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Volume iv, Numbkk 53.
HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, August 30, 1884.
Wiiolk Number 209.
In A rendu '
In A'catty, where love l young
And life ! frc.h anil full and free;
Where nottR. of fallh arc always sung
TliW uiinmer morning 1 would he,
Juit thou and t, the flower, among.
And overhead a hc!teilng tree.
There loving thought would need no tongue,
To make their meaning plain to thee,
Kor hrarU in perfect tune arc trung
A. '. .., in the SfiingfieM KtJuMiotn.
I.KMSOMI fltOSI ll.nr.lt I AX lltiTOItr.l
CO.NCI.UllL!) FROM I.AT VVF.KK.)
TIIF. MISSIONARY IT.RIOD.
To us who were born under the
lrilm-trcc of 1 Invvaii, and whose earliest
and closest associations are with the
work which our parents initiated, it is
around Ihat work that the chief of
interest of Hawaiian history centres.
That which I designate as the " mis
sionary period " includes certain devel
opment worthy of consideration, and
mistakes full of suggestion.
While progress was from the first
remarkable, there was constant unstead
iness among the people, corresponding
always to the action of the chiefs, who
stood between two influences, waver
ing weakly between good and bad. In
the year 1834, as has been stated, the
vounc Kins Kamehameha III. took a
public and dnniatic stand in favor of
unnstianiiy ; inn, in spue 01 uirs, ms
life and that of his successor, furnished
examples which have always justified,
rather than condemned, the moral
relapse of the natives.
About 1B17 there occurred at the
islands one of the gieatcst religious
revivals of modern times, which con
tinned for several years. Sixteen thou
sand natives were enrolled in the
churches, and the well-known Father
Coan of Hilo baptized sccntecn hun
drcd in one day. Hut the mission
aries, knowing the people, were on
their guard, were slow to accept mere
professions, and endeavored thoroughly
to test their converts. Natives camped
by thousands near the churches in
order to hear the gospel, and built
huge houses of worship, dragging
timber from the mountains by hand,
and diving fathoms deep into the sea
foi coral to make into mortar. Long
before 1850 a church was in sigh' from
every hamlet, the Bible was in every
hut. and the people weie civing more
to religious charities, according to
their means, than any people in Christ
endom. I here were over 10,000,000
of printed pages in their own language,
mostly educational matter, and in 1843
eighteen thousand children attended
school. This was the maximum.
There were all the outward signs of a
nation of steady habits; but the energy
of the whites was behind and sustained
it all ; the people were passive, plastic,
practically infants. Of the-white men's
signatures on the public papers of that
day one-half was made by marks,
while only one native failed to write
his own name. In reading and writing
the natives were the equals of the aver
age New Englandcr ; but, being made
of very unequal stuff, the growth was
not from within outwards. The two
races were, in effect, two thousand
vears anart in real civilization.
The Hawaiians in their little Pacific
Paradise were like Adam and Eve in
Eden without hardship, and it is a
question whether humanity can de
velop well under paradisaical condi
tions. They accepted civilization, but
did not adopt it : they did not know
what it meant. Take for instance, the
f use of clothing. In warm, sunny
weather they dressed richly for display,
and in rainy weather wore next to
nothiiiK, which resulted naturally in an
increase 01 cows ana levers, ine
Kanaka on Sundays wore a broad'
cloth coat, and on work days a breech
clout ; the woman was arrayed perhaps
in a satin dress, hanging from her
shoulders, which she probably valued as
much as her character. They had little
idea of the fitness of things. Yet they
had reached an important stage
they were humanized.
TI. .'icing in brief the state of af
fairs, th'e American Hoard of Missions
in Boston in 1848 adopted the con
clusion that the islands had been vir
tually Christianized, that the nature of
the work hail tnereiore cnangcu essen
tially, and that what was needed was
pastors rather than missionaries. It
was asserted that proper material for
pastors could be found among the
many thousands who had been called
by the Holy bpirtt in tne ctiurciics. in
reply,' the Hawaiian missionaries urged
the instability and moral weakness of
even their best converts ; but they
were finally overruled, and in 1863, in
connection with the visit of Reverend
Dr. Rufus Anderson (Foreign Secre
r.v of the American Hoard of Com
missioners for Foreign Missions) to the
islands, independent natie pastors
were appointed as the equals of the
missionaries in rank and councils. The
missionaries accepted the change with
deep misgivings, and in 1S80 told me
that they regarded it as a serious mis
take. The Roman Catholics, who hold at
least one-third of the native population,
have to this day maintained a strong
foreign priest-hood, never having re
ceived a Sinele native as their peer,
though they have used them in a sub
ordinate capacity with success, llusi
ness men told me that while they put
much resjionsibility upon native Ha
waiians, they never cave them control,
It is siuuiflcaut that of the six hundred
business houses in Honolulu not one is
conducted by a native, while two hun
dred are controlled by Chinese.
White men arc as necessary in gov
ernment administration today as they
were thirty years ago, and by 11b mean
all the native clergy can be trusted with
the church collections, or arc above re
The Hawaiian mission was profes
sedly an experiment ; and when, in
1835, it was decided than an extraor
dinary Tot? of both men and women
hould be sent there, it was in the
hope. "That, should it be found pos-
ibtc to complete the work in the space
ot one or two generations, tne island
would Ik orue a glorious exemplifica
tion and proof of the power of the gos
pel in missions for the conversion of I
the woild." At the religious toino- a
lion of 18O3 Dr. Anderson said, " I he
mission, having through the blessing of
God, accomplished the work specially
appropriate to it as a mission, has been
as such disbanded and merged in the
community." Control of the churches
was given to the ecclesiastical bodies
of which a majority were Hawaiian.
The veterans were to depend for their
influence solely on their age, experi
ence, and superior attainments. No
official power was left tnem except a
certain control over the grants to the
I believe that while a democratic
form of rliurrh organization is natural
and fitting for highly civilized people,
it is of doubtful value among weak
Polynesians, and the like. Fitness to
control is rather a question of the state
of society than of the individual ; an
intelligent public sentiment in .1 race,
is its best qualification to take the
helm in any dciiartmcnt of economic,
Klitieal or social life. It has become
a matter of experience, in my opinion,
that in guiding a race through the pro
cess of development everything should
be given it but the helm, bclf-hclp
and self-control should be taught from
the first : entire control should be
given only at the last. The action of
the American-Hoard must, in the light
of results, be put down as a mistake as
to facts and an error in judgment.
Hut, on the other hand, the mission
aries have undeniably the right to
claim that in 1863, and even long
before, they had accomplished that
which, in 1820, was their professed
object : they,' " had converted the
islands to Christianity, established
gospel institutions, ami prepared tne
ground for the native pastors." In
thirty years they had received into
church membership fifty thousand
souls, of whom twenty thousand had
died, while eight thousand had been
excommunicated; and the Hawaiians,
judged by the standard of church at
tendance, Sunday schools, education,
etc., were a Christian people. The
distance between this condition and
the era of heathen temples, bloody
altars, universal crime and darkness, is
as great as that accomplished by any
race in the same time. I believe this
progress, to be tmjuiralleled in history,
but as a matter of fact the nation was
still far from Christian civilization.
Hut this admission again only forces
us closer to the conclusion that grant
ing the Hawaiian mission to have been
succecssful in its appointed object.
viz., "The preaching of Christ," then,
under modern conditions, in mission
work which is to be progressive and
permanent, something more than
preaching is needed, something which
under ancient conditions was less im
perative. The world has changed ;
there are new factors in .the , problem ;
we meet with difficulties that did not
exist in the days of the apostles'. The
work which I criticize is as near me as
my own, and far more sacred ; but I
believe in a science of Christian phil
anthrophy as much as of sociology, and
the one demands as alose a study as the
While we are, perhaps, wiser now in
these things than our fathers were fifty
years ago, yet we know little, and we
need all the lessons willun our reach
Both in success and failure the Hawaii
an mission has something to teach us,
and an honest survey of the ground
will possibly show us what that is.
In the year 1851 I accompanied my
father, who was the minister of public
instruction in the Hawaiian cabinet, on
a tour of all schools on the islands ; we
were most of the time guests of the na
tives. With rare exceptions we found
them living in thatched huts as of old,
cooking and eating their food as their
ancestors had done, wearing clothes
when convenient (but with no strong
opinions on the subject of garments),
while the entire family, as well as the
stranger within their gates, slept in one
room, with occasionally a curtain across
the raised end. In every hut there
was a Bible, and family prayers were
offered. Yet pleasure seekers saw and
reported another side ; not that the na
tives were altogether hypocrites, but
that hospitality and a desire to please
are national traits, and that .they easily
took the point of view of their
guests. They had then, and to this
day, they have no family name. It was
my father's last public effort in i860 to
create this basis of lanuly union; but
the families were, and still are, simply
flockshcldonly by nature'sties. Morality
was required by the churches, was
preached in season and out of season,
was punished by frequent excommuica
tion, and enforced by the laws ; but
the conditions of it did not exist in their
surroundings or in the indolent routine
ol their lives. As tar as x look upon
all this, I realize how far behind them
they had left the old life of cruelty,
crime, and shamciessness ; I also real
ized how far they were from the stand
ard which had been set before them ;
and I know that from that day
to this, the tide had been gradually
setting back, and the process of decay
Could anything hae checked it?
Where was the mistake, the point of
failure ? hat was jwssible to these
indolent, happy island children, placed
by Providence as heirs of the kindest
soil and climate on earth? NordholT
says truly, that no effort can make these
heathens into Puritans. llishop
Pattison demonstrated the useless-
ness of attempting to malt English
Christians of the Melanesians, be
lieving that character was not an
absolute result but . the best that the
conditions would permit. Is it not
true, that it is not daily victory which
we should expect, but daily struggle ?
A cbiivert from barbarism may neither
be strictly truthful, nor honest, or vir
tuous, unit yet he may be a Christian.
He tries to do better, asks God for
help, and, with occasional relapses,
works slowly along to better things.
The best man is he who makes the
best fight. Does it not then seem
evident that the highest success ol mis
sion work will be la proportion tathe
possibility of providing the conditions
which are necessary to the growth ol
individual character; which help each
man to stand, and, if he falls, to rise
again ? The object of Chris'inn mis
sions assuredly is the formation of
character, the inspiring of men perma
nently with higher views of duty and a
stronger sense of truth an ethical
product rather than emotional piety.
The inspiration of the work lies simply
in the constraining love of Christ and
of men, and is above creeds; it is simple
and direct; it knows no scctaiian differ
ences; and it keeps men near God.
The men and women who lake it up,
are sure, through difficulty and dark
ness, or a mighty consummation at the
end, and they work in that conscious
ness. The ideal missionary of to-day
needs to be a linguist, a scholar, an
adept in the knowledge of men, an or
ganizer of society, of infinite tact and
untiring energy, ready for any em
ergency, a man in short such as Ham
tin was in Constantinople, or Living
stone in Africa He must not be
hampered by directors at hemic, but
must go as an officer in command of a
foreign expedition, how ever stuffed
with instructions with full liberty to
act in the end as he may think best.
The one great lesson of the Hawaiian
mission is, 1 believe, that we must more
and more recognize the value and nec
essity of practical training of the whole
life. In the whole of the movement
under discussion there was too little
of this; and not enough practical rec
ognition of the fact, that gicat move
ments begin with the individual, that
religious results however brilliant for
the moment cannot be permanent un
less thcic is coincident with them a
high individual type. Self-relianrc
and decent living must not only be
preached, but pushed upon the con
vert, whose well-ordered life should be
a daily lesson. There was no formal
union of church and state in Hawaii,
hut practically there was a similar
result. The faith went from the chiefs
to the people, among whom there was
little deep conviction. They were
swept as by a current, or rattier rose
and fell as upon vast tidal waves. This
was possibly the misfortune of the mis
sion; its mistake lay in giving no lack
of exhortation, but far too little of that
practical training in cvery-day living,
which alone can make an uncivilized
people into Christians, in whom is to
lie found steadfastness and a capacity
for progress, in whom Christianity has
literally '' leavened the lump."
The methods by which this may be
accomplished connot be discussed
here; but the splendid work done of
late years in the African field, in India,
China and Japan; and in our own
land, shows that the tendency of mod
ern educational thought and of mis
sions is strongly in the direction of
better man-building. We have learned
how to make money, but not how to
make men. Everywhere Christianity
is ihoiiefully slruuulinc with idolatry,.
and the semi-heathen faiths, and with
the worst degradation of all, that of
corrupt civilization. Its ideas must
conquer, for they alone meet the needs
of all men; but the life which it de
mands must always be slow of growth.
A maxim of mission work might well
be, " Ideas take root in a moment,
habits only in gencaations. "
1 HE PERIOD OF DECAY.
While In the division of my subject
I speak of the " period of decay, " and
date it from the year 1850, when the
causes at work came as it were to the
surface, it is true that the decrease of
the native population began much
earlier. In 1820 they numbered pro
bably about eighty-five thousand, and
in iSso sixty-five thousand, at the
present day forty three thousand, the
rate of decrease being now more rapid
than ever, at least one thousand a year.
Following King hiho-liho and Kameha
mcha I V., were his brother Lot, Wil
liam Lunalilo, and Kalakaua, all since
1850, over whom the missionaries had
little influence, and unscrupulous men
a great deal, lhe first two were of
high rank and ability, and received
much of the ancient reverence given
to kings. The last two were elected by
the legislature; and Lot having waivedhis
right to name a successor, Lunalilo was
chosen by acclamation. This popular
young king was talented, but was his
own worst enemy, and soon died from
drink. Kalakaua's election in 1S74
was due to the manipulation ot tne
legislative electors by Americans, who
feared the very popular Queen Emma,
uovvaccr 01 Kauieiiamena iv because
of her English proclivities.
King Kalakaua has now at the head
of his government an ex-Mormon priest,
a talented unscrupulous man, whom no
one trusts or respects, holding his posi
tion entirely thtougH his ability to handle
the weak and conceited monarch, who
though amiableand intelligent is utterly
without executive capacity or wisdom,
and is esteemed by none. The eight
thousand Hawaiian voters have to day
their own way with the six hundred
white voters, whose representatives tin
til lately have always led their councils.
Throuch now wholly set aside, the mis
sionary and decent clement is awaiting
the logic of events. 1 he last legislature,
having repealed the act prohibiting the
sale of litjuor to natives, intemperance,
is increasing frightfully. The people
arc eaten up with syphilis in its sec
ondary stage; about ntteen nunu
are lepers, and as many more have
taint ot it.
Yet the Hawaiians arc workiiig harder
than ever before; their labor is the best
to be had, and is in steady demand at
good prices with fair treatment on the
sugar plantations. Hut plantation lift
is not wholesome for them, certainly
not promoting domesticity, and it re
moves them from the influences which
they especially need. Hawaiian slavery
at one time so extensively advertised m
this country, is an absurd invention.
There have no doubt been Individual
cases of injustice, but the higher courts
arc in cood hands, and the local judges
and juries are not in the planter's inter
est, so that even the Chinamen have
got beyond the "knock-down period,"
and go to the law for redress. In the
scarcity of labor te working class has
the advantage, an) when in 1880 I
visited nearly all the plantations, I
found the employees as a rule very
gently handled. The better class of
natives in both town and country appear
exceedingly well, and are still the light
hearted attractive people of old, dancing
gaily to their doom, careless of fate, al
ways smiling. In graceful costumes,
decked with wreaths, mounted on gar
landed horses, they rtde like centaurs,
creations of air and sunshine, knowing
no future. One thinks of them in their
Kay childishness and wonders if they
were ever meant to be "a people of
steady habits." Have they reached the
condition which Mr. Charles Loring
Brace bclicv es isa possible one? "There
comes a period," he says, "in the history
of the decadence of a race, when its
moral condition seems to be beyond the
reach of any system of morality, or of
the purest religion."
The darkest shadow, cast across the
future of the islands, comes from the
presence of the Chinese. As already
stated, their twenty thousand male adults
have increased the majority of men
.over women to over twenty thousand,
in a total of sixty-seven thousand souls,
--a terrible disparity of the sexes which
in itself is fatal to morality. A people
able to defeat Americans on their own
ground, can easily overcome the yield
ing Hawaiian ; its influence is already
everywhere felt. A Chinaman, with a
jug of gin, hires himself cheaply to a
native, learns his business, nets him
through liquor into debt, and in two
scars owns the homestead, hiring his
former employer by the day. A few of
them marry good native women, and
are bringing tip an excellent class of
children, an improvement on the abo
rigines. But there are several hundred
Chinese Christians in the islands, and
nn earnest effort has commenced which,
under God, may lead to a glorious result.
Jt is a sign of hope: this mission to the
Chinese in Hawaii is now the most im
portant work there. The real Chinese
question everywhere is not one of money
but of morals ; they add fifty millions of
dollars a year to the wealth of California;
they are steadily enriching the islands ;
but what of their moral effect? Out
numbering already in Hawaii the male
population of all other nationalities,
there is nothing to check their increase
of power or to keep thepi from claim
ing the suffrage. Peaceful, money-loving,
industrious, they have no fear of
competition from any quarter; and they
are not ignorant of the power which is
steadily drifting into their hands. Nearly
all arc armed. " I he Chinese monster
is turning in its bed," said President
Garfield. China's armies are receiving
European equipment and drill. Sailors
arc being trained for her on every Ori
ental steamship, and skilled officers can
be hired to command the navy which
she is buying in the best European ship
yards. 1 he Hon. William H. Seward
once said, " The Pacific Ocean is des
tined to become the theatre of the
world's greatest events." When ships
shall crosH tlio Intimitis of laricn, ami
trade shall spread her navies over the
surface of this great sea, the commer
cial nations will be anxious for its con
trol. China may then be felt slowly as
suming with her vast resources the
place she shall choose to take.
The Hawaiian Islands arc the most
important strategic point in the Pacific,
and the logic of events is pushing them
under Asiatic influence. Eastern and
Western civilization have met there, the
one with numbers, the other with
wealth and ideas. Once more Pagan
worship appears on their shores, and
there is no prophet to tell us what the
end may be. In this conflict the
1 Iawaiian hardly counts.
Civilization is represented by a highly
intelligent class of Americans, English,
Germans, and other Europeans, num
bering about twenty-five hundred (with
a handful of natives), not all exemplary
in their manner of living, hut making a
refined society in which there is a re
markable proportion of college bred
men and cultivated women. The pre
ponderating influence is that represented
by the decendanls of missionaries, who,
though they now hold few government
positions, arc active in business and in
the professions. They appreciate the
natives and are their true friends. This
legacy of the fathers is a noble contribu
tion to Hawaiian civilization, the nucleus
of the forces forming the hope of the
islaads. One of them is the chancellor
of the kingdom, the supreme court
being the last stronghold of decency in
the government, though it has been
seriously weakened by late legislation
restricting its power over the inferior
lhe Reciprocity treaty with the
United States, which admits to this
country Hawaiian sugar free of duty,
nas strongly stimulated production, anu
money has become plenty and living
high. Itusiness is active, but is not
altogether on a sound basis, for the
present prosperity depends upon the
continuance of the treaty, which may
expire within a year. Its abrogation
would cause the collapse of probably
one-half the plantations; many of the
better class would leave the kingdom;
and a desperate effort would be made
for a favorable English or other alliance.
1aL a 1 a -. aj a ! v wm a. 1 a tA aa 1. AaA AfVt-aaa.
I lie llliicavt hiiu urn 11, c niKicuiiict
men ttarye, would then be sure of their
future on the sugar plantations as they
already. are in rice growing, which they
have vsi-ly introduced on the home
steads tney hayc wonrom the natives.
The financialWumenJ for the treaty
roar uc uisuuicti-r-inu political unc can
not he, for on it depends not olv the
fate of Hawaiian civilization, but of the
vast and growing intereis of this count
try in the Pacific Ocean. '1 he risk to
us is that 'we may not as a nation see
our need of these islands until i i tco
up of Hawaiian history
MITH & THURSTON.
j vv. 0. Shitii,
A. Titum rni
Attorncji at Lrll,
No. iS MrtciUNT Smntr..
ILLIAM O. SMITH & Co.,
j 1. ,. TlllftlTON f
itarh ttml Itettt l,1nlr llrnhm,
M MmiUNr Strum". . .. .HrtMOUtLv
F.ttaNuktt in tS?4 )
Sugar HintMton, Railruid, Telephone onl other Cor
priffttioti Huclt, Horn!. anJ -.mi tar Securities
Ummtr and Sold oi Commihioi.
16ne) Lome.t on Stok Security
Connrn Fftftt Aio Mkrcjiast SmUn,
I FfiftT A
.lUitrnry nt hmv ttml Xntarft Pttbttr,
Attemli nit ttio Court! of the Kingdom.
iiiiGin0 Qfitrbo. c
a J m
AX KCKART WV? , ,t .EWERS & COOKB,
0. 4 . ' fCiwrxiAhi -r.t f Bwatti Jt fiteif Bnv t
ir,rft.er, -Trirrhr. r.H.TK.jr .'.,); ii, ,,,. ,, rilr , ;. ,,,r ,,
Nali.F..tSSrt . Hm-SII " .Mcoum,
All orders faitMihl'xraiiei!. 11 , -. .-
I lltitektmtth, Jtttrfilnlst, Cttrrifitt nnrkt
Itnrnt Short tiff,
llrprrn rttitl IrrffmriM
Freight, ('adage, ami Ujj;;jueiiUrrct iohik! injtrt
All pnrtiflf Honolulu ami Ilniiy. Careful nl-
lentton paid tn moving Furniture, with
WACtONS r.XI'KKSSI.V FOR 1 UK l'URI'OStt
re tr phone M; kehtilrnce i 1'u.K.Miowf itrect
OiTik. 86 King Street. tcAtt
ri-intatlfrt Machinery, etc.
neat lo dull ft CooVe'a.
Sho m Kin Slrrell
Kjt PHILLIPS A Co
lirrra ami II hut emit? tirtilerit hi ttoth
luff, llonlut .Hhnei, lttttt Jtlen'M nr
nfhlnjf Untnft huiiey ttnut$t t:tc.
No. ii Kaahi'hahu SrtypitT... .IIoxoiJ'Lt
O J. LEVEY A CO.,
TDWARD PRESTO X,
tittorneff amt Vniiimehir
CA Port SrnritT
will be wlJ M lh loweM marVet r&iea.
Tin, Vupper ih( het trnn II orkert
tore runt ttttitftr
of all kind. I'lumlvrV ock anil metal, hie imUh
iS ! chandelier, tamp, etc
NO. 1 K.UHCMANU SlRhSr HnHOLlfLU
tSttOP A CO., Bankers
ilntOLuLt', IUwmian Ulsu.
"r'teti crortV and ttovI'tm4 of all UnU on hruvl and I
reccUeu regular! j' from Mirup and Amncn hijuu . 1
Stlhmhvr, t-'tilff ' ,"" I$il'lltlnn
tmitte nmt rruitrrttt
lOMlU'tO tf.T,i . H.I
(ntod drliverfd loan) part cf the city fret of tharae.
JtUnd order nolithetl and ttfoinpl attention will
Hivrn to tlie name. tli.tv
LEONG ft CO.,
A LBERT C. SMITH,
Atfrnl to trtke ,iekmnrtetfementii r
OmcK With Smith A 'Ihurston, Attorney M-bw
,lrt, 38, irRtHANT.TTRFBT.
Tns. CUMMINGS ft MARTIN
Nurtron ttntt tlomrepathte i'ftjttrtiiHH.
Owcrcopkfk Fort Hf.rilTAnu Sts..
Ofiiie Hours Until 9 a. y.f and from t-jandfilj p.m.
U. BMBRSON, M. D.
li;frfi urn Sttrflemi,
Hovot.tu 11 I
1 KI.PPIIONK Nl'MHtR I49
Office hotiM from Z'A to io!4 a. m.i tU to M i. m.
Office and KeMdencr, No. 3 Kukul street, corner Fort
T M. WHITNEY, M. D., D. D. S.
Jtrutttt ItooMM rtli I'oil M reft 1
Hnvoii'u; II. I
OiTrc tn Drew en Muck, corner Hote and Fort
Streets, entr-inceon Hotel Street.
fur Mtmnut Sii(fttrl 1'atnHitt liter
And Kaihu Klce Plantation and .Mill,
NtlUANU SrUKtT, ...... ... ..CUKHLR MaMNB
"TM1HO. H. DAVIES ft Co.,
(lArK JANIOK, URFILN ft UO.)
importer ft tut Cammtuntnu Merrhittiin
AGKNTS VOH .
Llod'iaiul the I.mriKVil Underwriter!,
Urimhnnd Foreign Alar ine Insurance (.ui
Northern Assurance Company.
r Cumpany, and
l.oft In A. F. CooVe'inew fireproof rmiljinn,
EMMELUTH ft Co.,
llr.w Eielian(e nti
rilK IHNK OK CAMIOKNIA,
And ihtir a(nl In
Mer. N M. K01IISCIIir.il k SONS,
TIkCOMMKKCIAI. IUNKINO CO.,
OF SVDNF.V, LONDON,',"
Hi. COMMERCIAL IHNKINO CO.. '"
OK SVI1NEV, SVDNKV '
Tkt HANKS OF Nr.VV KALAN"it,
Mil. HANKS Of 11RIVISII COLUMBIA.
VICTORIA, II. C AND PORTLAND, OR,
Ti-iiiiHtti a (itnernl llinkinr Hiuiiuii.
.ml I'tiimhm. iimtrr
.Storr, tlnnfm, Tin,
No. 5 KbllAHU BtHKRT ItuNOLULU
Vominhtlati Jtrl-rhtlnl Hint llrneriil tenter
In Itrff Onoitm,
Wailvko, MaI'I -II. I
(r(x.trift, ItAftlwart-, btAtiontry. t'attnl Med!dn,
IVrfum-ry .nil Ol-iwwart. I
A W. RICHARDSON A Co
(MroRTERf ANN DhALPK IN
Jfuvft, Hhutiif l'nrnllilliif Hum!. Ittit.
Cttp. Trunk, Valine.
I'erfunwy an.1 Srap, VWIlham VV'bicIic,
Fine Jewelry, etc.,
CoiiNfK Fort "n Mfrciiant Snorts, ltowi.cr.ti
" H. WILLIAMS,
Imtorthk AND DrAt-VR IN
Wiiffnrc nf Errru ifjierftfloii, Attn
Vi.holiitrrer unit Manufacturer.
Furniture VViireroom No. log Fort Strrrt. Work
shop nt old t.iml on Hotel btreet. All order, prompt!)
attended to. ,3
illiam b. McAllister,
IERMANENTLV LOCATE O IN ItUNOLLLV.
Office, corner ol Port and Hotel street, oer Trejjloan'i
Particular attention paid to restoration (old filling.
Kel)in0. good work at reasonable charges to gam
the confidence of the public. 155-6 n
p EO. l. BABCOCK,
(LATR Or OAKLANU)
'leachcr of the IMano-Ferte. AtUre, I.YCAN &. CO.
KiMtJFvcF No. 10 Ilmma street. tSv-T
O HALL ft SON
IllrORTKRi AND bCALEK IN
If tint ware and llenentt Jterchnmltue,
CoKjthK n. King atjivFoht SriiKKTs, HoMiuau
William W. Hall... . . ..'resident and Manager
I. C Abies.. Secretary and Treaiurcr
George E. Howe... . .Auditor
I.rector 11. May, hi. O. White. 152
Q M. CARTER.
.Ifrtt to take Ackiiotvieilttitient to Voii
trtet to T.iihur.
Honolulu, Haaiin Ilanda 1$
TOHN T. WATERHOUSE,
t tenter tn
PD. HOFFSCHLAEGER ft Co.
litiportem nmt CmtntMtntt Jlerrhitiitm,
Honolulu Oaiiu. H. I.,
TJONOLULU IRON WORKS Co.,
fitrnm JUnlnvM, ttottrrm, Hnifar Mtttt
t'uoterMf Trmit Hina nmt temt Cnnttiifjn,
Honolulu .. . II. I
Machinery of ery dcri prion made lo order.
I'atticulir nttcntlvti paid to Ship' HUrkimi tiling.
Job work executed on the short eM notice. 10
THOS. G. THRUM,
lurOfTiXG A1! MANttACTUklNr
Stationer, .Vnru A(ent, Printer, ttook
And publisher of the SatukAV Pf.KS.,ai.d ifanait
nx Almanac ami AnnttnL Mercltant ureet. Deal
er In I-int Stationery, ftooUt, Muic, "'o and Fancy
woods, tort meet, tte-u iiotet, iionoiuiu.
ASTLE A COOKE.
ffhipptttff rtrtrf Cotiimttmtnn Merehmnit
So. 80 KiNaSritKKf , ..Hoofuir
UirflftTKfft A FID DIALXM tN
A sent for
The Hitchcock A Company Plantation.
The Alexander ft lUldwln Plantation.
K. Hal uead, or Waialua Plantation.
A. II, Smith A Company, Koloa, Kauai.
J M. Alexander, Haiku, Maui.
ine naikit uijar uomnanj.
'Hie Knluta Siiitar Company.
The Union Insurance Company of San Frantcwo.
The New J'.ngland Life Insurance Company of HoitM
1 he fllake Manufacturing Company ff BoMon. "
D. M. Weston's Ivtent Centrifugal Machines.
The New York and Honolulu Prcket Line.
lhe Merchant Line, Honolulu and ban Kranciico
Dr. Jiytieuft Son' .elebrated Medicine,
uco itiunasinjzer .Mv.uncturin, Company,
W heeler &. WiImhi' Sewirjr Machine. t7Styr
A S CLEGHORN ft Co,
lirater lit tleurnl Mer-ehntnttne.
Corner Queen and Kaahutnanu Street, Honolulu.
Cnrpt liter omt
-pVlLLlNGHAM ft Co.
Importer nmt Uniterm tn Hnrttirttre, Cut
Paints and Oil, and General Merchandise.
No. 37 PoRTSruKtr Hooliiu
All kind of jobbing promptly attended to.
Telephone No. im. Wi.lLams.on' Kxmcs Off.ce.
Simr, No. 84 Kini; Strkf.t Honolulu
J NO. O. FOWLER ft Co.,
Are Qrrparetl lo VirM,t!J'iii mi
With or without Car. and l-ocomotlie., Special!?
An.vrrr.D for sugar 'plantations..
r AINE at Co.
Importer, and dealer, in J 1 ay. Grain ami
lltlXOLL'Ul. ... . . . .
. ..II. I
E. McINTYRE A BROTHER,
For the State of California, for th Hawaiian Hlandi,
and General Agent for the Pacific Mutual Life In
Mirance Company of California. 147
TTJO. A. HASSINGER,
to tnUe AckiiQirlettfjineniM to 7m-
t met for Jstbor.
iNTKkioR Orue. Honolulu
JOHN H. PATY,
Sotnry Vubttc amt CouimUtwn of Dertlm,
For the Stale of California and New York. Office
at the tiank or llishop & Co.
Hon'oiull, Oaiiu, ILL
P T. LBNEHAN ft Co.
Importer and CommtMlmn Merehnnt,
Nuuanu Strrkt, Honolulu.
A W. PBIRCB ft Co.
Hunolulu, Hawaiian Ulanu.
AjtCtiu forj.ran 1 (Sum and Bomb Lances and Per
ry Va it Pain Killer.
Auctioneer nmt VomminMlon Merehnnt,
Qn kn Strkkt Honolulu
11 rater n ami r'eeil Store,
Cor. Kiwi ami Foxt Sts. ... Honolulu
. . AqnHE.GERMANIAMARKET.
r Honolulu, H, U
P A. SCHABFER ft Lo.
importer ami Conmtjtton Jlerrfntutn,
MBKCIIANT SfREKT. IIonoluiu
Vmtt Mutton, ImihU,
Cinuiml) on hand, and of choicest ipulii). Pork
Sausage, llolonas, rtc, alv.a)n on hand. Our meats
are .ill rut and put up in kaslern Ulc. All Older
faithfully attended to, smddelneieJ iunnj jurt of lb
city. Shop on Hotel Street, between lmuti and to
G. RAW PI', PfUpnclor.
IT7-ILDER ft Co.
Lumber, Paint, Ottw, Xn it, and linttttitif
Material of. every kind.
Cor. Foht anii Qumcn Sts.. Hoxollli
T WILLIAMS, . --
toi ANti to Four Strkkt. . . ..Honolulu
Picture of all sires and kinds nude to order, and
frame of all decriilun c out. tain J y on liand. Also
Corals, Shells and Curimities of the Pacific 3
r YCAN ft CO.,
importer and Deaterm tn all ktnd of
Mmle. Oowtu, faney flood,
Nos. ioj amo 1071 Fot STaaKT..
Furniture, Crilr, Sewing ilachines. Mirrors and
Mirror Plate. l'icture Frames and Cornices nuda to
C BREWER ft COMPANY,
(lenernt Mercantile and ComihUmIoh Ayent
Qukkk Stksbt, Honolulu.
Officers P. C. Jones, jr., president and uunager;
Juaeph O. Carter, treasurer atl secretary. Directors:
lions. CharWs R. llishop and II. A. P. Cancr! Henry
aiay, anuuor. . L
I7 ILLIAM McCANOLBSS
IttaUr In Choice) Hftf, real, Mnllan, t:tc,
No. D QtllKN SrRK.t', FlII MAkkEr.
Faintly bml Shlpilti5 order, carefully attended to.
Uve Stock furnieil to Veucl.at short notice,
Vejctatle. o( .11 Wind, .upplted lo order.
TKLKrilOMK. , ., No. Ill,
A LLEN k ROBINSON,
ttealrr In .amber and all klnitm of llullil
Ina Material, Paint, Oil; Kail; etc.,
Hu.NOI.VLU, II. I.,
AG.NT Of SCIIOUK.H&
llaleakala, Kiil.manii.;.K.kauluohl. Mary BUcn,
Uiuma, Pankhi and Leahi.
At Kobltuon'a.'oart '
Importer f UeHrrl Mtrthainltte from
fVoMee, KMalaM!. O.rmnnu ami
(A. trnluj Slnlr:
N0.5S Qukien St.bkx.. .HnHOLt't.
Watchmaker and .leweler
Wutoh repairing aud Bpoollltjr,
All order, from the olliei inland, ttrunuitly attended 10.
Na 55, Hotel SrKET.
Permanent Kailwa)S, and locomotUel and cart. Tr.c
tion Knines and Koad Ix-otnoti,.., Stt.M
Plottanin and Cullivatini; Machine,)-. Port.
able hngine. for all purppMrs, Winding
Catalogue, wnh llluUratloni, Molef. and Hiota.
graph, urihenlroe Plant, and Machliiety may bete,
at the office, of lhe undmlcnrd. VV, U ('.RKK.V ...
O. VV. -MACFAKLANK K: CO.. Aitenn for Ino. Fo.-
L. W. MiCIAKLANt, II. r. MACKAl'tK.
Q W. MACFARLANE ft CO.
Important, Commlwloa Maroawato
and Sonar Faoton.
rlrciimnT lluildini: .Queen Mreet, Hnn.kl.
A UK NT FOR.
Kilauea ijujar Co,
lite Waltiapu Sutja
otl S 11 car PlanLitiuti. Ktiui.
r. .-. r. . : :i t
i ne npenerr uJ;a ruintaiion, itasu ,
Ilonohnw, Sueur Co, 'Hawaii, n
Ilneto Sugir Alii!, Mam,
HuetoSuj-ir Plantation, Maul,
Reciprotily buRar Co., liana, ,
Makaha Sugnr Plantation, O&hu, .
OoLaLi huear Co Hilo, Hawaii, c5
OloMalu Sugar Co. Maui,
lHiuloa Sherp Ranch Co, Haa.i.
J, Fowltrr Ac Co's Meam Plow and PurtaUe Trass.
Works, Leeds, V s
Mirrlefat, WatMut X Co's Snijar Machinery, GImow
(ILivftow and Honolulu I.tnu of Packets,
.i-crxvl niul Honotulu IJne of Packets,
Indon and Honolulu Line of Steamers,
bun Fire Insurance Co. or Ixndon.
"T-HOMAS LINDSAY, '
.leieeler anil Oianmnd Setter,
No( Nuuanu Stulpt, IIonoj.ulu, II. I,
(Oppouie llolli.trr k Co.),
Particular attention aid to Tej.airins.
OPP & CO..
tfptiotatererM, Draper and Dealer iN.irlf
"hm 0 rarnirurei A V r
Tetrplionc No. 14J. v .
"-Offer for Sal. the carlo of ike ln.li
:ist( O&Y -"''
TJVMAN BROTH EPS
at6 ANDiiBCALicpKNtA Strket. . ..Sam Fnancisco,
I'urticnhr attention paid to filling and shipping
land orders. 1
Haute ! Stun fainter,
I'Arm IIangk, etc.,
Na 10; Kins Smur...
T YONS ft LEVEY,
.lurl(aN.r. mhiI 6'iu(ulaii Merchant,
BlAVk. IlLOCIC, (jUK.N STHMT, HohOlLLf.
S. GRINBAUM ft Co.
Importer and H'Moteaie Heater lis i7m
MAKEK'i IlLOCtC .. ..Qt'KKN STItlkT, HONOLULU
S. GRINBAUM ft Co.
yofHartiHg and ComutttoH Merchants,
Special facilities for and twuitcuUr attentWq hxld to
cnnsirunienti of UUitU ttroduce. a
CanJu Manufactory anil
Nuniher ;t Hotel ui.ct,
Paury Cook and It.kcr.
ttweil Furl and Nuainu
No. J5, Nuuauu STrnr..
Ho ami tthoemaker.
Boot Mid She DU.U to Order.
No. ii( Fiwt Sr., orruMik Pahihiom Stalw.
1 lie summing un
as it presents itself to-iiay is, that from
the reii:n of Kamehaiuclu the Great to
that of Kalakaua there l tx.-en a swilfcj
aUoption ol the externals ol civilization
hand in hand with a steady phyuca
decay, anu a promising to suouemy
arretted moral development.
To speak of the results aillie mission
work in the islands, or of its future, ii
by no means so easy. If Hawaii lutll
remained only a traJing-poVj or whaLl
with fcw cxceiitioiw, Haw ere thU bn in" ""--art -atk V"-
, . L A I Kb(ami,(ourAUU.) lloaot.
Uil.kWM.U Vj. lUU.IIITAUI
ItetaU Brnuill't "nit To.
Sale, of Furnilure, Stock, Real Ettal. and General
Merchaitdio promptly attended to. hole aacnu for
Amcncan ana r.umnean roerchaivliM. I I, lyonc,
TUJRS. A. M. MBLLIS,
Fff.Afuj.'iM'. Or and Ulouk Maker.
No. to. FnarSTK.Kr Homoli'I
(roRMUXLY WITH OLLH it Co.)
Wholeat and ttetail Grocer,
111, Kisu Stit Uhdhh Haxmosv II.mu
Familv. Plantation, and Sldn .tore, kimntiej at Jiort
node. New cood. tv every .tentner. Order, from
the otlier lUndra!thrut)yrxfct.tttcd,
iciepnonc no. no. l7S-l)r
irOLFE A EDWARDS,
IMrUKUk. AMI UHAI.LK. IN
tlrocerle, froelalon and r'rett.
Com. Kimj ami Nuuanu Srw, ,.-.., Honolulu
Frcwt flood, by every .teainer,
, O. Hot 130.
WESTERN AMD HAWAIIAN
vstuient Computy (limited.)
wii.vu. in. imivwing ,i.t 01 neercrianoM. I
Light Kxprooo Wagons,
Kitentlon Top Carriage;
Si em Coal,
' Cumberland Coml,
Common Wood CK.U.
atoiisy loaned for lontf or short periods on approved
Kcurlty. Apwtyto W. U GREEN,
OtTite Heaver Illock, Fort &, alanafcr.
Attorney ml Lair and HuUeltorln Chancery,
practice, in t!i. Court., and prepare. Pel,, Willi,
Mortgage fat, Contract., Agr.cinenth, ttc., and
negotiate. Mtmyrit teem, etc.
Honolulu..,.. , IL I.
OrrKK Cutnef Fort and Merchant Street.,
fjt W. McCHBSNBY ft SON,
leather, tilde; Ta'lete and Vomialulon
Ag.lit. for tU Royal Soap Couiaiiy,
No, ( QU.IM STHfc.T HuSOLULU
J. KlMl Sr.BKT.,.. .
W, HINOLEY CO.
tlanfaeturere of Haranm Cigar.
luroiim. ay nui!i
ToUrco, - Jeri'
f.- lo4oiaun Jtiikin,
Imrivter of Amencan Jewelry of ever) d.Hp
tluo. (Furmcr)yol Sam FraiKUco, Clifoirda.) o
A L. SMITH,
Importer anJ Heater Im flfuMH-ai.,
Merlden Mirer-Plated Ware,
-No. .. Four Srutar ,,, .IIonolilu
Ktnj'. Comtuutloa SeauU Md Cj-ciLtN
!.utral Wirt Want, Fancy Suao., Pictur. Frar hi, Pv
ta, VuJ.nli.Jm' Pocket Cullerr, Powder, 6bo arat
.uiaittnitiau, ClarL'a Suo-J Cutou, Machine Oil, all
lir.li of Machine Needles "(towMlc" Paper FaAl..
&U aRcw of tlie uaiv.rully f4lciw.)ctlged Mhl.
Riunin Doovutk fiealn Ali-lii
J M, OAT, JR., CO.
lUalioaer a4 .Vv Itealero.
Bed Kubker Uiamp Age at y
ll.urr Hux .. ,, ,No. t) .UCMt Sriur
) Honolulu, II. I.
HtHH aa4 S Marakaktl Ktraal
liar, on land a lull Une of lliej
ALIA It A IK),
HI A MOM It MOCK,
.vow. 1 wie,
,.VI XIMIILtt HtOIHM,
AXtt OtllHU MAXtiKM.
Ageut. for TU " MUNI'AliUe" ami ."SUPHR
IOK" Kaoge. tut .etiing lu Iwick. t.uuuaMt w
chased for puilU up lU nu wuli w vilaoul not
T.L.rHO. No. ii
;. Aim- le.
Pine Uanal SkMka.
Ir. Cbem, Not. 1, ), Hit U
liutlt, i-lb. lull.
Il.ar,., lh. lull,
Hay Cutleif, Nm. I, t and J.
I'alrbank' Hemle; .V... 7, a, 10, It, tll-U,
Leather lulling, , '
Centrifugal Ltntnt, t. IncU., - h ,
CemfKAUlon NatU, l). tnck aiul l inc..
MamiAolIk KfrkkefL, '
(J.I. Fine. HutUi.
Farm.r'i UJieet, m aA a CU
Siaal Rope, Atwlrd
Atll liankt, f
I Nug.Nt amp 4 M.wuANt St.,
""VAiMaM rao Wire
Ci. Scmw. and WaA.