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-That wow Threatens Peace :
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IBT PEOF. VT. D. ALEIATfDEn. v
' (The following Article on tb Bal
kan war was part of an addreas made
last' Holiday night before .the Social
Science Club by Professor W. D. Al
exander. ' On account of its length, the
first part of the address which i was
historical In nature, has to be omit
ted. " V . y .V : : "
- Beginning; with . the overthrow - by
the Turks of the peoples now compos
ing the so-called , Balkan states, and
particularly those inhabiting Bulga
ria, Prof. T.D. Alexander last Mon
day evening delivered 1 a lecture on
the causes leading up to the present
hostilities In , the Balkans. ; The , real
history of the present' troubles begins
with the so-called treaty ' Of Berlin,
signed In 1878,-following the bitterly
contested war between Russia and
Turkey, After ' mentioning Jhe fact
ttat the 'rank and file.'cf the Russian
Bulgarian armies regarded that fight
as one for Christianity, Prot, Alexan
der goes on to say: :. i , .
"By ' the treaty then : concluded 'at
an Stefano, Bulgaria was erected-into
a ;nii-lndependent sir' extending
as far west as the border cf Albania,
with' ports on both the Elack Sea and
tha Lco.n, lcavl tfce province of
Adriarcr!e and the Cy-lcii.'m penln
u!a to the Turks.. 'TLli dlj cot suit
li s views cf either Great Britain or
Austria', (who with rec:-n considered
th-t ths'nsw ttat? r.xulit?. practical
ly a rr?re d:r-r.;::cy cf Russia), and
ct' their dt: r.i tha Ccasrts.3 of Ber
lin v;:i convened la July, 1878, to re
cc;.itn;ct the whole arrangement' To
lln:lt. the extension cf Russian influ
rse, the cenrrei gave a slica of Bul
r ria to Csrvia, the Dctruija to Rou
r r.r. 1 cut the , rccaiadsr. into
thrr"1 r'-C', with entire disregard of
v.cir-rc anj.wiihes'cf hj. inhabit
ants. ' -' :'. ' ' '.-' ':
"71 - rrnvlncs north "cf-. the Balkan
! - ith a vc;-ultion cf two' mil
i: , v S3 to I? ca autcnomous, prin-
' I::;-, vlt!i a rrlr.ee cf its own
t ' Lut Lurdsned with a tribute to
! r r la, ' or . East .Roun-
. C t' ?.r-:::ar.3, with Cbout
' 1 itart 3, three-fourths
:te I;arian, (far more
i c'-, ".: "tlca and education
: .! .n rrovlnse), wrs-cut
t 7 to Vaich it telcns-
; "rut: icr.:cu3' prov
- ur 'sr a'Chris-
.. ;.; . :r.t:5 ly the .Cal-
. I -'-rta cr I-'rccdo-'
. . cf .ahcv.t xtwo
. tv.o-thIrd3" cf
r:3 put ...tack
'0 La a Is:.?
. , :
' ;:rri it her
1 - -k V r- r" ?
..... ui U.i J V t
1 cv:r c:r-
1 cr th
-t ten years
1 . .
j- hchitan ts,
i ct:tt:i by
' . "3 hs,v3 tcea
. t. '-- i-ur-
' : 1 - cf
;;t:ra 1 jv;:r.? L3
frc:a tsinr: ivcn
.'?r cf EaUenhcrs;
I. . Www W M '
- e ':'.:'-:: 'v;.
Offering at a targain for. a few
' ' dars, ; and if ' not sold will be '
returned to San Francisco be
cause the purchAser cannot aX- v
fonl it. :. --iX' "'r'"
3 f.:.:r, Alexander tf Ilcssa,
:cth:r-Ia-Iaw to the Czar Alex
- II.), :3 elected Trince cf Eul
, A; r.l 1ST0. 113 tCoan Li3
. t ..a 'a c:.-:ntt cf -Ttuss-Iar.s,
l:; cr:ay .as crr alssJ and cf-
rt'-rcu-h sut t T Rz : : lans. Al-
r II., t:.3 I::rutsr, was'niur
: :':.rcn lSth,'i:I, -ni was'suc
' I hl3 sea, 'A;.:;tnder IIU a
:.Vy. . ' r ;':.
. ...... J i ' -4 ,
v.l;:j v-.Iy sratcful to 'Russia, were
wi'.IIns to te her allies but net ' her
va: $. To r -1st the Prince and his
V. -'an c:v!r ,t, .th'9 Czar kindly sent
- ccsr'e cf tcacrals, Kaultars and
L::::ff ty race. Failing to control
the Cihranja, cr parliament, they sus
pended the constitution by a coup
d'etat In May, 1S81, banished some ot
the liberal leaders, and carried the
next election by the . use of the mlli
tary, falsifying retunvs and deceiving
the voters. ?;:V -
- The brutal '; insolence of the Rus
sian officers, who treated Bulgaria as
a' subject province, and their. Prince
as a mere satrap of the Czar, incensed
both people and Prince;- X?U:
-At leneth In July. 1883, the Prince
came to an undersunding with the
national party; restored the constitu
tion, and dismissed his foreign advis
ers. ; ;X:'- .v f."- '' l :
The Russian generals tried to In
cite the army to mutiny,' but failed,
and had. to leave the . country. . ' ; .
-in, 188 Aleko Pasha,. the liberal
governor of East Rouinelia, was suc
ceeded by Cavrll Pasha, a tool of Rus
sia; and a tyrant At length the uni
versal , longing for union - with Bulga
ria could no longer be repressed, and
on the. 18tU-Of.Septembert 1885, by a
Knontaneoua general uprising, ; with
out Violence or disorder. 4he. Obnox
ious governor was;deposed and. a, pe
litibn sent to Prince Alexander to 'ac-
garlaw- Tbe-Prince, -who as taken by
surprise, after a brief jdeliberafloa. is
sued a proclamation accepting the re
sponslbility, and proceeded to Phillp
popolis, where he was received ..with
the wildest enthusiasm. The Turkish
government then summoned a confer
ence of the powers that signed the
treaty, of Berlin, pending which: -it
raised 200,000 troops and, concentrated
them 'In Macedonia. - The Czar, Alex
ander III., ordered home all the .Rus
sian officer in .the Bulgarian army
and showed the most bitter. - hostility
to the Union, v V: iv-'i'H
Tke. Servian ; Tfar, , . XXf-An'-
'. Greece and Servla were transport
ed with rage and jealousy, fearing the
next move would be the annexation
of Macedonia. 'They mobilized their
armies and threatened war If y the
union were pennitted. : . a '
"While the Conference was still in
session, Prince Milan of Servla, egged
on by Austria, suddenly declared, war
against. Bulgaria,' Nov. lttb, 188S. ; and
crossed the frontier with 107,000 men
and 248 field pieces, V in three divi
sions. The Servians had immense ad
vantages in numbers, arms and mili
tary : training over ; the , Bulgarian
peasants, who had not been allowed
to own any arms before 1878, and
had but one officer left above the
rank of captain, after the recall, of ihe
Rus. an officers. .'
'The main body of, the Bulgarian
army was absent In Roumelia, watch
ing the Turks, but they made forced
marches of over, forty miles a day to
save their capital. The 8th infantry,
numbering .4,500 men, marched ; ; 59
miles in 32 '. hours ' over a mountain
roads.' A The detachments on the
frontier were soon overwhelmed V' by
numbers, but the scene changed, when
Prince Alexander arrived with rein
forcements. He boldly took the of
fensive and showed . himself an able
general. In the bloody , battles cf
ElhTiitza the Servians were' found to
be no match for. their opponents, -at
close quarters: .. The - v Bulgarians
stormed one Intrenched position after
another; with the tayenet and; drove
the invaders tack through the Drago
man Pass, and far beyond the fron
tier", until Austria sent the Prince a
peremptory summons i to halt or, be
would have ' to meet the . Austrian
amy. An armistice was then agreed
to, and ; peace was finally : signed
March 3rd, 1SSG. - ' ,'Va-
"Daring that conference and "long
after. Great:. Britain . was' the firm
friend and Russia the persistent en
emy cf Bulgarian freedom -.Neither
Russia nor Austria is' willing to see a
strong free state or a confederacy. of
fres states grow up in the Balkan pe
ninsula. - The utrncst t-at the
covernor cf . Ea
years, his rear:
to t' 3
was'. that the
Prince Alexander, '-as
st Rcurselia for five
olntrasnt to te subject
a9 nr'rnrol f i A
C3 ccacludsj'a sep-
Ta:'..:y Jan. 21.
: : r:i n a!rt
.! :;jvIa- It
- V. r -
i . 1 . w - .
L . . ana 3 a, center 1
: !i was pr: V 1:
. ;r, upon
isas' cr. 1 ungrate-
ev. ay- ccnsalate;
i..trUu3.-; Iv ' :
d tha ccaatr; , 1 '
effort v.-aa pt frrth t tv.:1'. it
.--'an 1 srty. aAt Is. - ".1 a'c . ..;'r
fcrra: 1 ty.c::taL. laalssatsnt
:ra and :!it':!--?, c' .tted .' by
:;r. "fan c; 1-' ...:ral, to'.revclu
S3 th3 f a, snt.. '-
t :a;Ia;:at, Aucast ICth, It: Vth3
:3 V.-C3 sai d ar.l hurri: I c:'f to
L .nuLs, va.:r3 t3 :a ; at cn
L.-rJ'a steam; yacht ':" d carri'd to
Rcnl la Russia. T: 3 ;.;,.aa:cr va3 ini
rrlscned, the telscrarh cfflrs. seized,
ar d ' a pro-Rues! - a cahinet p reclaim
ed. Cut thi3 usurpation - lasted' tut
tares days. - Under th3 leader :' :p cf
C'.-nih-alcff,' president cf.ths Lasrsnjs,
th3 v.-hals country rcse caia:t it. The
trce;s ca the frcntier marched ca. So
fia, ir.-rlsaned the conspirators," and
pat layel men in their places. - ' - ; :
Ii : :? II: tarns. ' : ' '. V ;:' :; 'y'
"The Prince, after a d?.ys, detention
la Real, chtairsd psrnaissicn" to travel
through Russia: ' On arriving at Lea
berg in Galicla, he. received a grand
cvaticn, 'an-sj found nessrajes from So
I.a, urging tiai to return. , Accord
ingly, Le recrcaasl ths Danube on the
2Jth, and received such 'a. welcome, as
few men have ever enjoyed. At the
rarse.tinae h.3 sent an ill-advised and
humble dispatch to the Czar . "who
cads a menacing reply,, in. which j.he
betrayed hi3 rage at the failure of the
p'at EesId-3,;.Cermany' ar.l" Austria
warned the Bulgarian government no;
to" punish the conspirators.' -Believing
hl3 position to be untenable without
the support of those powers, he. abdi
cated September 7th, 1SSS, in order to
save the country from, a Russian inr
vaslon.' The Czar .'afterwards 7 con
ferred the grand cross of St" Stanis
laus on Captain Grueff, the chief kid
napper! ,.."-iv ""Vv-u-y:'-
Prince Alexander died : October 23,
1893, at Grata in Austrian
Stambuloff - was then chosen Re
gent. 1 anl-held , the. . helm or state
ihrough eight . stormy years. ; He was
thei. greatest man that Bulgaria , has
produced,. an ardent patriot, of iroq
will 'and: tremendous energy, but too
f uncompromising - and overbearing.
flections were now ordered, for Ocu
"er!l0.a886!.K''if -.-;' ': -
.The Czar sent . Baron Kanlbars as
Sis special agent, who demanded the
release- of conspirators, 'anden
ieayored j by threats, 1 promises : and
bribes to stir. up the people and. the
army- against - the Regency.; Bands of
Montenegrins and other desperadoes
were Imported to'-, interfere .. with the j
elections, but.were promptly suppress-1
ed; The Libera ; Party carried nine-j
tenths; oC the. ; elections..'. .Wax ..was .
then threatened. All the Russian j
Steamers on .me uiacK sei were, rp-
quisitioned. ' and ' an army jof U4Q.000 ?
men was 'ready to embark. A Russian ,
ihHSters, twice: tried ' to seize" the sea
port of; Bcurgaa but' failed and vas
tilled in :- the second attempt."' Only
the firm stand; of the Great Powers
saved - Bulgaria and Europe - from war.
rnbe vSobranje or Parliament met
October 31. and on the 10 of Novem
ber, elected Prince Waldemar' of Den
mark who declined the honor. Russia
proposed. 'Prince Nicholas of ?MIngre
Ua, an employe in her foreign office,
bat the Bulgarians rejected him.
'The I Czar then f urged Turkey to
Interfere, but without 7 success. The
liberated eontpirators stirred up muti
nies : la' two " towns , on. the . Danube,
which were 'summarily put down- and
the leaders shot I " '
1 "In July 1887 the Sobranje offered
the sovereignty to Prince Oscar of
3 wederi, 1 who . also ' d eclined It Their
choice next- fell upon Prince Ferdi
nand of Saxe-Coburg, who . accepted
the honor and was sworn in August
14 1887. Hla mother the Princess Cle
mentine. ;wisa dsnhter of v Louis
Philllppe, former King of the French.
'r ,"During I the lifetime of Alexander
III,' the 'Russian Government! steadily
refused . to recognize him and even pro
posed to Turkey a '-joint.? occupation,
which the Porte . refused.
; lt was a period of incesant" tur
moil, teeming with, cpaspiracies and
aeassinatlcn3 committed by. the en--mies
of Bubariin Independence." Stau-
buloff succeeded; however, in foiling
all their plots, in gaining, the support
of ' Great - Britain and. the Trip 1 e . al
liance against Russia, and even in con
ciliating the Porte, from which ha cb
Alexander III, died November I, '182 1,
and was. succeeded- by ' Nicholas IL,
the present Czar. Stambuloff tad i al
ready' j been 'compelled ' to resign by
Prince Ferdinand," who disliked his arbitrary-
methods, and ' was aniiou3 to
be reconciled with Russia, Forbidden
to' leave' the country, he .was assassin
nated. in the streeta Of Sofia. July 15,
18S3, (as many, believe), with the
connivance lot the Prince. 'i 'S.)
IU3 murderers" were never1, punished.
"In the fallpwing year. Prince Fer
dinand "was. recognized by Russia and
the other Powers: including Turkey, "
Under.'Pri'oc .Fe'rdirandl"vv ,'.:.-;
'; "During all the -turmoil of the past
thirty years the progress of Bulgaria
In education, Wealth and military pow
er, has, been j paralleled , only byl that
of". Japan.; AVelt aware!; that, "mi",ht
makes right'? in Europe today, Bul
garia j has taken 'measures 'according
ly.; As. the "military correspondent : cf
the .London Times states: "Da' "jar
la, with an available ' strength of 4CD,
000 men,: and an."efficient.field;amy
which may; amount, ".to .",C0,CC3, rasa
with 700 guns. Is by far the meat for
naost all experts who haveVlsited Bul
garia speak in high terms of tho Bul
garian .; arr?y,whlch;in crraniaaticn,
armahaent," ar l . spirit appears to' t
formidatle. .' ,-,'". X: -.:.' . ;,' ;.
"V'Thii te a rer.rkal3 tnawins for
a little-J state " nunahering . tut4.C:?
cc) aui3.;-;. . , .-'"-.;.; -.'.;
."Fcr the past ten years, it ks tcan
with the greatest difliculiy that v ar
with Turkey has tssn'ayerted in vis-.v
ir In ..
?:.dful state ;of; thin: 3 exi:
' 7 ea-
: : -a 'V r
1 1 f ... . .
. - 3 .
c: . r ' -in
notice cf :th3
sarrcstln ar.-'a ;
eava23 raar.r. ;r,
were turn: cr
e l v;Ith tt: .v!
i uE3 Cv.-
fceii the; goveiment of .United iBnl-
, ':.'. 'a- ' lX 'I'vy; ; - x- V -."'v'i :" -...''.V " : ;.
.'a. It WC3 .no "doubt
,' Cellberata 4 policy to
as'-at- Its Christian ia
' .:;rrl:c:3 with
: " ; r.s trca.;'at
: . la ir z they re: 3
, .h.-'a- .ta!. attract tl.3
..c-i rca.ers. Th3 la
pat LD-a in tb a usual
ria' was flocd-
3 - c f ' the Great
rowers was .he Id, and the. so-called
"Murzeteg Pre .-- ' ! refcrra wa3
agreed upen, hica, however, turned
cut to be a failure, as ; It left all the
real, power-In 'the tand of the Turks
who are past masters in 'dissi'mulaticn
and ..the". art "xf "how; not; to -do, It.
The .Ycurg Turks.' - '.'-v.'V'.:aa' '"
"Great thing3 were expected of the
Young Turks, who; came rJnto power
In 1SG3, -proclaiming "Liberty, Equa
lity" r-Fraternity and Juslllce.- r' but
these hopes, were, destined to,bevidls-
appcintea. i - , - . .-.
- "JThe-Great Towers withdrew their
agents frcna ccdonta,: ' while - the
guerilla ,tand3 jcanae down from the
mountains, end rave ia their adheren
ce; to the caw K::a-. It Is a note
worthy fact tl t ths amy which: re
took Constant;.. :;! 3 ca -ths 25 of Ap
ril, ICO?, tccr.t- aed 'several thousand
Christians cf th3 Bulgarian race ' : ;
. it socn .t-c. -a- .evident: that
the Ideal-aimed at by. the Young
Turks, as a h!;h!y centralized "gov
ernment, under .which . all remanta of
local self-goveTnnent should be stamn
ed out, all distinctions of age, religion
and -language .'ignored, and all the df
verse ; nationalities . Turkified. 'X ?
The Albanraa.nevott-f -'X,X.
, -TWs policy fell with peculiar-force
upon the Albanian mountaineers, who
had ' always a considered- themselves
as an nnconqaered - people. and allies
rather than, vassals of the Turks. Thev
saw their; anclenj ; privileges ahollsht
edi. their ' language tabooed In' ' the
schools, ; and forbidden to be written
exceptlla . Arable characters, ' a - bur
densome system of taxation and con
scription' Imposed upon them.' and to
crown all, they were to : be . deprived
- The inevitable result was rebellion.
But they could : not hold their own
against trained troops," equipped with
machine: guns and Krupp cannon. As
Mr. 'Herbert Gibbons' who '? has .re
cently Travelled through that region,
states: The repression of the revolts
of -1910 a and T911,? has never 4 been
given io the world.. It Is too- horrible
to recount The villages were, burned,
women Iviolatedcrops destroyed, and
every rebel , caught in arms shot or
hanged.. These statements apply chief :
lyTo. the northern.. parUof-Albania. -'
This jear they .rose again, In arms
demanding full autonomy: and the dl
tnlssaKof r the: Cabinet The Turkish
army, which was already disaffected.
refused1 to march against , them,1 and
Yc d:j j::
. . . - . j u
Iir f-a'-;.: .. '. "-a- S a' ; ' "
;. U ;iu
-.'Oliver - Hslr.-.n: : ::v:rs . .ICD
Cllyer Hatr'n H;' :r3 1 , . ,C-.!D
CUvcr Puf f C:x; , ; ;.CD t? i 3.7S
'Oliver ."Hand Mfrrcrs ..
.,........i.tT3.75. to y.rO
'" " : ' V a ' y . ; . .
Silver.Talcun ilc!a':rs, V oval '
..................... .... v., J
r--aa . , -.. -
' Silver :Coapt C :xVs,r, rbur 1 3.: 3 '
; Solver Capf Coxes, cval . C3.75
A.IUV uil . . - . ! .
yy --''.,'" -. '.' yy "a:', yy -.'- - .. .' ' " - - - .
These goods come i n: nifTny 1 ca n t i f u t . p a 1 1 rr r. r a r. I
Cj W v..
compelled the resignation of the; Cab
inet and the' prorogation of the "pack
ed Parliament," 'elected by violence
and bribery. V " .a;;-' ;,-'' ,t a; ?' ':,-y
j Their -demand, for. i autonomy . is
still pending before the new Cabinet,
and thia. fact , has - helped', to I hasten
the" present crisis. -t :, - a '
In Macedonia-most of Abdul Hamid's
officials; were retained, Tand the search
. . . t . . i.L a
lux arms war; accqmpamea ,wiui . lorj
tion. The atrocious massacre of Bul-
gariana .perpetrated at ' ' Ishtib - . last
November was "repeated at Kotchana
last Augusts when. unoffending
people .were slaughtered -under cir
cumstances .-of revolting crueltywith,
th.3 -Treaty cf F-rlin, t'a a C"
Gpvernment should grant a l..-l
measure of autonomy to the province a
of Macadaaia, ths rane to be. un ' a
Christian government to te'appolat T
by. the Great. Powers that s: n: I that
treaty. That,1 ia.. they clalna 1 -to 1 3
acting : the part ot mandataries cf
Europe to enforce compliance with the
terms of that treaty. L ': ..
Tho Sublime Porte scornfully ; re-
tures andoutrages of every descrip-Mected These terms, giving the Allies
three flays In which to retrace their
so-called ."Insulting V communication,
aud declared war on October 17.
a The' events which t have followed
are Tresi?in the minds of-you' all. If
your patience is ' not 4 exhausted, I
tbe apprqval and aid of f Turkish ;of: should t like to read, the conclusion of
flcials. Similar outrages; were '.commit-' an article written ia IS CO byIIon. J.
ted at Berane on the-frontier -of Mon-jD. -Bourcheir, anacknowledgd au-
tenpCTOJ ann isp.wnpre. it ia no won
der that ' the war spirit; In r Bulgaria
The Balkan Alliance. ? . . f :
aFor the first -tlmefodr; Christian
states' otj the Balkan Peninsula '.have
forgotten thdr Tonga standing feuds.
and formed an offensive and defensi
ve alliance. Aj welT-founded '.fear- ot
Austria ; has helped r to cement ; this
union. They did not propose- at first
to raise, the question of The partition
ofc ilacadonia "Their- ultimatum- to the
Porte disclaiming any ja intention 4 to
change ; the.'- territorial status quo.Cor
to enlarge their respective, dominions,
but they demanded that in compliance
with - the.; spirit;, of -the- 2Sd article of
thority on Eastern questions,
. The Bulgarians, virile, ' laborious,
thrifty, orderly, and persevering peo
ple, - possess many . qualities which
will fit them, to" occupy an important
part In the future political system of
the Balkan; Peninsula. The task which
lies before them Is to develop the re
sources of their country, to resist for
eign Interference; to await -the future
with. ' confidence . and patience, and
eventually to include, within Their
boundaries' - the mnenfranchlsed i por- V t
tl .: - . -t: -
r a : - . ! . ' - ! J -liCaiiy
fiva- j .:
cf. 101 Llast Cray s:.-;-t ('
did net hear fra a. it t aa:I :
she Jcame.1 t'aat it I : ! :
up eff an D:.o, C:
-The Tinier, Char! i
Philips street. Ta'; a, (
MI -3 Lea the slirs cf r.a, "
put In the bottle, rvia ': -ed.lt
cat cf Corcaal t.y v.;
visit to Callfamlx
Captain John I O. JIe
b. A. (retire i) cT Icair.
m ake a report - tq the. 1,'n ' t ;
Coast and Geodetic Survey, '
the bottle passed. Oav.: she (.
the Mississippi, thro t:
Mexico, then acre a; tl. A:'
dlan : and ' Pacific (; .. -;
was finally washc l
ot California.: '
Four criminal.? e - c
Jail at EakcrsfieldC
ing through-the bars and
prison walls. '
tion of their race.1
fiAccommodationsService anil illeals
unsurpassed, at the "fcleasanton ; 116-
;,X!ardInal Farley, is bcinr etr:
ed in Saa Franci3co aadTaa J.
his unofficial visit to Callforn' .
Officiating at the dedication c.
new . cathedral at Denver.
jr T '' '
. -'a - .. . ;-. . a;.. .
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