Newspaper Page Text
THE MAUI NEWS, FRIDAY, ArRIL 20, 1917.
Timely Farm Hints
By F. G. KRAUSS, Supt.
Haiku Extension Division,
Hawaii Experiment Station
How to Grow Beans for Home and
A valuable food crop eminently suit
ed for planting between newly plant
ed sugar cane and pineapples rows.
Types And Varieties
Dwarf or bush type These can be
grown closely together and do not re
quire support. They mature earlier
than the pole or trailing varieties, and
are possibly more wind and drought
resistant, but do not bear as heavily
as do the tall growing varieties.
The best known types of these beans
are the green-podded and wax-podded
varieties, which are grown for "snap
short:;, the pods being gathered when
youns and tender, broken and cut in
to short lengths, and boiled for the
Standard varieties of the green
podded bush bean succeeding in Ha
waii are Burpees Stringless Green
Pod, Canadian Wonder and Refugee
or "1000 to 1." Of the yellow or -wax-podded
type Improved Golden Wax,
Prolific Black Wax, Davis White Wax
and Ventura Wonder Wax, will usu
ally give satisfaction.
Bush beans may be planted in rows
eigtheen Miches to three feet apart,
depending whether they are to be
cultivated in beds by hand or wheel
hoe, or in field culture by horse imple
ments. The seed should be dropped
four to six inches apart in the row,
closer planting is undesirable.A pound
of seed will plant about 100 feet of
row. B0 pounds will plant an acre
under field culture.
Varieties suitable as dry or shell
beans may also be had in the dwarf or
bush form. Typical varieties are the
Maui Red, Calico and small white
navy extensively grown in the Kula
region on Maui, Lady Washington Is
an improvement over the small white
navy. The small white Tepary is
perhaps more drought resistant than
any other bean thus far introduced.
California Bayo beans are of semi
running type and thrive in some sec
tions in Hawaii. Pinks and Red Mex
ican are somewhat similar to the Bayo
type. Red Kidney is also an old stand
ard shell bean. All the above varieties
are worthy of trial for growing on a
commercial scale for export or local
consumption. They would be especi
ally well adapted for inter-cropping
with newly planted cane and pineap
ples. Stress should be laid at this time
upon the available resources of the
sugar and pineapple plantations for
growing food crops' In case of emrg
ency. The inter space, averaging about
five feet between the rows of newly
planted cane and approximately from
four to six feet between newly plant
ed pineapples, will often adapt itself
admirably for planting single or
double rows of beans and similar
crops. Aside from the cost of seed.
For Sale at Leading Markets and Grocers
Hawaii TVleot Co,, Ltd
Sole Distributors Territory of Hawaii.
planting and harvesting, comparativ
ely little expense will be entailed for
the extra tillage. The bush or dwarf
types of beans are preferable for such
inter-croppings since the tendrels of
the trailing varieties might interfere
with the main crop.
Pole or running beans may be had
in the various types named under bush
beans. In fact many of the bush form
have sported from the tall varieties.
The season of growth and fruiting is
longer in the tall varieties. They bear
proportionally heavier, and the pods
are easier picked when the plants are
supported on poles or trellises. Sup
porting the vines is of course an add
ed expense and may not be pratable
on a large scale. In growing dry shell
ed beans of the trailing type on a
commercial scale, they are not sup
ported, but the vines are cut, cured
and the beans thrashed direct from
Pole beans require a richer soil
than the shallow rooted quick matur
ing bush sorts. It will usually pay to
manure and fertilize heavily unless
the soil is already very fertile.
Standard varieties of pole beans
succeeding well over a wide range
under Ilawalfan conditions are Ken
tucky Wonder or Old Homestead, de
servedly one of the most popular ear
ly green-podded snap pole beans.
Listed by all seedsmen and seed al
ways available at a reasonable price.
A white seeded form of the Kentucky
Wonder has recently been Introduced
and has given good satisfaction to the
writer.either as a snap or shelled bean
Lazy Wife is another superior green-
podded pole variety, but matures
much later than the Kentucky Wond
er. It bears white seed which makes
it desireable for dry shell beans. Ken
tuck Wonder Wax is one of the few
satisfactory pole wax beans. Pole
beans should be given at least twice
the space allotted to the bush type.
Correspondingly less seed is needed.
Lima beans may be had in dwarf
or climbing type. Burpee's introduc
tions of Improved Bush and Forhcook
Bush are very large seeded ana or
superior quality. Dreer's Bush or
Kumerle is a smaller seeded than the
Burpee type. Very prolific, but not
suited to wet localities because of
pods being close to ground. Should
be well suited to rather dry sandy
soils. Henderson's Bush Lima is the
earliest lima bean we have tested.
Appears to stand adverse conditions
better than either of the above.
Bush limas develop at least a month
earlier than the pole varieties. How
ever, all types of limas beans are
gross feeders, and require a rich soil
to mature large crops. It Is a good
plan to plant bush limas several Beeds
in a hill, hills set about 2 feet apart
Pole limas are the parents of all
the bush types. They are characteriz
ed by their rank growth and are often
very prolific in seed bearing. The
comparatively small seeded and early
Sleva or Butter bean of the South suc
ceeds well in Hawaii. The larger
white limas are often shy bearers.
However, King of the Garden, Early
Leviathan and Aggler & Musser's
"MonstrouB," have given good satis
faction. (Although classed as of bush
type by the Introducers, the latter
variety has proved of running type in
e have found dropping two or
three seeds per hill, hills set foilr by
four feet apart, about right for field
culture. If polled in the home garden
about the same distances are recom
mended. About 25 pounds of lima
beans will be required to plant an acre
of above distances. The very large
seeded varieties will germinate better
if the 'eye' is turned downward in
Soils and climate best suited for
beans The "Kula" (Maui) deep,
light silty soils have proved ideal for
commercial growing of shell beans,
and the most extensive areas devoted
to the bean crop are to be found in
that region. The dry climate has also
doubtless much to do with the suc
cess attained in Kula. The warm dry
climate of the plains region about Pa
ia and Puunrne on Maui, where the
soil is also of a silty nature although
much heavier than at Kula, is also
well suited for bean culture when wat
er is available for irrigation. In gen
eral it may be said that light loamy
soils are best for beans. The crop
will not tolerate cold or wet, soils or
climate beans should be planted to
two inches in depth, light dry soils re
quire deep planting, heavy moist so;'s
shallow planting, otherwise the seod
will rot, and it Is useless to plant
under such conditions.
Dependent Upon Soil And
Bush beans mature their seed in 50
to 90 days, except some varieties of
limas which require longer. Edible
snap beans may often be picked in
less than fourty days when conditions
are, favorable. Running varieties re
quire a much longer season for
growth. Some of the pole limas re
quiring six months to mature a full
The soil should be well prepared for
beans. Deep and thorough tillage, in
the process of which large quantities
of organic matter should be incorpor
ated with the soil. If green manuring
is practiced the green crop should be
plowed under some months before the
seed is sown. If manure is used It
should be well rotted before being
applied to the land, or the land left
lay for a month before planting. Dis
charrow the land to destroy weeds
and thoroughly mellow the soil before
It will often pay to use commercial
fertilizers in the plant row. Not more
than 300 pounds per acre of a high
grade fertilizer rich in phosphates is
recommended. Bone meal makes an
excellent base and the nitrogen should
preferably be in the form of blood or
some other quickly available organic
Planting is best done with a one or
two horse bean cultivator. Such ma
chines do accurate and rapid planting
when rightly handled.
Shallow cultivation should be regul
ar and continuous.
Where irrigation is practiced care
should betaken not to water to excess
as it causes excessive leaf growth at
the expense of pod and seed. Cultiva
tion after each irrigation if possible.
It conserves moisture and stimulates
The bean crop will not thrive in ex
posed, windy locations, but require a
warm, sheltered position. As an in
ter-crop with young corn, cane, etc. it
finds ideal conditions. But shade is
very dot l enient al as it causes the
plants to become drawn and spindly.
Owing to the quick maturity of some
varieties, they lend themselves ad
mirably as a catch crop. Beans are
also well fitted to rotate with other
crop:-, such as corn and potatoes.
The crop rarely requires artificial
inocculation under Hawaiian condi
tions. However, the bean crop has a
number of enemies. The cutworm is
especially troublesome some years
This post is best combatted with pois-
onoU Dait. have found that 3
pounds Paris green or an equal
amount of white arsenic thoroughly
mixed with one bag bran and one bag
middlings, or cheap flour, the whole to
be moistened with a pullon of molas
sas, previously thinned with three or
four gallons of water, if spread along
side the plant rows and excellent rem
edy. The amount rpeclfled is sufficient
for two applications on an acre.
Whore the bosn rust is prevalent
the Pordoauv mixture appears to be
Snap beans must be harvested when
young. For family use thy may be
picked when very young and tender,
but !'" sb 'pinont tboy shou'd be well
filled out ,md firm to prevent exces
sive wiltinrr. Careful attention to
picking will greatly prolong the grow
If wanted for dry shell beans, close
watchfulness is necessary not to harv
est before the majority of the pods
are ripe, nor to wait until the pods be
gin to shatter their seed. Dwarf vari
eties are best pulled 'roots and all'
and spread on sheets to dry. Heavy
vino varieties are best cut close to the
ground and when reasonably dry they
may be stacked for further curing.
Thrashing may be done by flail,
tramping out by horses or by machine
thrashing. A small thrasher capable
of handling a ton or two of seed daily
can be bought for about $200.00. A
six horse-power engine will be requir
ed to operate it satisfactorily.
For extensive plantings such as
might be undertaken by sugar planta
tions larger outfits would be practical.
For home use the mature pods may
be picked by hand as they ripen.
While somewhat tedious .this method
insures the maximum yields.
The safe storage of beans is some
what of a problem in Hawaii. The
bean wcaval is very prevalent and un
less kept under control is sure to
bring about heavy losses.
We have found an air tight structure
built of tongue and groove lumber and
lined with tarred felt roofing, quite
satisfactory as a fumigating chamber.
A space 5' X 5' X 5' will readily hold
20 one hundred pound bags of beans.
A half pound carbon bisulphate ap
plied monthly we have found effective
in preventing weavel infection.
To bring the highest market price,
dry shell beans should be well cleaned
and if necessary hand sorted.
Cull beans and bean straw make ex
cellent feed for work mules, cattle and
swine. Large quantities of all these
by-products have been fed at the Hai
ku Sub-Station with eminent success.
A Revised Select List of Vegetable
Varieties and Food Crops for Ha
waiian Conditions. Also Dati on
Amount of Seed Required for Plant
ing. (Only the more Important
reasonably early maturing vege
tables are here considered. For com
plete cultural directions and other
useful data apply to Extension Divi
sion, Hawaii Experiment Station, U.
S. Dept. of Agrl., Haiku, Maul, or
BEANS, (Crop matures in about 50 to
Bush 1 pound per 100 foot row; f0
pounds per acre. (Dist. x 3')
Green-Podded :String'ess Green Pod,
Canadian Wonder, Early Refugee.
Yellow-Podded: Improved Golden
Wax, Prolific Black Wax, Davis
Pole pound per foot row; -10
j..ounds per acre. (Dist. 1V4' x 3')
Green and Wax-Podded: Kentucky
Wonder or Uld Homestead. Ken
tui'ky Wonder Wax, White Crease
bark. Lima 1 pound per 100 foot of row;
50 pounds per acre. (Dist. ' x 3')
Bush: Burpee's Improved, Dreer's
Bush or Kumerle, Henderson'
Pole: King of the Garden, Early
Dry or Shelled pound per 100
foot row; 40 pounds per acre.
(Dist. x 3') The following
varieties of beans are well adapt
ed to intercropping with newly
planted sugar cane or pineapples.
Approximately half the amount of
seed recommended above will be
required when planted between 5
foot rows of cane or about two
thirds as much when planted be
ween the more closely set pine
apples. Bush: Maul Reds, Calicos, Small
White Navy, Lady Washington or
Large Navy, White Tepary (for
dryest localities), Bayo, Pink,
Red Kidney, Mexican Red, Broad
Windsor, Henderson Bush Lima,
POTATOES, (Crop matures in about
50 to 100 days).
Plant 1' x 3', 5 pounds per 100 foot
row, 500 pounds per acre.
Varieties: American Wonder, Tri
umph, Early Rose, Burbank's.
SWEET POTATOES, (Crop matures
in 4 to 7 months).
Plant 1' x 3', 100 plants per 100
foot row, 10,000 plants per acre.
Varieties: New Era, Kauai or Me-
dera, or any other good Hawaiian
STOCK BEETS, CARROTS, ETC.,
(Crop matures in 4 to 6 months).
Plant 1' x 3', 2 ounces of seed per
100 foot row, 8 pounds per acre.
Mangel Wurzel: Mammoth Long
Red, Golden Tankard.
Sugar Beets: White Sugar Rose
Carrots: (carrots require half the
amount of seed as of boots). Long
Orange, Large White Belgian,
Danvor's Half Long (The latter
is excellent for stock or table
FIELD CORN, (Crop matures in 100
to 1G0 days).
Plant 1' x 4', 8 to M pounds per
Varii tlos: Ninety pay or Early Yel
low Dent, Kin-: of the I'arlios for
minimum moisture rorditions and
warm sectioiiS, l.artre Y How Pont
(Park r Ranch. Yellow Dent),
Reed's Yellow I lent. Cold, 'ii Lean
ing for intermediate zone, "Kula."
seed corn f.ir hUzh altitudes.
COW TEAS. (Suitable for man or
stock Crop mature in 1"0 to 150
Plant 1' x '. T.o pounds per acre.
Varieties: (he.ivy seeding) Groit,
Rico, Gul'ivan'. (the l:i't two are
especially suio d for human eon-t-uinption
: - !ieay filia::r,l) Brab
ham, Iron, Whippnorwlil.
A Select List cf Pacific Coast Seeds
C. C. Morse Co., .13 Front St., San
KranrNi j. C"nl. Vegetables and
agricultural f.vm fo i'j generally.
Extorsive glow tb rs well as dial-
II .'Iha 11 Seed Co. ;:,s Market
tan rn.nri.-co, Cal.- Ccirrril.
Calf. Soe-l Co, ; Market St..
Francisco, I'r.l.-- (ienenil.
Chas. C. Navlot Co., I'll So. 1st
Snn Jose. Cal. General.
Eprler & Musscr Seed Co., Sixth and
Alameda St ., 1os Angeles, Cal.
General: beans, farm crops, etc.
Germain Seed Ac Plant Co., n2G-32S-3no
So. Main St., Ia.s Angeles, Cal.
Valley Seed Co., BOS-Klu J St., Sacra
mento, Cal. General: certified seed
Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Cal.
Vegetable and farm crop specialties.
Portland Seed Co., Portland, Ore.
General; seed potatoes, and field
Chas. II. Lilly Co., Seattle, Wn. Gen
eral vegetable and field crops.
For seed stocks of vegetables, and
agricultural crops such as alfalfa,
forage grasses, corn, etc. available in
Hawaii at this time, address: Exten
sion Division, Hawaii Experiment. Sta
tion. U. S. Dept. of Agri., Haiku, Maui,
or Honolulu, T. II.
Note The above list Is the most
reliable that could be compiled at this
time. Parties knowing of other re
liable seed firms will confer a favor to
the Extension Division by reporting
Hawaiian Views and Post Cards
is the lightest, handiest type
writer made. Weighs alone,
6 lbs. Weighs with traveling
case, 84 lbs.
Bishop St. Honolulu
General Auto Repairing
JAMES N. L. FAUFATA
U. S. License Engineer
General Repairing to Gaaollns
Engines, Generators, Batteries,
Market St. Walluku, Maul
FJ WAILUKU, MAUI
Cars leave Market street,
Waihiku, daily, about noon.
Leave Lahaina, 8:00 A. M.
Good Comforable Cars
Uchida Auto Stand
Phone I 772