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SATURDAY, JUNE 20, 1909
Worst Mammalian Pest
Known to Nan.
Tim rat if believed to hp the
worst mammalian pest known to
man. Not only does it destroy
property worth millions of dollar?
every year, hut it is now know to
be the principal agent in dissemi
nating bubonic plague This is
not a contagion) disease in the or
dinary ppnse. The infection is
spread from rat to rat and from
rat to man solely by means of the
The United States Department
of Agriculture, through its Biolo
gical Survey, has recently given
the. rat problem serious attention.
The results of that work have
appeared in n bulletin on The
Brown Rat. There are several
species of rats, but the common
house or barn rat, the so-called
"Norway rat," is the most wide
spread and by far the most de
structive. By means of ships it
has been carried to almost every
part of the world, and wherever
landed it has proceeded to make
itself at home.
The species has wonderful adapt-
Ability to climatic and other con
ditions. In North America it is
' found from Panama to the Yukon
Valley and to Greenland.
The rat' bill of fare includes
alnrbst everything eaten by man,
and a considerable number of
things not included in human
dietaries, a, f ir instance, carrion,
mice, kid gloves, ivory, and horses'
Among the most common foods
of rats are corn and other grain.
If fed on grain alone, it is estimat
ed that one rat will eat 60 cents
worth in a year, while of oatmeal,
it will consume 11.80 worth. If
we suppose the number of rats in
the United States to he equal to
the number of horses, cuttle, sheep,
and nogs, it would cost more than
IUU,IHJIT,IKH) a vear to hoard tlx-m
Hut the damage done ny rats is
not to he measured I v what they
eat. Through pollution of food
products they do as much damage
as by eating them. Besides they
do great damage by digging under
. buildings and embankments, by
gnawing woodwork, by cutting
holes in sacks, and by cutting up
goods and papers ' to make nests
They kill young poultry and
aqua bs. They steal eggs. They
frequently destroy the nests of
wild birds. They have been known
to gnaw holes in lead pipes, and
they cause fires by gnawing the
insulating covering from electric
wires where they pass under the
floors or inside partitions. They
also cause fire? by carrying and
'Though a serious pest on farms
rats commit their greatest depreda
tions in cities. An attempt has
been made to secure from the bust
ness men of Washington, I). C.
estimates of the annual losses due
to rats and mice The data secur
' ed indicate losses exceeding $200,
The rapidity with which rut
multiply is the main reason why
man appears to make so little
headway in their destruction. The
females give birth to large litters
of young, and the intervals between
the litters are short. More than
20 young rats have been found in
a single nest, and it is safe to
estimate the average litter at more
than 10 It has heen calculates
that a single pair of rats and their
i progeny breeding without interrup
tion and suffering no. losses would
in three years increase to more
; than 20,000,000.
1 he author of this litillt-uu say
hawks anil owls, especially the
latter, destroy ureal numbers of
rats, a good work which man
should encourage. Weasi Is, minks
and skunks are also rat destroyers
On Hilo R. R.
Vill Begin at Hilo End of
Hilo, June 17. "Work on the
extension of the Hilo Railroad to-
anl Il.-imnktia will begin within
thirty days." This was the positive
tatement made by Superintendent
W. Killer. It was determined not
to tuni a shovelful! of earth in the
construction work until the right of
ay was settled for a distance of at
ist five miles from Hilo. This has
now been secured, and even to a
further distance. Work will bcuin
urn the IIMo end as this will lx
io natural base for forwarding sup
plies and material as the construction
progresses. Orders hnvcliccii placed
for the necessary rails for the first
treteh, new seventy pound steel
rails. The most diflieult mechanical
piece of the work to secure was the
bridge for the Honolii gulch, upon
lich Mr. B. F. Dillingham has
ecn working. The ties will be pro-
n red in the local market.
The preliminary work connected
ith the construction of so heavy
in undertaking as that of the Ila-
makua brunch of the II'lo Railroad
quite considerable. There has
been no time lost, however, since
the matter has recently been taken
up and everything is progressing
ivorably in sill branches.
Financial-, it is believed, the
project wi'l receive liberal support
in Honolulu and Hilo, and the pro
jectors need have no fear of Uillieul
ty on this score. What the undertaking-means
to Hilo it is .difficult
to realm-, but it is a certainty that
the business of the town must in
crease to an extent never In-fore
realized, and it will be more inter-
sting than ever to Watch Hilo
MEN AND TIIFIU SMOK US.
"That big fat custodier is a graft
ing politician,' whispered thecigar
clerk. '"I can leli by thecigar he
' That so?" ejaculated the man
it the counter.
'Yes. he ordeicl a crooked one.
And the other chap was a spiri
"Il'm! Whar. kind of cigar did
Gunner-'Biit a of the feminine
hats don't look like peach baskets
ami lunchrooms, do they?'
Guyer "I should say not. In
Milwaukee they look like beer
steins and in Pittsburg they re
Gunner "How about Boston?"
Guyer ''Oh, in Boston they re
semble bean cans."
If it is really true that a sucker
is born every minute, it is time to
stop the clock- Dallas News.
Ninety-cent gas in Washington
will be a In ion to The Congressional
Record. Bustun Transcript.
Mutinied V, raises the sword of
Osman, but the sword of Damocle
still hangs i high. New York
If prohibition docs'not prohibit,
what in the world are the brewers
and liquor dealers bowing about?
"It is the will of Allah!" e
claims the ex-Sultan. We believe
it but it took a long time to get it
probated. Cleveland Leader.
of traps and poisons. Hut he
thinks the most promising lines of
effort lie in (1) rat proof construe
tion of buildings, especially the use
of concrete in foundations; and (2)
reducing the food supply of ruts by
the disposal of "trbage, and the
protection of food supplies.
He recommends the persistent use
Son of Former President
Chicago, June . Major-Gencm!
Frederick Dent Grant, commander
of the Department of the Iikcs,
caused a sensation in the closing
moments of tlw Second National
Peace Congress tonight by a stirring
defense of war and the military pro
fession and keen sarcasm and ridi
cule of jH'ace congresses in general.
An informal speech by General
Grant was the climax, or anti
climax, of n banquet given for the
peace delegates by the Chicago As
sociation of Commerce in two sec
tions at the Auditorium and Con
gress hotels, as the crowning function
of the congress.
General Grant, occupying a sent
at the speaker's table, in the Audi
torium banquet hull, sat through
two hours of speechmaking in which
the profession of a soldier was be
littled, armaments decried, mid the
future painted as a time-when "there
shall be no more war."
When ut the close df the formal
programme, rresident h. M. Skin
ner of the Association of Commerce,
acting as toastmaster, tentatively
asked him if lie would "say a word."
the army commander was on his
feet in a second.
He proceeded without prelude to
telling the peace conferees just what
he thought of its members. There
was the ringing eloquence of per
sonal resentment in what he said
personal resentment mingled with
family pride, professional pride and
For the moment he became a
plain soldier defending the honor of
the army. What he said shocked
the ")(K) peace delegates Imth men
and women with its pounding de
fense of the things they had deplor
ed. "I presume that I am the only
soldier here," said 'General Grant,
"and therefore a horrible example.
I am very much interested in peace,
but my profession, I believe, is that
of the peacemaker. The soldier's
profession, study mid art is that
producing peace. It is your states
men and your people that creati
"First thelieopli Ik-coiiic irritat
I, generally through some com
mercial transaction. The statesman
then takes hold of the matter and
they compromise, if the nations are
nearly equal. If they arc not nearly
equal the stronger simply slaps the
weaker one in the face and the
soldier is called in to settle the diffi
culty. In the last 00 years I know
of no case of war that was brought
on by a soldier.
"I have read in the papers in the
ust three days much against the
army. I have felt that the profes
sion of my father, of myself and of
my son was a discreditable one, and
yet 1 looked back for over i00 years
and found that my ancestors were
engaged in that same profession, and
I cannot help thinking 1 that even
though now it may lie in disrepute,
it has been an honorable and a
It lias benefited the 'x-ople of
this country. When I look back and
think that the Prince of Peace came
on earth 1,008 years ago and that
there has ever since been a large ai d
respectable element that has argued
for peace and arc still arguing for
peace, l lully Uoiiht whether my
profession will go out of existence
before my time.
I doubt if iny son will live long
enough to see tin' gun turned into
the plowshare, to see the sword
Ijcatcn into the pruning hook.
hoie that lieforc that time there will
not In- needed armies for the pre
tection of the H-ople, but up to the
tune that you uo not neeu armies
for the protection of the lMiiple
Im-Hcvc it behooves the is-ople of
this country to maintain their army
and their navy in an efficient con
dition, and I lM-lieve that the twelve
inch guns along the coast.-- of the
Atlantic and the Pacific will do far
more toward maintaining peace than
all the talk that all the good eo pie
of all the countries of the world
could do in times that are not
strenuous, and when everybody is
itting down to a good table, with
plenty to eat ami feeling happy,
contented and well-disposed toward
A party of young men were camp
ing, and toavert annoying quest ioi s
they made it a rule that the one who
asked a question that lie could not
answer himself had to do the cook
One evening, while sitting found
the (ire, one of the boys asked,
Why is it that a ground-squirrel
never leaves any dirt at the mouth
of its burrow?' '
They all guessed and missed. So
he was asked to answer it himself.
"Why,'' he said, "because they
ilways begin to dig at the fit her end
of the hole."
"But," one asked, "how does he
;ct to the other end of the hole?"
"Well," was the reply, "that's
your question. ' iouth's Com
panion. TO FRESH EYES. '
Willie, accompanied by his father,
was-visiting a circus and menagerie.
"Oh, papa," the boy exclaimed,
as they passed before an elephant,
"look at the big cow with her horns
in her mouth eating hay' with her
tail. "--Christmas Register.
Mrs. Stulibs (reading)
John, it states here that
Humid was exiled with
Mr.Stnbbs '' With twelve wives?
Poor old chap! They are determin
ed that he shall not have 1 any
peace anywhere he gees."
Hawaiian Iron Fence and
Monument Works, Ltd
Honolulu T. M.
IRON FENCE CHEAPER THAN WOOD
We Sell Iron Fence
Whose Fence roroived the Richest
Award, "fiold Medal." World's
Fair, St. Louis, law.
I he most economical fence you can
buy. Trice litis than a niectuble wood
lence. vny not repiuce your old one
now, with auent, attractive IKON IK.M'K,
"LAST K LIFETIME."
Over 100 dukiK'ii ol i roil Touch', Iron Flower
Vase, Kett', etc., !. .i lu ourcutahiKuea.
Low 1'riee will Suryrie Vou.
CAM. AM' i.KK I'S.
"Htt Copyrights Ac.
- Anyone sendlnf a ten and description my
Qnlrklf ascertain our opinion free whether au
fnentln Is probablr patentable, toniaiuiilr.
tloiiasirietlrcounileutlel. HANDBOOK on entente
lent Iree. Oldest avenrT for securing patents.
Patente taken tbroutih lluuu Co. recelre
tprriol nolle, without charge, lata
A handsomely ninitreted weekly. lamest cir
culation of any srleiillOo Journal. Terms. S3 a
year : lour month. It Hold by all newsdealers.
MUNN & Co16,Bro--- New York
Branch Offloa. SB t BU Washliialoti. D. C
Hincnt Cur In the rent aervtce on
the Inland. .
TliLliPHONE YOUR CALLS.
OFFICE OH THE HOARD OF
Honolulu, T. II., June i, 1909.
All hills against the Hoard of Health ol
the Territoi-y of Hawaii incurred during
the present biennial jieriod ending June
30th, i-9, must he presented at the
office of the Hoard of Health not later
than July 1st to insure layment of srnini
K. A. MOTT SMITH,
1'resideut, Territorial Hoard of Health
June 5, 12, 19, 26.
Saturday, July 3, 12)09
1. FOOT HACK. 100 yanix
2. RUNNING RACK. Half
3. Ill'NNINO RACK. Half -mile- dash, Hawaiian
bred horses 60.00
4. TROTTING AND PACING. One mile dash 3
minute class 75.00
5. RUNNING RACK. Half mile dash, Japanese
ace (5. TROTTING AND PACING. Free for all, best two
in three, mile heats 100.00
'RUNNING RACE. Thrae fourths mile .lash, free
for all ' 75.00
MULE RACE. Half mile dash 25.00
RUNNING RACK. One mile dash, 'Hawaiian
bred 75 00
Race 10. PONY RACK. 14.2 hands and under, half -mile
Race 11. RUNNING RACK. Three-ehjhts mile dash, Japa
nese owned and ridden 40.00
Race 12. TROTTING AND PACING. 'Halt mile heats,' best
two in three, members
Race 13 RUNNING RACK, Three
Race 14. COWBOY RELAY RACE. One ami one-half miles
Race lo. RUNNING RACE. One
all, Hawaiian bred horses '40.00
All entries are to be made ith the Secretary on 'Wednesday, June
30, 11)09, before G P. M. Entrance
llids for privileges must be sent
close, accoirtpanied by a certified check.
All races are to be run or trotted
All riders and drivers to appear in colors.
At. least three lo enter and two to start.
Routine of program subject to change.
Running Races, weight for age. Trotting and Pacing toi-carry
Many coplc need nourishment and Stotit isTeeom
.iiundi'd liy very pruinini'iit physicians. For' Vhi&parti
cular ' trade 1 we have imported it in half-pints, just
enough and I mi inorr. No waste. We have til); just
in bulk and
Insist on Purity
EINZ 57 VARIETIES of good things
for the table contain no benzoate 6f
soda or other artificial preservative.
Look for guarantee
S O-UD B Y ALL GR0 CR S
dash, free for nil
n.ilo dash, fro.- (or nil . .
of Association to drive, . . 50.00
- fourths mile dash, Japa- . 50.00
to he given by Jirdpes). . . 25.00
- fourth mile dash, free for
fee to be 10 per cent ibf ' puree.
to the Secretary before the ntrie
under the rules of the Maui Baring
of .'Lexington , ,Cliib
in bottles.. There is mtme
& 'liquor '(Co.
on the label.