Newspaper Page Text
THE MAUI NEWS, FRIDAY, JUNE 15, 1917.
LIBERTY CATERING $
BY MAUI WOMEN
A Department Of Domestic Economy Intended To Serve A Patriotic
Purpose In Conserving Food Needed By The Allied Armies In Europe
100 CALORIES A UNIT OF
(Continued from last week.)
As we do not eat foods by the
pound, the pound is not a satisfactory
unit of measurement, and dieticians
have settled upon the quantity of food
required to yield 100 calories as a
working unit of measurement. This
quantity in many cases corresponds
to the portion ordinarily served at a
We now wish to know how many
calories are needed In a day, and, also,
if there is any choice as to the food
from which we shall get the one part
of protein calories to the 4.3 or 5.3
parts of carbohydrate calories. From
observations made on a large number
of people asleep, at rest, at moderate
work, at hard work, etc., under condi
tions worked out through many years
and at great expense, the actual en
ergy expenditure by people of all ages
and conditions, which is met entirely
by food, has been accurately measur
ed. Knowing the age, weight and oc
cupation of a person, the energy re
quirement for that person may be ac
curately stated. As, for instance, it
is estimated that children from 3-4
years of age need 1300 calories per
dny; from 5-7 years of age. 1400-1700
calories; from 8-12 years ot age, 1700
2000 calories; from 14-16 years of age,
lf'00-3200 calorleB. A woman of about
phur, sodium, iron, etc. Carbon, oxy
gen and hydrogen are found in the
fuel foods. Protein alone of the fuel
foods contains nitrogen; nitrogen, and
thus prote'n, Is essential to the life of
every cell and is the most prominent
part of every tissue. Trotein is not
a simple substance; it is made up of
at least seventeen related substances,
or protein units, all containing nitro
gen. Each of these seventeen units
must be represented In the food, but
not all substances holding protein con
tain all of these units. Casein, the
principal protein of milk, contains
practically all these protein units. The
protein of meat, fish and egs are al
so classed as "complete" proteins.
Gelatine and some of the proteins
found in vegetable foods lack some of
these protein units and thus can not
be depended upon alone, without
complete proteins, to bttil body tissue.
There can be no question as to the
value of the proteins found in meat,
fish, eggs and milk over the proteins
found in bread, beans and Indian corn.
To make these latter suffice, milk or
cheese may be added to the dietary.
In the feeding of children from In
fancy on through the school age, the
value of milk should be kept constant
ly in mind.
When food materials are burned in
the a!r, the eight chemical elements.
Iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium
. . .1 1 . . ... . 1. 1 : .. . . 1 .. i. .. .1 i
calories; at sedentary occupation. 1 Phoroa remain wholly or in part in the
2000-2200 calories, at an occupation
requiring manual labor 2200-2500 cal- " .L ,h TJ' anrf j"1"1 P?""
orles, at an .occupation developing 1 nec!p'1" JlrS ,?
muscular strength, as cook for large in tn? form, of mineral matter. Thus
i..JTj ocnn onnn these elements and their compounds
groups, or laundresses, 2500 to 3000
calories. At 70 or 80 years the num
ber of calories should be reduced to
1500-1800. A man at hard muscular
work requires 3500-4000 calories per
day. In these dietaries for active men
and women calling for a large number
of calories, this increase in calories is
not obtained entirely by Increasing the
quantity of food, but in the variety of
food. Fat raises the fuel value of
food greatly, and retards digestion
somewhat, causing the food to "stand
by" one longer. It takes but one ounce
of corned beef, boiled and served with
the fat that accompanies it, to give
100 calories, while two ounces of Ham
burg steak that is lean meat, is need
ed to yield 100 calories.
Sources Of The Chemical Elements
The elementary composition of the
body includes oxygen, hydrogen, nitro
gen, carbon, calcium, phosphorus, sul-
are reierred to as ash constituents.
The ash constituents exists in the
body and take part in its duties in
three different ways. (1) As the con
stituent that gives rigidly to the
framework of the body. (2) As es
sential elements of the tissues. (5)
As salts held in solution in the fluids
of the body, which influence the elast
icity of muscle and nerve and supply
the material for the acidity or alkalin
ity of the digestive fluids and other
secretions. Now having seen the im
portance of these ash constituents, let
us see from what sources they may
Sulphur is found in protein foods
and, if the nitrogen be ample, the sup
ply of sulfhur is sufficient.
Phosphorus forms a part of every
active cell of the body, and with cal
cium Is needed in bone structure. Its
supply is not limited to the protein of
food, though It is associated with pro
teins in egg-yolk and milk, but in
simpler forms it appears in grains,
fruits and vegetables.
Iron is an element In the structure
of all active cells and enters into the
composition of the red corpuscles of
the blood. Its best source is yolks of
f.gs and green vegetables, especially
Strong bones and teeth depend on
calcium; in combination with phos
phorus it is their chief mineral ele
ment. Milk is the most valuable food
to supply this compound. Calcium can
ilso be obtained from the grains if
the outer coating be included.
If the food supply contains foods
rich in sulphur, phosphorus, calcium
md Iron, we need not look out for
the other elements which In minute
luantities go to make up the body
structure, for they will be found in
combination with these four.
In th''S connection the necessity of a
generous supply of vegetables and
fruit can not be overestimated. They
furnish iron in larger proportions
than do most animal foods. Other
ash consituents vary with the variety
ur iru't or vegetables. Potatoes, for
which we are just now using many
substitutes, are one of the most val
uable of our vegetables; they are rich
'n calcium and phosphorus; they con
tain also a relatively high percentage
ot iron and a very h'gh percentage of
The custom of serving potatoes with
meat Is founded on physiological reas-
ns Potassium yields base-forming
qualities that neutralize the acids
formed in meat. One medium-sized
potalo is said to furnish enough base
io neutralize the acids of two average
slices of roast beef. Rice may be us
ed as a substitute for potatoes as far
as energy and heat producing qualities
go, but it does not counteract the acids
of the meat, but adds to these. To
make the substitution complete, or to
restore the balance, add, with the rice,
celery, cabbage, milk, beans, apples,
or prunes, any one of which is rich in
Besides the fuel foods (protein, car
bohydrate and fat) water and ash
constituents, there are substances
existing In minute quantities in some
foods and not in others, which exert
a wonderful influence on nutrition;
without them in the food, beri-beri,
scurvy, and lack of growth often take
place. They are called "vitamines"
or "accessory food substances." To be
certain of getting these life-giving
substances in food, provide- each day
seme uncooked fruit and vegetables,
uncooked milk and whole grains.
Take 1 cun well seasoned numbed
sweet not at o. add H ts. suear. 1 hentnn
yolk, 1 tbl. melted butter and enough
cream or warm milk to shape. Roll
in egg and crums and fry in deep Xat.
2. Sausaae Pie
Line a baking dish with ground
iresn pom seasoned as for sausage,
put mashed seasoned sweet potatoes
in center. Cake till brown.
Scoop out centers of halved boiled
sweet potatoes, refill with sausage
meat, tie hnlvPH too-ether nnrl Imin in
a covered dish.
Mash 3 large sweet potatoes, add
CUP Chopped nut meats. 2 thl hut.
ter, U tS. Salt. V, ts niltrnmr nllcinlno
and cinnamon. Shape, roll in flour,
fry brown and serve with meat course.
5. Sweet Potato Puff
Take 2 Clins hot Triflshnrt ownnt rn.
tato, add 2 egg yolk, 1 cup milk,
CUP sugar. 'A ts. nntmpir H n Tin limn
and salt and beat till creamy. Prown
6. On Toast
To 2 CUDS hot mashed sweet nntotn
add 4 tbl. sugar, 2 ts. butter, 1 ts!
sail ,anci z eggs. Mix into smooth
paste. Cut Btale bread very thin,
spread with paste, lnv clone in n n-nii
buttered pan, sprinkle with sugar
and cinnamon and bake in a hot oven
nil golden brown.
7. Stuffed Sweet Potatoes
Remove inside of link
tatooa. Mash and hont till
using a little shortening or cream!
Flavor with onion lnlrp tn footr. nH
add a stiffly beaten egg white. Fill
phins, rouna wen at end and brown
quickly in oven.
8. Sweet Potato Ducklings
Lio 1 sweet potatoes in their jackets.
Peel, mash and add salt, nnn.ika
chopped parsley, butter and one well
beaten egg. Shape like ducklings,
brush over with egg, insert pepper
corns for eyes. Bake till brown. Serve
on a nest of carrot strips cooked and
9. Sweet Potatoes. Southern StvU
Slice sweet nnlalnon nftnr nrincr
lengthwise. Lay in baking pan, sprin-
Kie wnn ivfc cups sugar, a little cin
namon or salt. Add 2 tbls. vinegar
and 2 tbl. water and 2 tbl. butter.
Bake slowly to 1 hour.
10. Sweet Potato Custard
2 eggs beaten separately, one-third
cup butter, 1 cup sugar, Vt cup milk,
cup mashed boiled sweet potato.
Mix well, season with nutmeg, put
Into pie shells or baking pan and
cook to a ngnt brown.
11. Georgia Sweet Potato Biscuit
Take 1 pint flour, 1 pint baked
sweet potato which has been run
through a meat chopper, cup sugar,
1 tbl. lard, 1 ts. soda and enough but
termilk to mix. Mix and let stand 3
hours before cutting biscuit. Bake in
a moderate oven.
12. Sweet Potato Pie
Take 1 pint cooked potato pulp, 1
cup sugar, a pinch of salt, 2 egg yolks,
1 pint of milk, one grated lemon rind.
Bake in an under crush, and cover
with meringue made of the 2 egg
13. Sweet Potato Soup
Take 1 pint milk, 1 pint stock, al
though this may be omitted. 1 tbl.
flour. tbl. butter. U, ts. earh nf
onion Mire. salt, nnri nenner a ntana
of stick cinnamon and one cup mash
ed sweet potato. In a double boiler
blend butter and flour, ndd milk, stock
and seasonings Whnn It thinimnn
add sweet potato, stir in well and cook
ten minutes. Strain, add a sprinkle
of parsley and grated nutmeg.
Rub boiled Potato through rnlanrlnr
To 1 cup pulp, add 1 tbl. cream or
milk and 1 ts. melted hntter TXaat
till creamy season with salt and
pepper and a little mace.
15. Sweet Potato Puddina
Take 1 nnnrt mnahnri nvoot nntntn
add CUn Shortening. 1 hennlno- nun
sugar, 1 ts. nutmeg and allspice, juice
of 1 lemon, and 1 cup boiling water.
neat to a cream ana bake in oven.
16. Koele Palau
MaSh fresh hnUpri PWOot nniairk nnd
reheat in cocoa nut cream. Grate a
cocoanut in V4 pint of milk. Strain
throuch n has and an ii nova voll f -
extract all flavor and juice. Add 1
i Di. nutter, mix all into the sweet
potato, reheat and serve. May make
little cakes and fry brown.
17. Creamed Sweet Potato
Cut cold sweet potato in one-third
Inch cubes to 2 cupfuls. Tut in baking
dish with a cover, sprinkle with salt
and pepper and 2 tbl. flour. Add 2
tbl. butter and cover with 1 cup milk.
Cook slowly about 35 minutes.
8. Sweet Potato Fritters
Take 1 cup mashed sweet potato.
add 2 well beaten eggs and 3 tbl.
flour with seasoning to taste. Beat
well and let stand A hour. Drop by
small spoonfuls into hot fat In fry
pan. Only a little fat is needed. Will
19 Sweet Potato Pone
Cream one-third cup butter and M
cup butter. Add 2 cups hot mashed
potato, cup milk, 1 tbl. ginger, H
orange rind and Juice, ',4 ts. salt.
Mix well, pour into buttered pan and
bake till done in a moderate oven.
20. With Meat
Spread a pork tenderloin with sweet
potato paste which has been , highly
seasoned and flavored with onion
Bake slowly in a moderate oven until
meat is done.
(Next Week "TARO."
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Pacific HelStResicJerice Lots
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sta tnd, t:w 2t c mo-rt saii-ili,.,.
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,7 jog toot lo ?,Liax th'.j
at the J. I Morgan & Co. Auction Rooms.
VIE W includes every feature of leeAvard Oahu from DIAMOND
HEAD to the WAIANAE MOUNTAINS.
Present owners include Messrs. Kerr, von Hamiii, Day, Wakefield,
Mair oon. Forbes, Dodge, Bierlmch, Woller, 'Adams, Mesdames, Oastle-
Colcman, and J. B. Atlierton.
Instruct your Honoluln Represeutative, or the Hawaiian Trust Co., Ltd. to represent you at this auction.
Upset Prices Range from $200.00 to $4000.00. Areas Range from V4 of an Acre to 9 Acres.
Hawaiian Trust Company, Limited
120 S. King Street HONOLULU