Newspaper Page Text
THE MAUI NEWS, FRIDAY, MAY 24, 1918.
' CASSAVA PROMISES
Experiments At Haiku Show It To Be Valuable Food
For Man And Beast Starch Making
By Dr. Y. D. BALDWIN
(The following extremely interesting paper was prepared by Dr.
Baldwin in connection with the Haiku community fair, which is to he
held tomorrow afternoon and evening at the Kuiaha Schoolhouse.)
PLANTING AND CULTIVATION:
Plant from cuttings ahout 6 inches long. Probably the hest size
is that of about one's thumb. Cuttings will remain fresh and fit for
planting for some time, and may be cut from plants several weeks after
Ordinarily plant 4' by 4' in check row, so that horse-cultivation may
be carried on in two directions and thus save much hand labor. Fur
row out the land and plant at the intersections of the furrows, laying
the cuttings flat as with sugar cane, and covering the cuttings to a depth
of from 2 to 4 inches. It is important to keep some cuttings in reserve
for the replanting which should be done about two weeks after the
rst planting. Replant as early as possible for late replants may be
over-shadowed and ultimately crowded out by the older plants. Plant
ing may be carried out in almost any sort of weather: cuttings that
were planted in the midst of the record drouth of 1017 at alliku grew
and did well. It is advisable, however, to have the soil fairly moist
at planting time.
Horse-cultivation, with a certain amount of handhocing, has to con
tinue for 5 or d months, when the ground is then pretty well shaded
over and weeds are consequently suppressed. It is dangerous to con
tinue any form of cultivation after a few months for the reason that
any injury to the tubers results in rotting.
SOILS AND CLIMATE:
Cassava does best on light, well drained soils. Although our
Haiku soils are apt to be heavy cassava seems to do very well here.
It does better near the sea-coast than inland. If the drainage is fairly
good the roots will keep perfectly in the soil for man)- months after
they are ready for harvesting. One can thus count on stretching the
harvesting period for at least one year which is a great advantage,
tnis being true, at least, of the "red" variety common at Haiku. Cassa
va must have warmth for proper growing; in cold weather it marks
Cassava will stand high winds, but does much better where it is
No known serious diseases or pests in Hawaii.
There are quick maturing varieties that are said to mature in 6
months, with a corresonding low weight in root-yield, and it is said
that the roots of these varieties do not keep well in the soil. W ith our
"red" variety harvesting should begin from 12 to 16 months after plant
ing. The roots will continue to grow for a long time thereafter, but
after a certain period of growth the amount of starch (the principal
ingredient of cassava) in a given weight of roots, decreases, and finally
the roots become woody. No exact rule can be laid down as to the
proper time for harvesting, hut probably the most economical time,
that is the time which will give the largest yield of starch or edible
foods, should be determined by chemical analysis by a trained chemist.
So far as I know this work is in its infancy.
Harvesting should be done with a pick. If cassava should be
cultivated on a large scale probably some labor-saving implement could
be devised which would enable rapid and cheap harvesting, but with
cur heavy soils this will not be an easy problem. With a pick one man
can dig about 1 ton of roots per day. Roots should be harvested every
two or three days as they do not keep long after being dug.
This may often be advisable, planting the cassava in rows say 7
ft. apart (instead of the usual 4' by 4') and about 2 ft. apart in
ertch row. Any short-growing crop that has not a trailing habit can
be interplanted. Thus, one can interplant with corn, or cow-peas
(a bush variety), or mangel-wurzels. If, in the harvesting of such
tatch-crop, the branches of the cassava are broken to a certain extent,
ro material damage is done, for when the branches are pruned or
broken new shoots quickly grow.
USES ! i
(1) Fresh roots, cut up with a cane knife, or better still sliced
with a power slicing machine, are readily eaten by most all animals,
especially horses, cattle, pigs, and poultry. As the analyses will show,
cassava is comparable to sweet-potatoes in chemical analysis and is
therefore far from being a balanced food, and therefore should always
be balanced with some other food-stuff rich in nitrogen, such as tank
age, alfalfa, cow-peas, or velvet beans, etc. As almost any food
grown needs to be balanced this is no argument against cassava, ex
cept that cassava is more carbonaceous than most other foods. In
the case of pig-feeding, the fresh roots are readily eaten, but when
boiled with a little salt they are much more appetizing, and in fact
when thus cooked pigs otten prefer cassava to corn. When cassava
is used for fattening pigs the only satisfactory way is to cook it; if
fed raw they will not cat enough of it to fatten them.
(2) Dried Cassai'a: Mr. m. Searby dried and ground to a
meal some cassava for me at the Puunene Mill. The product was
very satisfactory and was eagerly eaten by pigs, horses, and cattle.
With the help of Prof. F. G. Krauss I prepared the following mixture,
and fed it to four of my work horses for about two months, and witl
excellent results :
Cassava meal 5 lbs.
Alfalfa meal 5 lbs.
.Molascuit (80 molasses) 5 lbs.
Oil cake meal, (old process) 2 lbs.
Nutritive ratio 1 : 6.
. Total 17 lbs. with about 20 lbs., Para grass.
(3) Cassava flour: Cassava dried and ground to a meal or
flour, under strictly cleanly conditions, makes an excellent partial sub
stitute for white flour. It can replace from 25. to 30 of white flour
in bread and yet the bread is practically the same as ordinary white
bread except that it is somewhat at heavier, the color remaining white.
The making of cassava flour would seem to have attractive future
(4) Tapioca is a long established commercial product from cassa
va. (5) Starch: A high grade starch is made from cassava, and
the residue left over after extracting the starch, is still rich in food
value and can be dried and fed to pigs or other animals. The making
of cassava starch at Haiku is an attractive possibility, and some one
should give the matter a thorough investigation. The manufacture of
starch requires considerable pure water, but I think this would be
available in the Haiku district.
Quoting from a report from Mr. V. A. Verrct of Honolulu, as
sent by Mr. II. P. Agee: "U. S. Government publications report the
Cassava after removal of starch
The composition of fresh root follows:
Fat, etc 2.01
Alcohol extract (amids, sugar,
Crude Fiber 4.03
These analyses arc based on the dry matter: The XTCcnt water
in fresh roots average about 65 tr 67, the starch 28 to 30. Po
tatoes contain about I7rr of starch; swcet-iotatoes contain about 26
of starch and sugars. Shelled con has 70. "Bailey's Cyclopedia
of Agriculture Crops" considers cassava residue equivalent to corn
meal pound for pound."
The cassava meal made at Puunene was analyzed for me, at the
request of Dr. A. L. Dean, by M ss Cowdray of the College of Ha
waii, as follows :
N.irch 71. (X)
V7T?T no . , '!'
In the Southern States yields are obtained of from 4 to 7 tons
per acre. Here in Hawaii we can expect much larger yields for the
reason that our growing season is much longer, not being halted by a
I have obtained the following yields:
(1) From a y2 acre field the yield was at the rate of about 18
tons to the acre. Began harvesting when the cassava was 16 months
old and continued for 4 months.
(2) From a field of 3.13 acres: yield at the rate of 10.80 tons
to the acre. Began when liy2 months old, and continued for 7li
In the case of both of the above fields there was rather a poor
stand due to replanting too late ; and no fertilizer was used m either
case. Better yields should be obtained with the use of fertilizer, and
ADVANTAGES OF CASSAVA RAISING
AS AGAINST CORN AND OTHER CROPS:
(1) A sure cropper, no pests or diseases.
(2) Probably a larger yield of food value per unit of time.
(3) The harvesting time can await proper labor conditions, and
can be prolonged for several months if necessary.
(3) Planting can be done in any weather except extremely wet
(1) It is a long growing crop, comparable to sugar cane. .
(2) After harvesting, the roots soon (within two or three days)
begin to darken, and then to sour, and when sour they are unfit for
consumption. However, if sliced and dried by sun or artificial heat
the material has good keeping qualities.
Cassava belongs to the milkweed family (Euphorbiaceae) and
is closely related to the Ceara rubber. It grows extensively in tropical
South America, Malaya, and many other tropical countries. In
Brazil cassava is to the joorer classes as taro is to the Hawaiians.
There are a large number of varieties, but all are generally class
ified into two main divisions, namely the "sweet" and the "bitter" cassa
vas, the "bitter" varieties being those that contain enough prussic acid
o render them toxic to animals, and the "sweet" varieties not con
taining sufficient oison to render them toxic. All varieties contain,
in the fresh state, a certain amount of prussic acid. This classification
is not jltogether satisfactory, as there are all gradations between the
two, and a variety that is considered "bitter" in a tropical country may
change to a "sweet" variety if raised in a subtropical country. Thus
all varieties in Southern States .are "sweet." The variety most com
mon in Haiku is supposed to be a "bitter" sort, but we have had on
Maui no instance of poisoning from it.
ATTRACTIONS FOR THIS WEEK AT THE
Saturday, May 25th.
ELSIE FERGUSON in
"RISE OF JENNY CUSHING"
TOM MIX in
"A SOFT TENDERFOOT"
And, "Who Is Number One?"
j Tuesday, May 28th.
MARY MILES MINTER in
Sunday, May 26th.
WILLIAM DUNCAN in
DEATH SHOT BAKER"
And, "STINGARKE", the Australian
Monday. May 27 th.
WILLIAM FOX PROGRAM
GLADYS BROCKWELL in
"SOUL OF SATAN"
Wednesday, May 29th.
DOUGLAS FAIRBANKS in
"REACHING FOR THE MOON"
Also, "Vengeance And The Woman"
Ajid, "Pathe New"
Thursday, May 30th.
PEARL WHITE In
"THE FATAL RING"
And, "Pathe New"
Friday, May 31st.
DOROTHY DALTON In
"WILD WINSHIP'S WIDOW"
Also, "Twin Troubles", Comedy.
And, CRAY CARTOON.
THE LIVE AUCTIONER
FOR MAKAWAO DISTRICT
Residence and Postoffice: Makawao
Phone: Tarn Yau.
Report of the Condition of
THE BALDWIN NATIONAL BANK OF KAHULUI
At Kahulul, in the Territory of Hawaii, nt the close of business, on
May 10th., 1918.
Loans and discounts (except those shown on b and c) $G27,757.16
Foreign Hills of Exchange or Drafts sold with indorse
ment, of this bank, not shown under Item d above (seo
Item 57c) $G27.757.16
Overdrafts, secured, none; unsecured $3,4f!0.23 .... 3.4G0.23
U. S. bonds deposited to secure circulation (par value) 25,000.00
Premium on U. S. bonds r!13.55 25.593.55
Liberty Ixwn rtonds, unpledged, 3'4per cent nnd !
per cent, unpledged 3,950.00
Liberty Loan Ilonds, 3V4 per cent., and 4 per cent.,
pledged to secure State or other deposits or bills
Bonds and securities pledged as collateral for State, or
other deposits (postal excluded) or bills payable. . . 43,556.86
Securities other than U. S. bonds (not including stocks)
owned unpledged 17,819.85
Total bonds, securities, etc 61,376.71
Furniture and fixtures 4,967.26
Cash in vault and net amount due from national
Net amounts duo from banks and bankers, and trust
companies other than included In Items 13, II, and
Total of Items 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 145,758.20
Checks on banks located outside of city or town of
reporting bank and other cash Items 9,195.93
Redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer nnd due from
U. S. Treasurer 1.250.00
Capital stock paid In 50.000.00
Surplus fund 50,000.00
Undivided profits $39,865.51
Less current expenses "nterest, and taxes paid 8,925.63 20,759.88
Circulating notes outstanding 25,000.00
Individual deposits subject to check 659,990.30
Certificates of deposit due in less than 30 days (other
than for money borrowed) 3,409.00
Cashier's checks outstanding 1,047.15
Deposits requiring notice but less than 30 days 50,114.47
Total demand deposits (other than bank de
posits) subject to Reserve, Items 31, 35,
36, 37, 38, 39, 40, and 41 714,560.92
Certificates of deposit (other than for money borrowed) 12,988.24
Total of time deposits subject to Reserve, Items
42, 43, 44, and 45 12,988.24
Territory of Hawaii, County of Maul, ss:
I, D. C. LINDSAY, Cashier of the above named bank, do solemnly swear
that the above statement is true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
D. C. LINDSAY. Cashier.
WM. WALSH )
F. F. BALDWIN Directors.
W. S. NICOLL
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 15th. day of May, 191S.
E. R. I110VINS.
Notary Public, 2nd Circuit.
A Lawn Mower that has been well tried and stood the test is
the mower to buy. You need not look further. The Pennsyl
vania has been in use here for years, and they are still in use
on all our Parks, Lawns and School Grounds.
We carry a full line.
PENNSYLVANIA JR. B. P..
PENNSYLVANIA GREAT AMERICAN
PENNSYLVANIA RED CLOUD
Write us if you are interested.
Grass Catchers to fit all mowers; Grass and Hedge Shears;
Garden tools of all kinds.
Lewers & Cooke. Ltd.
LUMBER AND BUILDING MATERIALS
169-177 So. King Street : : HONOLULU
Sfime 3able3(aluinii Slailroad Co.
Daily Passenger Train Schedule (Except Sunday)
The following schedule went into effect June -1th, 1913
5 33 3 3
S 3 3 aoi
3 3 7
5 3 07
l oo,a 55
4 Ji a 47
4 5i a 46
4 45, a 4"
1 S,8 42
1 158 30
L" Spreck- "A
a-.: ciTiiie ."l
.. Pauwela ..
L.7 Haiku .A
4o;8 50 1 30'j j5
5'.9 1 4" 3 45
5J 42(3 47
01 S 3 57
3 1 Si? 5
'5: a 05 4 10
'7 a 07(4 "
H 1 4 4
J5 a 15L 10
33 a 24 aK
35, a 8.4 30
4"l a 30I4 ji
- L..Kaliului.. A
littMci j rau.ttirj JWajct
1. All trains dally except Sundays.
2. A Special Train (Labor Train) will leare Wailuku dally except Sundays,
at 5:30 a. m., arriving at Kahulul at 5:50 a. m., and' connecting with
the 6:00 a. m. train (or Puunene.
3. DAOOAGB RATES: 150 pounds of personal baggage will be carried fret
of charge on each whole ticket, and 75 pounds on each Uilf ticket, whta
Daggage is in cnarge or ana on the same train as the holder of the ticket.
For excess baggage 25 cents per 100 pounds or part thereof will bt
For Ticket Fares and other information see Local Passer'ler Tariff I. C. C.
NO. s, or inquire at any or the Depots.