printing waited for the development
of the manufacture of ancr, which wa not a
staple of commerce before the close of the
fourteenth century. And again we find the
Chinese in lhe adtancc here, for they were the
first to form from vegetable fiber the web which
constitute modern paper. They used the
Ijatk of several trees, especially the inulbcrty,
the Intnlwo, reduced to pulp by beating; the
straw ofrice and other grain, silk, collon and
rags of different kinds.
It I still a question undecided a lo the
Ijcrson who invented, the place and the time of
the invention, ofniovahlct)ic and the bringing
of them into practical use. The honor rest
between the Dutch, who claim the honor for
UaurcnctlCostcr, of I laarlcm, whodied in 1.(40,
and the Germans, who claim it" for johann
Gutenberg, of McnUc, who died In 146S;
Jolnnn Pausl, or Pust, ofMcnljc, who died In
146C: and his son-in-law, Peter S'chofTcr, who
died in 1 502. The Dutch place the dale of
invention In 1423, and generally hold that
Coster was the real inventor, and that Gtiten
burg, one of Ii! workmen, (olc the invention
and claimed it as his own.
In 1 156 Johann Gutcnburg completed the
printing of the lliblc in Latin, a folio volume of
637 leaves, primed on vclluin a find kind of
parchment made from the skin of calves, kids
or lambs ami the work must have occupied
The art of printing was first practiced in
Italy in 1465, in l'rancc in 1469, in England in
1474. in Spain in 1475. In itoo their were
t,tl. rtluilil lain 1. a ... I . 1 ..!...?! at . , ..
.....j ..ln,u. ,,tv, iiuiiuivu priming omccs in all
Lurope scarcely more than arc now found in
one of our lame cities.
It is not necessary in this aliclc to speak of
(Kim nt nl.riali... ..f I . af. a .'
in.. uuuit 1,1 type, oi inc an ol stereotyp
ing and other thing of recent date of value to
tne printer; nut a lew words may properly be
said ahoul the power used in printing. The
first and earliest impressions were taken, a by
the Chinese, with light pressure of the hand or
brush upon very thin paper on which their
priming was none. I hen Impressions were
made by lajlng lhe paper on type and placing
uii ii .i n.uicr or smoomcr-iacctl hlock ot hard
wood used for leveling the t)pc before printinir.
-...,1 ....II ! .'. ..:.!. .1.. 11. a. a.fa
..nt. ..tii-tiiii; i, nun me niniiei, as prool slips
are now often taken. I'resses, how ever, were
suoiiinvemcti lor me purpose. There arc en
gravings which repre sent presses as they exis
ted as far back as 1520. They were small and
thelorccwas applied by means of a simple
j"---- "" icsti. 111 iuju, or 202 years ago,
Illaeuw, of Amsterdam, produced a great fin.
proved press uvon which llenjimin Franklin
worked in I.ondon in 1725, and is preserved in
the Patent Office in Washington: it isofelumsv
construction, almost entirely of wood, and is
known lit- the maker's name as the linmnire
ptcss. Their w ere tinny of them in use as late
asioz5, ami a lew a good ileal later. After
this iron was used in some parts of the press,
and about the ) ear 1S00 Karl .stanhope invented
a press entirely of iron, the frame cast in one
piece and the power imparled by a combination
of the toggle-joint and lever. The Columbian
press, invented by George Clymer, of Philade
phia, about 1817, was the first important Ainre
ican improvement, the power being applied by
n compound lever, consisting of three simple
Printing presses were introduced into Ame
rica as follows: In Mexico in 1536; in Lima
in 15S6; in Cambridge, Mass., in 1639; in New
London, Conn., in 1709; in Charlston, S. C.
in 1730; west of the Alleghanies, in Cincinnati,
in 1793; west of the .Mississippi, at St, Louis,
in 1S08. Ex.
LATEST FOREIGN NEWS.
The following items of foreign news we col
late from exchanges received per steamer City
af Sydney and brigantine Comueh, the latest
dates being December 9th :
Congress met on .Monday, the 4O1 instant.
Both houses soon organized and proceeded to
work.... An effort will be made to have Utah
admitted into the Union. It is doubtful if it
succeed. . . .The House Committee on Foreign
Affairs has instructed Mr. Kasson, who lias
charge of lhe Nicaragua Canal bill, to urge
upon the House its consideration at on early
day....U. S. Grant has sold his residence on
west filly-eighth street, New York, to G. D,
nmoier, 01 norma, lor $52,000 and 15,000
acres ot land in Florida Samuel Itushrl.
the last direct descendant of Uncas, chief of
tne .vionican inuians, ilieu iNotember 29th, at
Hartford, Conn., aged 37. He was a poor, be
sotted, ugly, deformed creature. His funeral
was conducted by white men alone.... The
Apache Indians surprised a small town in
Chihuahua, Mexico, and massacred about 75
persons. Several cirls and women were taken
off by the Indians .... Parliament was pro
rogued December 2d. 1 he closing speech of
me iuccii says mat r.ngianu s relations with
foreign powers are still amicable, despite the
failure of the French commercial treaty. The
Knglish and Indian troops inKgypt ate thanked.
Her obligations in Egypt are increased by re
cent events, and she will endeavor to maintain
her international engagements, uphold her
prestige and promote the happiness of her iieo
ple. She will avoid measures tending to dis
turb the nuiet of the 1'nsl. .-mil h--lii... I,..
claims will be approved by the Powers. She
anticipates distress in pails of Ireland, and is
pained at the assassination in Dublin. The
authorities are especially enjoined lo be firm in
exercising their power's. The social condition
in Ireland is generally improved.... Lord
Granville, in introducing the Dean of West
minster lo a deputation from the Loncfcllnw
Memorial Committee, said they wanted the
Dean's consent to allow the bust ol I-nni-fcll,,.
to be placed in Westminster Abbey as a test!-
uuiuni 10 me graceiui ami tender poet. He
pointed to the number and eminence of the
members of the committee, numberinn un. i.
scarcely paralleled, they being distinguished In
all the departments of intellectual activity.
Lord Granville asked the Dean to accede 10
the request, and thu hind mnre rlnlv In
fnertdly feeling ourselves and the citizens of
lhe United Stjites. The Dean, replying, un
hesitatingly consented, and paying a graceful
tribute to l-ongfellow, referred touchumly to
Washington Irving and to the relations be
tween the two countries, whose tics were strong
as links of iron.
THE NEW COSMOGONY vi. THE OLD
It. Now ihese are the generations of higher
vcrteiiraia. 111 the cosmic period Ihcunkown-
able cvolulrd the bipedal mammalia.
12. And every man of the earth while he
was yet a monkey, and the horse while he was
yet a hipiwrion and the hlpparion before he was
13. Out of he ascidian came lhe amphibian
and begat lheicntadact)le and the pentadac.
t)le, by Inheritance and selection, produced the
ntioiiate, irom which are the stmiad in all
14. And out of the simiad.c the lemur pre
tailed atiovc his fellows, and produced lhe
15. And the plat) ihine begat the catarrh!..,-
and the calarihine niunkey begal llieanthropoid
,.v, a,,,, me a: uej.a, ,ne longlinanous orang,
ami the orang In-gat the Chimpanzee, and the
Chimiuntcc evoluted the: whil-is-il.
16. And the wlut-is-ii went Into lhe land of
ftc-it and look him a wife of the kngimauou
11, And In process of the cosmic jierioj
were bom unto ihem and their chiMren lhe an
thropomorphic primordial types,
18. The liomunculus, the progruthui, the
troglodyte, lhc autocihon, the terragen these
arc lhe generations of piimetal nun.
Happiness is never a Uzv nun's dower 1 ihit
is reserved for the worker, and can only b
grasped and held by trve manhood and woman-hooJ7-
G, IMUhJ, imArlHritomitMJi,
pHEO II, DAVIES ft Co,
tOF.Nrs FOR IMF.
OflTfrforMlefrom.he cirgofi f ll.f Ohrton ami
lAhtr ircnl tetUtU, (he
DRY GOODS AND CLOTHING:
I'nmspr Uitsi stjlts-fjit color lllue Drnlms, tlin
Coriton Shftlinit, llorrr-rVs l-ting Cloths
lirown I.tnen Drills put Linens,
Pino and Wlilto Chook .Mstndos,
Fancy Dress Goods,
(y IMal.ls, Kui-.lt Ciash, Scaif, Fin,
Crocli--ll ami Fanev VVoik. I-vIIm' I
.Mm Whui! aikf llron Culliui Half.
Ilos-t, Men's Iteaih-mtJe
CluthiiiK, In.lu KiiU.-r
Regntta anil Woolen Shirts,
lllue ami Gtry Horse lllanlrlt. White Collon lllaulm
all colors, slits and vtrlghlt Woolen and
Canton I lannels.
Velvet and Tapestry Carpetlngj,
Carprtr. and Kugt
SUGAR BAGS, 20x36
Coal Bags, large and small,
Prime ijuatily, heaiy and ,Khl liurljps Twine,
Oalvaniid Corrugated. Roofing,
in 6, ;, 8. and 9 ft lengths ( Cans') screns and
washers 10 match, r ence VV ire, nov 5, 6, 7,
llAlhltOAl) I HON
Flth I'ltttri, lloll unit .Spllr ramiilrlr, Fll r
ltrlrki, Flrr Cij,
Mhllttiu, Chalk, IVfoir Ochrr,
AJfull assortment of GENTS' SADDLES
also a few very nice Ladies' Saddles,
Saddle Cloths, Bridles, etc.,
3, sand 7 )ardt length,
Liverpool Salt, Rock Salt, Demijohns, i,
3, 3, 4 and 5 gallons each, Galvanized
Buckets, Tubs, Basins, etc., Iron
Bedsteads, Crockery, Zincs,
Paints and Boiled Oils,
from 3 to 10 inches,
superior, Topsail Chains,
"Admiralty Test," sizes ,
H 7-16, K Inch, Floor oilcloths,
ALES, WINES AND LIQUORS,
"PI Brand" Stout, In pints and quarts.
Guinness' Stout, Belfast Ginger Ale,
Blood tc Wolfe's Ale. pints and quarts,
"a .c iu viuia iu quarts,
India Pale Ale la pints and quarts,
Fine French Brandy In bulk and cases,
Hennessy's Brandy in cases, , ", and '
Old Tom, Cheap Brandy in cases.
Old Scotch and Irish Whiskies,
Duplessls, "Red Bar" and other fine Clarets In
Best Sherry in bulk and cases,
Champagne In quarts and pints,
Powell Duffryn Steam Coal.
T AINE & Co.,
KonT.SrmikTHoNou'iii, II, I.,
WE BEG TO INFORM OUR PATRONS
Thai we are constantly welting Urge ad
ditions to our stock 01
HAY AND GRAIN
Ami we purchase In Urge Ia For Cash,
SELL AS LOW AS ANY OTHER FIRM.
""''iS.'.'l LARGEST STOCK In the Kingdom
with thj beat aaiortiueut, Buyers would do
well to obtain our prices before or-
e.l Mill for Salr, trllh HrlHnml full,.
In good order. Will grind fiMiu I 10 Ions wr da).
Sole agtnti for th
The Chempeit, Simplest and Best In Use.
W are lhc only agents fur the Futrnl Stirtnu Cart:
Any on requiring one of Ihetc earn, can ixo-
,nf.ra kh"Pw through u than
ig xiur grocer" for
r hating it made
KOTECTI O N.
American Eagle Association
Of the United Stales.
I Incorporated April ft, iMi,
L-sEism rasH'S? .."
. - ..,v....u.i.NtHlni nan rrancthco.
7)R. 11. HAHAV Ul'l'Vurf
l-al Amu. 1Iuiu,Ili1li.
T.1II0S. C. TIIKUUS lauiver Mnnr
the lalleutkw U SunUayiKlwol LihraruL 'I eaThirt.
and head, of Family ari InviieJ. S i"
gOMETHINO NEW UNDER TIIB SUN.
.VI a J. ii,reuly fur ihex vtanj t
HookU Bm Ptttlrtta,
Im WaWrttw TIm.
CALIFORNIA KIU LACK,
VELVfcT tMUROIDEktD SLH'l'KKS ,)
Brofaai. mw Ium. .
Uh; WtM. Buttxi Croiiuei Slut,
By lb. Sua. I hat. icI1 a uocL U AM koj
Cants' and Chlkh-u.'. liunvs - .TT H
yora.i'fu.hUii 77"""""" N
J. M. LVXCM.
No. H Kike tiattT.
. llaiWM.1 ivr
SAGO, IN TINS, UuU SIm C
Nest door 10 llacUeld A Cn't
Honolulu, II I.,
Of the llaoalun Islands. All kinds of Kef-airlng ami
VV heel malting tsrniled 011 lhe most -WtnlllV prin
uplet. At this establishment Iwrses are
In the tlUcltniitht' department nil otti will U turned
out lit the future, at In lhen.t, tj- first class
We do not confine our mienliun lo Carrltze and lliijtj)
maHn exrlusi.ely Orders tut any kind of a
wheeled vehlc It reeeited and proml) executed
Our Usual Supply of reitl!remcnis for lhe 'I rnile.
Oidets from llie other Islands will receive oiir 1-est at
HONOLULU CLOTHING EM-poriuni.
'lo nnke room for a NI.W CONStONMKN I of
oulheway hom I.UKOIT., lli fiiesrnt slock
sold r-eyaeifre f's.
A. M, MKl.t.lS, 104 Foil .Street,
Honolulu, II. I.
ITONOI.UI.i; CLOrillNO KMI-OKIUM,
Nil lo Tort Street, llosol III I', II. I,
Millinery and Dressmaking
Connected with llir premises.
"$ if A. .l. M CI.I.IS, Proprietor.
P J. IIIGGINS
lnite attention tn
FINE STOCK OF CARRIAGES,! i
Eztonalon Top Cut-under,
(R. I' Hrii:i;j S Co , AmesUiry, Mass.)
Eurelta Two-wheoloil Cnrt,
Couoortl Open Wnguu,
1 hese carrbces are of excellent workmanship, the pro-
....nun ui urM-viaiu niauiiMciories, are attrac
tive, and lhe latest detlgns, Ihey
will te sold at
THE LOWEST PRICES.
He a!o keeps a good suppl of desirable second hand
carTuines, which tie will sell at low prices.
SINOIX AND !)OUIIt.t: HAUNKSS-all kinds.
KriairinK and painting done at short notice.
HOPP & Co., 74 Kin itreet,
tmfwrtert an? MuMufititut trt of
Kvery deiiorlptlou of Furniture.
To tmp Ladh:s: Triintnmcf. TavU. (iimm. SI1L
Colli in every thade Parlor .Sets rcMutteil,
cuvrred, jiolishcd anil nude equal la
new, Mattress-M reiiia-te ami
cleaned at ahort
We are-uoted fur fint-clats work and moderate
-pO THE LAIJIES OF
NU.MUKR 0 BKLCClLAUIK- AMI)
H A T S
MRS. A. MELLIS'
Whish will le
September 2, 1882,
AT HR 0(SAKINQ ESTAfiilSHMENr
109 King street,
CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER,
St SI I,
etc., etc., etc,
large unek of olttrli c-bmtantlr on hand, enlMIng
me, on shoit n-SfNH, to finish ctottages and
hnildings of every description, in A
thy-rough and workmanlike
JobMtiK uf nil Istniln promptly iloiio,
and at low pihea.
HANI) AN1 SCROI.I. SAWINtl
at all timet.
Mnrhlim tvnrlc of nil lilmla.
With eoml-elent wftrkmen, the rSmp ami filliful es.
euttmi rf all Aiders entrusted to me, t hipe lo
merit and receive a fair shtra of lhe
Rememlier the ptvre
So. ttx) Ktng ttreet, opiostle
ILDI'U & CO.
Importer nnj Dealer in
Ami iBullilhiK Mfterlnl
of all kinds Jil rrcelvrd, ex late arrival, tevera
hr( aiitl well selected rarpoei of
comj-ming all the usual slock tires
III Scantling, Timber,
Planks and Boards.
ALSO DRY REDWOOD,
Scantling, TUne turfac
1.1-reu and rougli Hatteni, Tickets KuMiC,
r a . ... :" ' ; '"
mil oi IliVin l it r
I.ittice ami CUplxunU
BOORS, SASH AND BLINDS,
All mc, of ltvtern and Catif-rnii make, and for
ale in quantities Iu Milt, at law pritet.
Aijio, in Stock,
Will IE ZINC. PAINT OILS,
Miri'AI.I.IC AND 01IIKR PAINT.S,
(!ISS AND SALT,
AND WltlTEWASH BRUSHES.
A fine nssomnent of
iu Intent ttyle.
AT LOWEST PRICES.
CT1RBMANS FUND 1NSURANCU COM-
M. patnjr 01 (.aiitoniia
IlSUOr 6 Co., AGENTS.
LOSSI'.S PAID OVER, .5o,c
The Lttryeol J'ttvljlc fount Co.
Dwelling rliks a tpecialty, detached dwell
ing! and contents Insured for a period
of three years for two premiums
In advance, j we also write
upon merchandise per
l.jlrii ll.lt i-wi ana l he cua-t ut, cuvenng ljsor
ttanUiiM, if ainuumiiiii u ucn ir tenl v
lilat on I lie hhiiuI value uf tli I,U
Uiijaiielil al -urlldelitcl),
covering shipments from the Plantations
through to Sao Francisco, Includ
ing fire risk while in; Hon
olulu awaiting trans-
Ku. H KINO S-IULLX
S.licitoe Tmt 'I m SATnaoty faau. 1 1 fin
Yum Vjtaih na I'tuMsxaxT
vvtPtt Attntfnm Unttaai' KuLhuw
towlec A Cu.
FNfc" ew "eSWABLE IOUNTS
ffNfarJvbitc.. Al u ibu o&
PLANTERS AND OTHERS
INrF.RF.STKD IN SUOAR CULTURE
ne. . mil.
CANE MAOAZINE," the only puhlicatlon .lerotfd to
1111s inuu.li-, l-egs 10 notliy inai me nl lor ieo win pr
ferttanle.l hy the lectlnlr ste.tiner mail, ami it is il.
slreil In hare InlemtinK
notified in time ih.refore,as It has l-ren foiiml ililficuh ti
change the list ilurtnR the year for a part only, or Id te.
eure hael. numWrs. m
I'riee $ per annnm, jmsta je free
Sitlivrit-ert tleMrtnjj to tltwontlnue, If anyr Hilt
t.left ad4 tn lime
O. TIIKUM, Agent.
KNOWLlfS' STHAM AND VACUUM
C. MlrA, & CV.f AGIiXTS,
IfAtlnc on liaml a full Ami rtmileie Mock of the
a1)e celeUalciI puinni, hut received ier A my Tixtt
tfom DoMon, we ffutrameu I hem lo W chear And
Uttrr than any other itjle of pumu lmrted We call
the attention of pUntert jurtkniul)' to the Vacuum
rumo, wnicn ute ieai mrnpiicaieii ami more setvica
Me thati other rtinp i j-f
Iiitorimtlounl Exhibit tnn,
rxTAct moM Tim ofrictAt. Rrrour
JUDGES IN HOROLOGY.
In consideration of the fact developtd In tliii examln
atlun, And the .reMMiderance of rlementvof Inher
ent and ronuurative merit adjiidned by the
judge (each in lndemlent judgment) I'
Ing etual la 70 per cent more tlu 11 the
next hUhett exhihtt, the hate
fmind it exceeilmuiy difficult
to male tucli a Hawlfica-
lion in decree an will
01 vi: r.vi:N-i(A.vnr.D justick io am
V.R AnjftK-.K TO TMR
AMERICAN WATCH COMPANY,
MAt.nchurttit U. R, A
A fmt-clawnward and mch other uncial dUtmctlon,
diploma, medal, or nard n 1 ctuiMent with the du
tit and( obligation rf the honorable Sjdney Inteina
tlonal CoinmiIon, for the larRCut And moM com pie te
ekhiltit of horoloftical instrument exAmtned.
'Hiey n1o proiiOMf, a the only mean by which their
appreciation of the merit of the )ruduction of thU
company can le ndetiuaiel or eipiiubly recognised by
the committee on Judttlnff and Award, that a wparate
firt-cl.inwird legnen for the time-keeping mulnie
of all grade of there w-ritchev
Al0. A stenarate firkt-Llt nuinl t.r itm rvrfn-rtl.-in nf
lhUs)Mcinof wratchmakainfc Ami the liuprovemcnt In
the mechanical art of the watch, being notabl) in the
mainspring and coingdiarrel, tjie patent daftly pinion,
the perfect emcjloidal form of all the teeth of the train,
in eer grade of watch alike, and the Iochruiial ad
Justinetit of the Uilancc-pring.
Also, a firstclau award for new moile of roinpenat
Alii, a tepatute firt rbM award for the improve
menu 11 Cute, the number of artiMlc form and deIgnt
used, the Intjuiy and elegance of their fi tilth, and for
their new anl imtesiriictible medio, I of enameling.
Mm toClurle . Woerd, metlianlcal nuperlntrnd
ent American Watch Cbinjiany. Walili.uu, Mm
U. sS A.
'Die following I the order of award made by the
Sjdnpy International Kxhibitlon Commllon to the
American Watch Compan), of Wall turn, Ma s
Gold and Silver WatcheftPiut degree of merit and
special mention: Gold Medal.
Timekeeping nurd Imp of all grade of Watchet-Firat
degree of merit.
Perfection in S&t em-
First degree of merit.
New mode of comtMrnaiing balance
First degree of
Improvement, fmidt ami elegance of Cve Ftrit de
gree of merit.
Kngraving, chatlng and enameling of Watch Cae
First degree of merit and special mention.
Cluile M, Woerd, Mechanical .Svperinteiidein-
uckicc ui in cm, special.
A-ff I here being several wunhleu watches Uatlng
Se uaiksof Waltham Watclieidiu-nveieJ ulihin iK
rat seven mouth, palmed off un the public a genuine,
the public are hercby'nctihed of the (act and cautioned
"' tf Agent for the Hawaiian UUnd.
JUJAKKE & COURTNEY,
We nunufaclure llie VliUV llll' QUALII V t'alai
from A 1 'laro.
OotiiglallK etlenl of lands ciillivaleil l.y us, we
cin sell cheaper lhau olliera, and ran nuaranlee i.anla
lions ami all cni.lo)ees of labor against anv failure of
ftf'Orilcrs by I'osl retell e promt allemlon.
C II. MAKKK. 111. tin A. A. CO'JRTNI.V
Hit Klnu'litut If roitiirrtnl trllh
tHV by it.li. 'IIONi: N'UUBGK r ui Im
ur uiki, ,1 iu oi(, imil.ti, (,' HMt
&Sa-V I ;. IttfuWa, lutSimi. Tiwh-fc
Keuuila, KeUluo anj Ktljuulli
No. 107 Fort St., HoaahaW. H. I.
IN LVKKV BRANCH
r. r. WMUU.
S STKCL ENC
nriT IpB4lWMAA 1
lot) Fvri Suf-tif
fltHl 'Z IS- ."'