Newspaper Page Text
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pi Volume iv, Number 48.
HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, JULY 26, 18S4.
Whole Numijer 204.
II I llll II 1 1 IUWWIII ijr.,J,llWI.IU "IXIWUWttWMl !!. iWJW'JI
l !&- V
Ihe Sntnr and Trealtnrnl nf t,eprtJ.
I wtos-SaturiisvI'kf.m .SYr: IneonsMcr-ir,ltlittreatimloflejirnyit!rlt-IraWe
.rtrnliun lo mine well cMlt!heil fact rlal
li.g ( . the tinltiie ami histoiy f tliff sliae.
A i'l ffirrrnofi is llit modern illscowry Ilia!
t. pros rtcpfn'U nn lli Invasion of the lmd
I y n niicnwjiic fjetni, which brfc-U unci
mulliplim In lh tlssur. impoverishes llir
l KkI, Impair the functions o( the ntrvc nn.l
1 litr organ, mul eventually icrmlnatis In
the thMmellon ami removal nf Important pirt.
1 ir or Aming ha ilcnionstrated (he prrstnet
uflhis cmlnilie leprosy of Ihe Hawaiian
I, lands ami he ' "fry liftt mutt i-
r.fiirJtJ at a holbtd of ditiait. "
Kuwnrhiveno evMence whatever tll
Iqirosylsorlginital in any other way. The
jr rm it not like ihit of ajjiie, which grow anil
.ropsgaM 111 S rnirial ')it. No one t-.in lie
lime n lc'r ntherwiie lhan by the arquUitinn
of the Kcnn either from hi? parents hy direct
hendltar) transmission or from communica
tion with a leper In a condition- favorable Ii
thr Iratumlislon of the Krrn.
Atllinuch there has been an almost unlvr r-
il belief In the tranmlIon of leprosy from
jjiciiU to their children it inuH he admitted
ttuit the evidence Is very Incomplete. In tin
cute of syphilis It it otherwise. Jin parent
iliirnircl by syphilis in nn active state can
have a healthy child. The disease may effect
tin- Infjlit ct unliom aniljl the symplons are
not nlicady inanifot at thr birth, they cer
lalnly appear soon aftcvvarrls; vvhllst it is
well known that leper parent hue often
u'rofwlt ami tainted fish. In Indit to the
use of unsmiml pulse, In Xorwai to the use
of salt fish, meal, potatoes and bid chee.
I'reh meat Ii a rare luxury and the dileme ii
further promoted by Ihe depressing effect of ex
posure to cold without siffieicnt warm food.
The Jews nifferet! greatly from leprtwy 'n Ihe
wilderness and we cannot doubt that "manna"
was bill poor food, Atpimi of l'avia state? lint
in Arabia the leprosy only occurred amongst
the very poor who were compelled through
poverty to drink muddy and setnl-putriil water,
lo eat camels flesh (an evidence that men'
was a xailt) ) whilst many lived on temi-piitriil
cheese. In the middle orc the poor tuffcred
from plague and famines,
In the 14th century there were fiminr every
si or wen yean. All the common people
were ill fed. A lenient was able to beat a score
of them as well fed t'liglivhinan can beat a score
6f llinilont to-ilsy. In the 15th Century the
Cultivation of vegetables was to rare that Henry
of Kngland had lo send to the Netherlands for
During the last two centuries and In spite of
I wart and political oppressions there hat been a
I sjbstantinl improvement in the condition and
feeding of I'uiopean nations. And Just in pro
portion ns Ihe physical condition of the lower
orders improved just so rapidly did leprosy de
cline. And now the disease lingers on In those
districts where the habits of the people still re
main below the standard of good living.
Whether In India or China whether in Norway
or on the coasts of the Mediterranean, whether
in the valley ol the Himalaya or the hank of
the Nile, l.eprosy still flourishes amongst peo.
J pie whose ph) stent power to resist the inroads
from any ol these Intercurrent
healthy children, that leprosy scarcely iv-ei , r disease germs hat been weakened by the
nukr it appearance until the child it five u$e f insufficient and unwholesome food.
year old and more frequently nt the time of .eprosy has totally disappe-ired from prosperous
puberty, Indeed it may not appear at all,
Thai the ihihlrcn nf leper-, should be more
frequently affected than those of others is onl)
problble, bc.uui they arc more closed than
i ihrrt lo the rrceplion of the germ In the in
tlmate asiochtloni ol domestic Itfc. Hut the
rapid extension of leprosy in the Hawaiian
Islands in the course of a tingle generation
proven incontcstahly that diiect hereditarv,
tiativinissiouplajs but a small part in the prop
agalion of the disease. It is therefore a
satisfaction to hope that the rhlldren nflepcis
art- neiihir necessarily nor irretrievably tils
eaird. If we bolietcthat they are born with
out a special defect 'e thall be encnuraitrd 10
remove them nt f.ir a practicable from the
sources of infection.
Tim pRnrAn.Tios' or the oerm.
No fact is inoie thoroughly established lhan
lhatevtry discase-gcrm possesses a specific cliar
ucler, spread in a definite manner, affects
paiticular structures of the lody, and pro
duces certain definite clisnges and effects
upon the tiisucs. The growth, propagation
and even virulence of germ poisons nro favored
or lessened by surrounding conditions and
especially by certain of states health and con
stitution, which are in turn deteimincd by
bored"''-'))' influences and by the sanitary
oondl.jSiis of ordinary life. The investiga
tion of these questions is now engaging the
fcllenlion of scientific men ami much is to be
cipccied from the reiearchC-i of Doctor Afrilng.
Although our Knowledge is at present small
we shall nevertheless obtain a belter hlea of
the nsture of leprosy if we compare its hNtorj
and effects with that of some other allied
disease-cvimt of which our knowledge is sonic
what more extensive.
For example, tpirillem or famine fever is a
remarkable disease, dependent on the pres.
ence in the blood of .1 pecular germ. This
germ, breeds and multiplies in the body and it
is very easily communicated lo doctors, nursei,
and surrounding people. Now the spirillcni
may attack individual! in apparently a perfect
-.late of health but jhurithet cnly on a slan
'" Miifolion- It cvnnof spread amongst
well fed community, and even the patient
tnoy generally be roitonil to health by a
The gcim of consumption is still more
rlovely albeit to that of leprosy. It has
almost the tame micrOcopic appearance, and
is 'piobnbly piopagatcd under conditions
vimc-vhat simitar. It has been demonstrated
that thr germs of consumption are extended
11 the sputa (spittle) and givenoffin the bretth,
iuuI its communication from persttrt to person
Is only slightly inoie diflicult than in the case
tif lenin-iy. The gcrini of consumption likr
those of famine 'fever require a favorable
soil. Kveryoue inhales them but is U cer
tain that pcrlectly healthy people cffectuilir
resist the growth of consumption. Spirlllem
mid leper ft-"11"? introduced into the liody
Bpiunrnily scire on different tisues. Con-
uinptlon germ-, effect ihit lungs, the serous
memhianct and the central organs. I lie spir
illum Is found in the blood, whilst Ihe leper
v-eim vs-iet on tin- skin a id nerve dunks. In
Consumption the appetite is lost, and the
lowers of digestion and assimilation are 1111
paired. In, leprosy the food is eaten with
hunger ami attimulatrd 'without inconven
ience, but in utes are prevented and whilst
the piearance may be fat and flishy, the
bones and .calirmhtei may bo dcslroved foi
want of sustenence, I was present at the nc
frop.yof a young girl who died during my vii
10 Molokab IWtor Ariiing will pmbalily
deiuonstralv that the body was tnvaileil by the
Uper germ. Thcie were the ntuat syniptons
ami uiip.Mrances, but il w oh-rvvl Out the
stale i( the Ixxly was such at 10 Indicate
ilruth ,y llanation rather thaiibyllic-iuro.idsof
tuiyposlitvcdisrau-, rtiestomichand inti-sticus
vcie smalt and tmfly, 1 here was nn dNease
of any vital organs. The lungs, heart, liver
and tplecn w en- of hc usuil appearance. One
rcoiaikahle iv.nilituin was atone obcvcd.
Tliei e was ,loltittly nj h, in Ihf My. The
lungs were unusually pale and when the great
blood K-sels scre dlvlilei) li-ss blood escaped
than would hive been found in a child of two
yearn old. She wai, a leper but the was ttarvvd
Tllf. IIIStvlRV 6r I r-l ROvV,
Tliioughoul the vsoitd lerrcwy hat been ia.
variably fepictcnlcd at atMX-i.vtel wilti a pecvi-1
lui and d pressed condition of the health. It j
is the lestimooy of all physician llial it occur
shltlly amongtt the pooiett and lowest of the
Mpte. Il I. lo be found In all climates, mi
ilie lucs of great, oceans in ihe mountain of
Lebanon, ihe high land of I'trsia, the valley
niidplaiusoriliivdottiD. All disease are pro.
moled by bad dwellings' milarUl turrounJIng
t'tllhy hahitsaikl unsuitable 01 imutlicienl cloth
ing, tml lepmsy it tatlicr ta be found In con-
nccllun with intuihciciit imguutand uqwhole,
MUir foot). Ill t'gvpt when- leptosy hat been
titvUnitc since the ib) t of the I'haraohs, the
icvsle uset lo live on fih and a gtittinout tort
of bread made from thr tools 01 the lotut, a
water plant, Jhis diet wt very similar 10
thl of the Hawaiian people. In the West In.
- Jits, Caps- of Good Hope, Crete, Corfu, Cat
CUtuauJ Ce)toii. Leprosy I ittuluttd to lh
and well fed nations. And whilst, under con
ditions as yet ob-ictirr, it may attack a rich and
well fed person, like the spirlllem fever, il can
not extend amongst a truly healthy people.
The t'nglisli races have outlived it at they
luve done many other plagues and as the
standard of public health is raised, that of
leprosy mull fall. No individual however dares
to defy il powers or court its presence, and ,
every one is int-.re.ted in its limitation.
Hut I nny be asked lo explain the sudden
outbreak of leprosy in Ihe Hawaiian Islands.
Now I cannot accept the ordinary account of
its introiluctior for the first tim: some 45
ycirs ago. II seems to me that In by gone
timts Sporadic cases must have been intro
duced during commerce with other races, but
that the conditions were then less favorable to
piopsgatinn than they are now. All my in
quricsgo to provvllut the natives of Hawaii
were in former times stronger than they arc
now or have been during 30 years. Since the
advent of the missionaries there has been a
total change in the habit of the people and a
declination in Ihe standard of phvsica! health.
In olden times severe industry was the com
mon lot. The chiefs superintended boih work
and play. Curious as it may sound to
some, it appears to ine that the physical pow
ers of their natures have been greatly impaired
by rttigioii, education and clothing. The
manly sports of the people gave place to hypo
critical genuflexion.;, the songs and dance
were exchanged for hymns anil prayer meet
ings. Il is a fact well known to planters that
the best native laborers are grandfathers of the
rising generation. The educated youth who
has been taught the bliss of idleness and ihe
pleasure of living on his wits, no lonjer
practices the sports of his ancestors or rides
upon the surf "where," asks Mr. Gibson,
" is the Hawaiian vvanior now ? Where is the
stinger of the vanguard ? The spearman of the
chiefs phalanx? The dextrous mimalahoa?
The faithful liulumanu ? The deft and bold
manouvercr of the war canoe ? Where are
ihey? Where is the hero ? He is gone and
you will find in hi. place the tricky lawyer,
the lying kahuna, the hypocritical prcecher
and the civllued loafer, " Nor can vvc doubt
the iinsuitablcness of European clothing or its
ill effect upon the native health. The skin
of the Hawaiian was acclimated tiy centuries
of exposure, like the tkin of the white nian't
face. They had no more need of covering
lhan a Chinese dog, and il is probable that
no European will suffer fiom excessive
But were the evidence of physlcial degenera
tion less complete il would be proved by thr
diminished population t we rrny attribute this
diminution lo any seconder)' cause we please,
be it syphilis or measles. The introduction
of foreign races, the Immortality and incon
stancy of the women or the drunken habits
of the men, but we shall be obliged lo acknow
ledge that a degenerating people cannot prop
agate. They will have small families and
their children will not survive.
It seems lo me proved that, tn 1S50, the
Ilawaitans were in aconditlonatlogeth(;r favor
aide to the growth and spread of leprosy.
Nor Is this conclusion altcicd by ihe fact
that miny strong and apvrcntly healthy per.
sons have been subjects of leprosy; we have at
ready noted that leprosy like tpirillem fever
often over-steps lis natural limits. Sometimes
it attacks the whiles. Hut the fact neverthe
less remains that there is in the majority of
cases an obscure though p;ltve degeneration
of ph)sical (tower without wliirh even in ihe
case of individuals, lcproy cannot be propa
gated. It may also happen that these ex
ceptional instances may be due to a special
mode of introduction, for, whilst In the cate
of consumption mere contact of the Vrong and
healthy with the sick consumptive may bt
harmless there It every reason to believe that
even Ihe strong and healthy would amount to
a positive- inoculation.
fRfcATVlKNr OF itvl-RUS.
In this review we have a sufficient denuncia
tion of the dietary al Molokai, and from It
we may surely draw some hopjful tiiggrjiloos
for the fiituie treatment oj the lcr. We can
tee that the government it not warranted tn
providing for the lepers on' the economic
j Isxsi of the president of the board of health.
And we may confidently predict that the lives
! of the lepers would be prolonged at Molokai
if the dletarv weie raised ct en lo. the level of
that al Kakaako.
Hut il happens thai we have in Kan Kran-
cisco a l.uatetle in which the effects of a liberal
dietary have been already shown. Diiilng
the Usl two year 45 leper have Iwen ud mil
ted and these has been an average of to
patients Most of tin patients were discovered
and admitted in an advanced stage of disease,
few ofthem were able tngel out of the
transfer wagon without issi-jjfnce, and many
were unable to leave thcirbcdt. l.tlenstve
ulcerations w ere comnion. One hid paralysis
of the ejellds, which would have gone on lo
blindness but for judicious mxnigcmcut. All
the patients were low In flesh and few were
able to attend to their own wants. One leper
committed suicide under fear- of removal
disease which prcrtil at Molokai.
At present there are 1 inmate. One Scandi
navian and one a native of the Islands. I'very
patient has improved in health, and has In
creased In weight. There are now no
patient confined to bed and none who can
not wait upon themselves, Kvcry open ulcer
has been cured and It 111 ly be said with truth
that the progies of leprosy has been actually
arrested. Oncmin especially was admitted
I Smooth a co with extensive ulceration of
the mouih and face, lit was greatly em
aciated and not expected to live. His body
was promise 1 lo the profcsor of pathology
for demonstration al the Cooper Institute.
He was feil with liquid food and today his
ulcers are all well, he Is fal and heuty and
able to eat tolid food without the lean dlfii
eutiy. Another man was ndmiltcd alnut a
year ago, with frlghlfjl ulcers on the soles of
his feet. He was unable to walk and tn a
state of complete exhaustion. These ulceis
have long since been cured, and a few week
ago he. scaled the walls and escaped. These
result arc not due to medlcalloi. No medi
cine have been given, no special applications
have been made. The cost of the " I'riar
llalsam, ",riu;,ti Mololai, vvoull more than
piy the drug hill for a year. The Improve
ment are wholly due to simple hygienic
minagementand to Ihe excellence and liberal
Ity of the food supply. It seems perfectly
wonderful what a quantity of food these lep
er vvill consume. Doctor Toy, the supcrin
tendent physician and adinnllstrator, tays
the the average consumption Is t lb o" meat,
I t'j of potatoes, 4 lb of rice, besides llour,
com tlour, sago, milk, and tea, to say noth
ing of the cats and rats which ate caught
by the Chinese and eaten with great relish.
Doctor Foy is of opinion that the leper re
quires a quantity of fond eqtlit to lint of a
strong and healthy laborer, and in addition
thereto he must has-c enough to replenish the
daily waste of tissue from disease. The more
advanced the disease the more imperative is
the demand for nourishment. It would
be an Injustice say, he, to give them
lets than they now receive. If from
any cause the appetite of one man fails,
his rations wilt certainly he consumed by the
remainder. It is not found possible to hurt
them with more than a dally supply, other
wise they would feast one day and fast the
next. Never before has a liberal ami whole
some dietary been fitlly and persistently tried.
The laa-arcttcs of the middle nges were noth
ing but a congregation of slavery people who
lived 011 charily and fared badly enough at
that. Sometimes Ihey were nlloncd to beg
amongst the people lor a bare subsistence.
If, as I believe, leprosy is a disease of exhaus
tion, caused by a insufficient and unwhole
some food, what glorious results may be
expected from a liberal supply of wholesome
I am of opinion that an improved dietary
ought to be tried at Molokai, and that by good
organization it may be carried out without any
great expenditure. At San Francisco the cost
of a leper is less than that of a hoodlum or a
convict and if once the physicial condition of
the lepers ntMolokai were raised So 'as 10 en
able them to work, much could be done to
wards making them self sustaining.
I have the honor to to tie, sir.
J. H, Stallakd.
San I-'rancisco, 633 Sutler street, July 5th,
OMITll a THUIiSTON,
Attovnril nt tslir.
No. v MenciiAxr Smitrr. ..
t W. 0. Sirn,
( l A. Ihcmtui
1LLIAM O. SMITH ft Co..
I t A. TlR'HSTOII, I
tV O. Sutrii f
Xtorll 11ml Itrnl IX11J1' Ilrolt'r;
tin M Mutuant SrRttar Hoxolviu
(Kit tlltlhtJ in lSf.)
Sngxr Pbniallnn.ltallnMil, Telephone and cllier Cor
IMtnwlon Stocks, 11-miJs atsi similar Secunl!
IllL-OKT AD Soil! 01 CoWVIIlllOK.
Money Loaned on Stoxk Securities.
C B. DOLE,
rVxirieeor nt Law ami .Vnfilriy l'iiGf7e,
Conxils Four amd MitacMsir Stm.t, lloint.Ui.li
tVtttrtmttK'er, lctcrtrt t!mjrirrr$ utut
No. in FoRTSmi'ST .. . . ..IITot.vru
All onlcn fiilhlti.Ijr execute! 3
P II. OEDINC,
;.r,rcM ami Drtiftnnn,
Kttiltit, Ps(lvjffiv anil HxfUArtt italivtml to .in! from
all pttrti nf Honolulu arvJ vicinity. Cartful At
lent ion aiil to movuif furniture, with
WAGONS KXPftRSafiV I'OR THE PURPOSE
Jtltphont ft6( UciMcnc j$ PimeMwvI 11 1 eel.
Q'ti e, 6 EtnjStrrel inMi
PHILLIPS ft Co.
T EWERS & COOKE,
(StXCKSSOX TO I.FWPK! A I)i:k)Svi,)
li)oWer rind llrnter In Ltimhrr unit all
I.I, 1,1 A ,. llilllillnil Mntrrlnl.
Pint SUEKT llnniiLULl!
f C. COLEMAN,
It or tSlwrlittt
rhntvllo-l MiuMn-ty, elc.
nest to Caule Ik Juvle t.
Shop on King Strtet'
Arr r, CASTLE,
Attorney al .ow iimiI .Vofni-J I'ulille.
AtlenJt all the Courts of the Kingdom.
Attorney and Coiin-lftrJ"rtr Law.
(6 Fort Sthrrt
yLDERT C. SITH, ,s r. '
Aleut to (allgA ekuMlritfftnttili tn
(jHHrttmriil. e ,.
- sjwe- v
Smith & Tl.iirsK.i(, 'Attorney. st'U
.S,.r & rv' '
Ivtmtrtrr nmt WUntemle tirmtcr hi Ctuth'
Itifp tofttt, Shnea, itat&, Mn' i'ttr
itlhint fovil lUtnvif fJooi I He
N0. It KAAMl'MAtU St J. CRT ...HllNUU'tl'
O J i-EVEY 81 CO.,
trttvtetitt a tut Htttutl flrvcen,
Fcttt'iRtkT . .llONOLVLU
Tv.rStY tru' protUtont of II Vintt on lun-i anJ
Ucrivctl rcextlarly from Uurope aud Aincrk wMcbt
will y sold at the loit market rate.
Ooxli titrhrereJ to nny part cf tin city free of charge.
Iilatid urrjrrt solicit J aiij prom ft ait tn lion will !
fiifn to the same. m.iy
TXTONO LEONG A CO.,
Aytnt for Monnut .M((ir, lniia Ittcp
An.! Ka'itua Kice Plantatton and Mill.
Nul'anu SmaitT.. ....... ....Corner Marink
tSurtfton n nil Ifotturpathte Physician,
Orricn corhsr Tuur and Hurrtania Srs.
OiT.ce Hours Until 9 a. m., aid from t-jitadtjo-S p.m.
EMEHSOM, M. D.
VhytlcUtn it tut Sttffjcotu
TriHUtOlI NUMDBrt mq.
OiTice liouri from SJi to toy, a. nt.; to 3) p m.
OTii-e aixt KeiJncc, No. j Kukul street, corner Kort
M. WHITNEY, M. D D. D. S.
THEO. II. DAVIBS & Co.,
(I.atb Ianjov, Creev A Co )
Impottfiv ami Cotrimfiilun Merchant,
AGENTS fOR ,
Moyd'tand the Mverpool Underwriter,
L?niitl and Korc.n illiue Insurance Compauy, and
Nonhern Asuraj.ce Company. 1
Tin, Vojiprr timt Shttt trot l( orher,
of all Mndt, Plimilen ttxi. and insult, hru furnith
in i foMa, ciLii.Uciier, lAtn, etc
No. S Kaaiiumaku btttRrrr Honolulu
T M. OAT & Co.
SitUmiihcr, J7.iy of tttt heicrtptloni
tmtitt and rrttttrrJ
Honolllu II. 1
Loft !n A. !' Covke'i new fireproof builJicuj. f.t ol
Ntiuanu Sttcrt. 8
T BMMBLUTII A Co.,
Ttntnttttis unit Vhtmbrt, heater In
Stove, Manges, Tin,
No. x N'iuanu Strpht Honolulu
A W. RICHARDSON & Co
iMPORtKftS AND DHALEftS IN
Iloot$, ShovH, t'trtilhlitff f7ftO.U, If at,
Clip, Trnnkm, Vttti',
Perfumer and SuafsWiJihAin WatetiM,
Fine Jewelry, etc,
CoRNSR PoftT ANUISRCHANTSfRECM, HONOLULU
J h tit at Iloomn on Fort Street,
Honolulu H. I.
Office tn ftrewer' III.kIc, trorner Hole and Fort
Sirreti, entrance on Hotel Street. 1
illiam b. McAllister,
rriRMVNRtrLV locatru in hoholum;.
OfTlcc, cot-tier o Fort and Hotel iret, over Trtf,toan
Particular attention piil tu rcttoraiion (jold fillinjt.
Rtljine on good rtoxlt at re&tuoable charjjci to Kim
the confidence of the public 15 6n
r BO. L. BADCOCK,
(rATK Or UAKt A'lU)
Teacher of the Pi.wo-roite. Addrei, LYCAS ft CO.
RiSlDLWt,tt No. to Etnma itreet. iBs'ty
A G. ELLIS,
No. 7? Qubrn Srnciti".. ... ..Honolllu
Is prepved to buy and aell StocV ami Hondi In tho
open market, at the usual rate of coinmiioii,
Ha&tivjtK-y tohun on Stocks. Senall margin re
quired on 1 irae Contrartt.
Will itdvitc as to Intestni'nti when requeued.
r E. WILLIAMS,
iMfORTKK ANI HrtAICH IN
F4rnttarr of I'rtru t6crlptton A1n
ifphIitrer ami JUanttfuoturrr.
KitrnitiLM Virr(Vrtit Nn im I'ort Sirei. WojL
sltopatold stand oa Hotel Street. AH wider promptly
aitenueu 10. 11
OHN T, WATERHOUSE,
Importer ami Urate r in
T W CIRVIN,
Vomtnlton Merchant ettut Oeneral tieattr
Wailukv. Maui H. 1
Groceries Hardware, Sutionery, Patent Medicines,
Perfumery and Gl-mwtre, t
DI2II0P & CO., tJan'iert
IIuiolvli', Hawaiian IiLands.
Draw Kschsnle on
Till: 1IANK OF CAI.UORNIA,
And their Snti b
Messrs. S M. ROrilSCllttll) A SONS,
Tb. COM.MEkCIAI. llANKINrt CO ,
OF SYDNEY. LONDON.
TUCOMMnKClAt. nANKINO CO..
CF SYIJNLY, SYDNF.Y.
Th. UANKS OK NEW 7FALANIM
rE I'ANKS OF HRI'lSlt COI.UMIHA,
VlCroRIA, U C AND FORTLAND, OR
Transatt a Central Janiinj Jiutiiuit.
0. W. HACTAHLANE, It, . MAcrAILAHH.
Q V. MACFAttLANC It CO.
Importer", Commission Morclinnt.
nutl SiiRrtr l'a c tor.
Fire vmef CwiUinti (uecn street, Honolulu
KiLsi). S.fftr Co, Kwl,
lli. WslVipu Sur PVatiUnMiut,
lire Spetwr Sur Ilim.lkm, li.xil
Uonohin Stftsr Co, H.i.ftR,
uneia agr sun, niaui,
iiu.raSsiRvr rUurtsiicm. Maul,
Krciprtiiy Ssinr (j., Hsu,
Vuimlia bnpr Itsnuiwi, O.lw,
ONOLULU IRON WORKS Co.,
Steam Unaine, Holler, Sugar JIIU,
Cvotet, Iron, lira and Lead Catttna.
Honolulu ..H, 1
Machinery of every description made lo onler,
ParticuUr attention paid to Strip', blacksmith in?,
job work executed on the shortect notice. 10
'-pHOS. G. THRUM,
IMWPTINC AND MANUPACTUKtNO
Stall tttinr, Sotvn Agent, Printer, Hook
And publisher of the Saturday Press and ffatvttf
an Airnttrutc amd Annual, ilerchanr itreet. lwu-
er in Fine Stationery, Hooks .Mutic, Toy and rancy
Good, Fori street, near Hotel, Honolulu.
ASTLB A COOKE,
Shipping xtnd Commi$ton Merchant,
No. & King Sthbkt...... ............Honolclv
IMRJNtCRS AND UBALBR5 IN
The Hitchcock ft Com
The A erandcr ft 1
K. Hautead, or WaiaJtri TUnUtun.
A II. Smith 8c Company, Koloa. KauaJ.
J. M. Alexander, Haik'J, Maul,
the Haiku Sugar Company,
The Kohala bugar Company.
HsUdaViu Pltrtalton '
The Union tnvinnce Company oi San Pmpicaco.
lh New 1'neland Life Insurance Company of Uottoi
Ihe lihVe .Manufacturim; Company of lliton.
D. M. We Eton's Patent Centrifuj-il Machi.it.
'Phe New York and Honolulu Prckct Line.
'Ihe Merchant1 Line. Honolulu an J Sin Fran Cisco J
Dr. Jaynei ft Son (lebrated Medicines,
0kala Reyar Co- HU, Hawaii,
yiowMu sugar uo. Aiasi,
PiiuWa &heep tUivh Co, Haa'I,
). KoIrril,VPtfean I1o and' rortalle Tramwa
Qtaii ijevns j ft
MifricM. WMten Cna Smar MaehinetT. filauaw.
(lli(ow and ((Mtoluhi Line 6f part t-li.
i.utrpvoiami iittnonm i.tnett (,
HKitrtMi arwl Honoltalu UaofSifaiturt.
Sun I Ire I ruurancc Co. of Itfdcn.
Wilcox & Otbb'i Striker Manufacturing Company,
heeler Wiuon t be wing .Maciitucs.
S. CLECIIORN & C.
TT HACKFELD& Co,
Honeral Contintsntnn Agent.
Quekn SruacT.,.1..... .. ..Honolulu
CD. HOFFSCHLAEGER & Co.
Importer and Commtjutlon Jlrrchnntt.
Honolulu Oamu. II, L,
pVlLLIHGIi.M & Co.
Importer and Denier In Hardware, Cut'
Paini pjiJ Oils and General llorchandUe.
No. 37 Fujrr Strkkt Honolulu
Importer and Deater In (lenentl .Ver-
Comer Queen and (Caahumanti Streets, Honolulu.
AH kinds of jobbing promptly Attended to,
Iclcphone No. yy Williamson "s Exprcas OTice.
Snor, No. 84 Kimj Strekt , Hunoiulu
T AINE & Co.
Importers and dealers In Hty, Grain and General
Honolulu ...H. 1
O. HALL & SON.
How the "l'rlrhlnla" ir ,(eoe.-eeii.
OnciUya "subject" was brought lo liar
tholomevv's the boJy of a man who hail died
"uddcnlv" In the course ol dissection the
knives of lire operator, were blunte I by some
hard subslancvs disseminated through the mus
cular tissues. Those minute objects were dis,
covered to be calcareous, and their formation
explained the resistance ottered by them. Ri
chard Owen secured some specimens, and re
fusing to consider them as mere cysts, broke
them open, applied the microscope, and disco
vered the since well-known and dreaded tri
chinia spiralis, the abundant cause of death tn
German villages, where uncooked ham and
tauwiKcs mule of uncooked pork nrc frequently
eaten. Ihe iamous paper en this insidious
parasite al once brought its writer into European
reputation, and revealed the caused symptom
previously referred tn every cause hut the right
one. '-Indirectly as well as directly," says
I'rufessnr Owen, "this lucky discovery vsas
useful, foril showed, among other things, how
completely one may be misled by symptoms.
I'he symptoms of trithiniatis are, or were,
singularly deceptive. In its early stages it
may easily be mistaken for diirrhoea and
dy.enlcry. In lis third stac it may uVe the
form of to eral diseases adorned w ith the lougest
and hardest names to wit, pericarditis,
pleurisy, and pncuniouuj and in its later form,
for acute rheumatism. All ihis Is now perfec
tly well known, and my contribution ti prac
tical medicine tui been very hand.omcly
acknowledged by German scientific men, who
vVl i hard It it to change the food of a
people cannot restrain the great body of their
beloved U'urst and Minim. Village after
village hat been decimated by tri(hiniatis
wliule families have died fruiu il j but people
gn on eating ut the mne.-iM World.
ivirorirKits ahu ukaleks i-
IXarilwari find Oertrrur' JfereAriri'fU.,
Cornsa or King and Fort Stkexts. Honolulu
William Hall...... ..... . IV-sideitt and Manager
L. C Abies .....Secretary and Treasurer
C-ore U. Howe , .. ....Auditor
Directors II. May, K. O. Whirr. 151
n M CARTER,
Aitoitt to take AeltnaurtnXjmeHts to Com
Oner, tn Labor.
Honolulu. Hawsiian Island. 15
Cotnml4ioiter of Deel
Tor the State of California, for tU Hawaiian Iilands,
a.id General Aei.t for the Pacific Mutual Life In
surance Company of California. t
TNO. A. HASSINGUR, i
Agtnt to take AehnoirleJjment to Com
tract fur Labor,
iNTKttlOK OrtMCN .,HoNOLULU
AW. AEIRCE & Co.
Ship Chhndter and Commtton Mer
chant, Vcjnolulu, Hawaiian Isinda.
Acent ()i Jlrand'ft Gun and Bomb Lam.' ant Ter
ry Davn rkln Killer.
Auctioneer and CommUntnn Merchant,
Quins Stiicst Honolulu
TJ A. SCHAEFER Co.
Import or and Co mm Um ton Merchant,
Merchant Strbst Honolulu
XXTILDER & Co.
Lumber, Paint, Olt, Xalla, and Ituttdlng
Materia!, of every hind
Coa. Fort awoQueks Srs Honolulu
" Photographic Artist, ..
101 and 104 Fort Smttsr ,., ...Honolulu
Picture of all atit ami litn,l m 1 tn nrilep nnd
frame of all dcicriptins constant! r on hand. Alto
Coral. Shell ani Cnrioiitie of the Pacific t
TT E. McIWTYRE & BROTHER,
flroccry and Feed Store,
Cott. Ki's-r, KStt I'oRTSrsVv
-pHE GERMANIA MARKET.
Honolulu, H. I.
Feat, Mutton, lAtmh, Ponttry
Constantly on h.iml. and of choicest aualttv. Tork
Sausazct, Bolognas, etc, aln-ny on hand. Our mtMU
arc all cut and put up in fc-stern tijie. All orders
faithfully attended to, and delivered in auy part of the
ciiy ouop on iicici oirtrei, uviwren uiuon ami ron
iSireeta. Uo-'n G. HAUI'I', I'ropnetor.
TNO. O. FOWLER & Co.,
Ar prepared to fnrntth Plan and tt'
mate for Steel
With or wliho.it Cars and Locomotives, S fecial' y
ADAKIXD I OR SUGAR PL.VNTAT10NS.
Pei-manent Ra!lax,and Loccmotlvei and cm, Trac
tion LnvVet and Kad lramotUei, Steam
riouzhirtiT ftnd Cuhiv-uins Machinery, Port
atle Lng'tnea for all purposes, Wmdiug
Enctr.cK for inclines.
Catalrctiti with Illustrations, MoJeW and I'hoto
graphs t f the above Plititt and Machinery may lie leen
at theo'Ecesor the unJertiigncd. W. L. GULEN and
G. W. MACFARLANE X CO., Aenu for Jno. Fow
ler & Co.
.. a.,lf,.),,.AjU iUfA
Watchmaker and Jeteeter,
'Watch repairing mails a Speciality.
All orders from the othei Wands promptly attended to.
No 35, Hotel bTKBST. Homolulu, H.I.
Jeweler and XiaMOrf Setter,
NofSa,. , Nuuanu Strut, Honolulu, 11. 1,
(Opposite HollUter k Co.),
raiticular attention paid to repairing.
OHN H. PATY,
Sotary Public and Cammttton of Deeit;
For the State of California aiut New York. Office
at the Hank of Uishop A Co.
Honoiulu, 0hu, II. I. i
ip T. LCNEHAN & Co.
Importer and Commit ton Merchant,
Ni'UANtf Strukt Honolulu.
T YCAN ft CO,
Importer and Deater in all kind of
Muilv tlnodetf Fancy Ouod,
Nv5. ioj anu to; Four Sntic-r.... . . .HotoLULt1
Funutttrn. Chilrt. Sewutz MacldoM. Mirrors an.!
Mhror I'Lites, Iiclui Krauxt and Cornices made lo
A LLEN & RODINSON,
Dmaler tn Ltmbrr and all hind af Uulld-
ng Material, ratal, uit, .la.u, etc,
Honolulu. II. I.,
A0ENT5 OP bCIIOOfEni m
HaledkaU. KuUraanu, Kekauluohl, Mary Ellen,
UlUma, Pauahl and LeahL
At Rohimon's Wharf.
Imvottcre of General Merchandise, front
Prance, Kngla$d, Germany rtHniK
ih ITnti.l .at.ilnm.
o "";. ..-.
v J5 vi'ni arRcar... no
Whole tale Grocer,
3l5 AND aiaCAtlrOKNlA StKKKr., .JxiN FaANCliCO.
Poitlculu atteniu'U paid to fill wis and thippinj ts
land order. i
Uouto ami Hlun I'alnter,
i'AritR llANniK, tc,
No. 107 King Srastr Honolulu
63 1 mi
Veil, of t.iftroml 31
Il 1 very safe for the uisseni.m on the Mas
lachuselis railroads, tut not xi safe for the
cuiploses, acconliin; to the reriort of the rail
ruail cninmlulon. No usscn,jer w Ulleil
last year cuccpt by his own fault, though
61,000,000 jussenger were carrieil an average
ihvtince of Altera miles. One jas.eni;cr vvas
Ullril un a frciKiil iralnjH were killcJ by
their own iienllgcncc, ami Ol were Injured.
The number cf eii!ove Wiled vsas hi j in
jured, 3J3. 01 all these, car coupling rauseil
86 casualties. There ate several excellent
Invention fur elf-couUni;, hut the railroad,
hold jloof fiom them, ami brakemtn continue
lu be sacrificed. The commissioners sayi "Il
1 nrobable that the freight-cojpler n,uettinu
uill never 13 satisfactorily settled until the
taw of liability of emi'lojers to employe lia
been llioiougMy revlvcl. llw'stoikinu of a
just law covering this whole subject ould be
likelv to .supersede the neciiy fr special
I'lcuislalion n o couplet or drawbars." One
jeiious bar to any ellectlve legislation in inn
coiineetloii is the neccsiiy of goln to vi many
Hale U-i;istAturetotcurean)iliIiig like uni
formity. The question ougtii lo lia jsttled by
the railroad companies acting in concert.
Some railroad are much mote ilingtrou to
eniplo)ttlun other. The New Vwk A New
KngLind killed a nun lo every Go.ooj freight
mile run, a against one to every 275,000 cu
t LUv,(oni Albany7J"s!'0'vttyJ40o;i)'
pn'lhe lilchburg- It i ao liitere.luig (act
1 BRRWER & COMPANY,
lleaerul Mercantile ami Coiwnltelon Agtnt
Qet s STMiticr, Honolvlu.
OJicvrv I'. C lone. tr.. uctlJeut .n.l ralnii2r:
fowrh O. Cait.r, iroasurcr Artl sKreluy. Directots l
1111, Charles K. Kuhap.nJ II. A. 1. Caritrj ll.nry
il.y, .uuuk. us
r,iiT la Choicest itf, Veal, Mutton, Kte,
No, 6 Quint, Sir her, FiH MAVKar.
Fa'n'dy n 1 Shipping or dm rmrefully attend"! to
Live Slock funilthed to Vtwl al khort ngike.
VectaMti uf alt kluU wpplitj to onler,
rLKm?Mt. ..No. tit.
S. GRINDAUM oi Co.
OPP & CO.,
MESSRS. It. MORE & .CO.
King Street... HonoLi'tu
Would ba to notify the Public ilM they
have fust received a ihipaicat of the famcu
' H0USCII0U3" SEWING MACHINE.
OiTtrfor SaI. llircar;aol)ie Uiils
Jutt antved, the fallowing lut of MotluoJi t
Light lltprc VaQn,t tf
Pxtcnttnn Top Otrrtag, -v
Common Wood Chaia
Viae IjncJ SIumIcj.
Ice Chcttt, Koe. t, 3, and 5,'
LoWluf, i'Ib. TiiA
raat, j!b, 'fii.e,
Hoy Cutters, Not, t," a end j,
Falrbanh Scale, Xos, 7, S 10, It, 111-'J,
Cctiinfual Lining, 14 Ire Iim,
Compofiilon Nails, x) incli and )( Inc'i,
Manila Cordage, Anttl,
AfesSv " ' " Exe!iv( MaiUcMM,
- ' t C-lr. FtrceSuplo,
Partner' Hoiltrt, o and 3 Coil
Sital Rvpe, Aiv-rted
, . - ;kli I'Unhiv.
Anita ShocU, . ,
Yeltot? Metal Sheathing,
Hide Poiwn, ,
iPT Any person wishing to purvhaK a tevslnfmathtne
would do well tueaaiuiiie tlem.
74..,.. ,...... .......IClHO SraKRT
UphoUttrer, Draper and Dealer in all
ina of furniture
e- S ? CTtVphvMie No. I4J.
-5 (tiiwK-V WITH BOLUS ft CO.)
V )&btpraU and Itetall Grocer,
,ti, HWjrRET ...Umdkk Hakmony Halu
lTujJjfcrfUntatInn, and fahlp store tupplied at short
rftMrrNew cooU bv everv steamer. Orders from
r ., . . V ... r .. . . .
ie omer tuauu iuaiuny cxckuuu.
leic-pnne fio. ii.i
IITOLFE & EDWARDS,
IMrORTBRS ANU IWALJIKS IN
Groceries, Proeleton and Peed,
Con. Kiiu anoNl'Uanu Sis, Hoholvlu
Fresh Goodi by every Ueamcr.
P. O. Hsia ia. l94Hr Telephone 54,.
T YONS U LUVEY, , . -
Autli'f.-r'-utwl Commt$tm Merchant,
liJUVtB-Uuxk, Qi'mt.N Stkikt, Honolulu.
Sales i Furniture. SiotV, Keal Kvlt and General
MerchanJtte prompOy attndsd to. .VJa djientt fwr
Auiericaii and Kurpeao mercluudisc, J I. Lvoss,
i8.r 1l.J I.iviy.
tmportor and Whtttosnle Dtler In (-
Maicpn's Uiocx Qvik.1 StaaKT, HouH'lu
1UT S. ORINBAUM & Co.
Ftinr,trllmt and Com$utUtn 9tertantt
H Caukihia St., Sax Fmanuku
Special faclL'ti'H for and particular attention U la
iuuruiWiUs o iUsikl orvxfuce.
cuiiuruiuius oi 1
Pioneer tit earn
Horace lu .
Prirtlat ("etifVtlrr. I'rtrv Cok aa 1 UaVrr.
N timber 71 Hm1 uieti, Utwea Furt an4 Nuuauu
C-ndy Manufaeterw and
:. It. I,
I -e k .
to China, .and several hav-s: eseapcsl. Hut H railroad pasnger are atf in Jtas.
there hn been Ucalh from Up. I cliujet'.t lluu, iu Great Unuin.
TJOLLISTBR & Co..
ll'holfil mill Hat'ttt DeutijtH, ami "
1UTRS. A. M, MELLIS.
iis,fiMfiM. tiros, .(! Vlotk Muktr.
No. 104 Woar .Simsr .Hokolil
KiT W. McCIIBSNUY & SON,
LoatLor, ItUleo, Tn'law and CVmml..(ors
Actnis for tltt RoyuISo.pCtrmpan)r.
No. ) (Ver Sr.tsr i IIonoluiv
TI1H WESTERN AND HAWAIIAN IN
vestnKut Cooipany (UmlteJ.)
Mirii)- loanl for lung or tort periods on approved
Ks-urhy. Arvl la W. L. GREEN,
OiKc. Dtavcr UUli, Tort Si. al.rugtr.
a uumlr of superior
Dauble-b.rnl Breach-toatlinjf Sbot Guns,
VVIncLcstor Rifles, Kcimeily Rifle
Smith & Wlssori Rerolvers.
A fall asvorimei.r of CARTRlUr.KS, lnu uri
pa(Mf shell ; auj bpunumn s Giaui buuics.
"2T &11 Mid xualu our Slock I
H.vlne in our emvljy a firstlASl Lock .nj Hun
Smith, w. art prepared to do .11 kind, of lepuuing in .
first -cliu manoer .rul on short notKC
Soelna Machine repaired and adJuiUnl
A And .11 kinds of Iron Work mad. and repaired,
Ariaeel Fern Wire
Clv. fcrew. and WsAe
E W GOODS
T W. IHNGLEY ft CO.
ManjUcturer of Havana Cigar,
lUrOKTKKt AMD tiKALKXi IH
(ii Siookers Art ides ,
Ihi moM complete stock tu the Lined ona.
King street, (near AUltca) Honolulu.
ENSON. SMITH, ft CO.,
Una ii), FORT STREET,
ao.msria & '.cm.uVa cilsoatio HoatiaorATMic
TIIK COMMON SIHSK NURSING DOTrLEJ
il Kiea Sunt . ..
Imor-rr of Anvennsn Jw.Iry of every deKrlp
iVia. (IVnsil ul Sa t riix-iwo, CslifornU.) y
N w, Nvu,shu Sniir.
' , Ho. liiil Shoemaker
j&niousanJ Mux. ad.w O.Jer.
iNa. nf Fr Sr., or irs Paisuw Sranu.
A L. SMITH,
'Importer and Venter It Ilia, near,,
Mmrlilea .llleer fluted Ware,
N. it ror Srar . .. ,. ...Hokou'lv
Kin,?. Ceteilrfutlon SrMTArI.t and ErtataMc
tunrJl Wire 'tre, r')r uim, fictar. VramM, Pl
luU, Wo.-.e.VI-a's I'uikel CuUery, Posxler, ihx nl
Arauwi-tloii, Osik'e Sikh4 Oxuhi, Masnuie Od, all
tiodt of SI schln. Nwlles, "IonK Jic" r"aiei ruklMU.
&j! tje ol h. univere.Hr (Wu.rlde4 MiTitt
K'vnnU 1ihu.,ik bn Msrlilw
EMMELUTH Si Co.,
"'. S, Vhm Sl,,JUiuMm U. .,
Jo! asiits far lU IsLiaJs. A full lint of ih.
T EMMBLUTH & Co.,
No. NUUANU St., HONOLULU, II. I.
STOVES biiI RANGES,
Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron, Sheet Lead and I.'lJ
Pipe,rja)ranried Iron Prpand Filling., Prase Good,
all sues. Artesian Weil and 'rrigstitijf "ipe. '11.. life
u.l Tin and Ircn ware, lUtbt, Ciowt Sinks. WasV.
stands, MarU. uld lioarnelej trou, tn slock and fur
Sal. at rcasonatd. rtte
Tel.Dliona Ko. 211. t-v
TV.T RrCClVEO IX
' Martha DivU," M Mallgite,M knI eipected cm
"Mariposa" and other vessels
Pan on Catd Matches,
Horse ShsJet and Nails
DOWNERS and NOONPAY Oil,
Lubriotlns Oils of aU kinds.
Cut NaiV all size, l
- $ Cluch Nails, aUsIirs
fT Cutcn Waste In bales,
$? Utackunlth'i IJelUvfl.
Cheop Kim OolIs,
Hrown Soap, In easas,'
' Wire lUcj!c ILaiWu for Femt,4.
Lane'k rUntatlQn Ho,
1( Inch CxM.nJ. So.Lei Ham,
Ice. Cream Trcem,
I n Mower, best VInd,
Case's Genuine. Am1iea penloit,
Oic's Genuine AmcaVeaf Mariners Stripe,
Deudos a ttivuund amcltt tu the HardwwelLQealwty
Susu especttd, not by tU "f-'pm.iri," a moa qqm,
plete avwsrtrutnt of
Hall' Sleet Plote and Itrenheee,
With cttra Handles Peams and Points,
All these ill be found al lh cur&er Ultlr unr of
10 I. V, II ALL. fti h-)J.N, UruttO,
T" M, CROWLEY
O. M. CUOWLLV tfjrwerly al Pruns) li.in i
ured luio p-nnmbip trtia MK-ltUiill HAbllL, tU
Sttliutm Bollloa, 1883
nev Crn wtU V. krwwu s
Juu received from Potlad, Orejoo, Vr ' M
TbtM Fish can be rtUd nssiu as Pbit-ClaM.
M. OAT, JR ft CO.
ail.illoM.ra ami .V.r Uepjlte,.
Jle.l UuUhe'r St-tmp ,tfey
CArirr B-o..,..J.(,)No.sMiSMaiT Sr?
SviJ HOiDLLV, is. L
al FIxart foe iIm km a! .ay u n!
JOB WORK r-ROUPTLV OONKJ
,......,.,.. - tKiNO btti,
opoaUls W'Uioua k WfljU's.
Every deieriptlA of Furaltiu. at lv.e
tiuUsvi Ttas. I'asrtecui.
f la Sdi, llonealr, awl wkei covenrtp,
tr . ' it? .,! ,u u. fWA,p.
Eh, tut tueerwas susd uuwawts.
"VOssTON aad "C1IAU.ENCB
briiiso uEixi, '
IH. KIXO HTMKKT.,
Talirowaa Xuuut, j.
NOTICE OF COPYRIGHT.
It. It reiaemUrei tbal 01 k s-d dr ot V'.f.A. a.
liAs, ! drpuvlld b tils eJIC ;)f lUl.lf lu( Ul,
anaaisabi. to-As.usH.Mri --scf.ikssi.rt jiawaiiam
Dlu;-ror."inKiJiii .cUy (Si,e4ity ol lltoolulj;
Alld li-MW Ik. MnVlf H.WSai, Klvt.( HM,
xuato., eAmsi ( WttMvd reefclvett. ff I, .ddla
pr,pulallai lU Chyii(rMAktii)aiMs4 lilsodof Oabis,
m na.se. ad t (Mi.ri satl tUusen,pU.t.iMuiaa
lU iaU iian h, tvitvwer v4h uwiiail iUirptUi
ofH (uealofil erttcrprms aJ U4uirW( nMe of
travel aiaideirrlptiii iV tie f-ritHfifel pHi el UHtt
m tri I It,Walt4Jt laSrftn, IslXW ir. - fltMfW
IW It reiaemUieJ tbal an h ! d.r ot vf. A. a.
I4i. Fmi.r. It Uwt, vow rIUr ia 1 tonJAlu, IsLa4
4'0'jil, II. l.,io aveoiOau ub IxttUw sf an "Aa
to enowre Uinm,- tu tlls Llajfaoa by srunfir tht O
copussl cuirn aw poiuiu i lit. butsiofs su l. c4wiwr.
r tout curies, apiwei sue )iiiai rssjeeir, a. n.
V. I..I flrousJttdLBll.lt llCm ll luLslul Uk.
ind alsu l.lt lioJt .uMol : 'JcK.sMr' Hawaiian
Uuu, the ri.lUA'vii' vhkh kvk k. diiawa awW,
JajuiaAf i, kae hvev? Ut mr a,
XJ M UHeK, rU. pi dayof Mar, tltu
. - SaiV
Uv4m af IW laiTiaf.