Newspaper Page Text
THE MAUI NEWS, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 4, 1918.
Joel Cox Criticizes
Building Construction And Bridges
Designed For Durability And Beau
tyRailroads Not Up To Amer
ican Standard Waterworks And
Tho following letter from former
County Engineer Joel It. Cox, now
working on reconstruct ion in France,
has just been received by County En
gineer A. V. Low, anil will be of gen
eral interest, although it deals entire
ly with engineering methods and prac
tices in Prance ns compared with
those in America. The woeful lack of
water and sewerage systems will
probably be the most impressive fea
ture of the letter to most persons In
this country. The letter follows:
17, August 1918.
I wonder whether you will not be
interested in a purely engineering let
ter, which gives rather briefly the
more evident and striking facts in re
gard to French engineering, that 1
have noticed during the time that I
have been working on this side of the
Atlantic. Of course it will deal main
ly with the differences between
French and American practise, and
while I will try to keep my observa
tions as far as possible separated
clearly between the two distinct
fields of temporary war expedients
and normal practise, my whole
chance of seeing things has been un
der war conditions, and my impres
sions doubtless colored accordingly.
One of my first surprises was to
find the excellent way in which the
great railroad systems of France have
stood up under the strain of four
years of war. In many ways the
breakdown has been less here than
in the eastern United States. Of
course the use of the roads Is most
rigerously controlled, and all unnec
cessary traffic, either passenger or
freight, is entirely eliminated. Even
so the actual stale of affairs is ad
mirable, and speaks much for the
essential soundness of the original
provision, and the flexibility of the
systems in vogue.
The gage is or course nearly the
same as our standard gage in the U.
S. lm 50 is about 7cm. largar than
our 4' 6". However the use of
smaller clearances in all directions
results in much narrower and lower
rolling stock, and is responsible for
some, but not all, of the vast differ
ences in size and weight between
their rolling stock and ours. Their
Toad-bed is in general excellent,
though of course minor roads suffer
in the matter of maintenance during
these days. Most of it is roclc ballast
ed and smooth on the main lines,
though the universal practise of lay
ing railjoints opposite in the two rails
Is a little less comfortable to passen
gers, and I think stands up less well
under conditions of poor maintenance.
The usual belief here is that it gives
a steadier track and eliminates side
rolling, which sounds reasonable
though actually I think that the bal
ance in smoothness lies with the
broken joints. However I notice that
the American Army roads here are
also being laid with opposite joints.
Rail sections eppear very similar to
ours, though of course the smaller
weights allow considerably lighter
sections than are necessary for U. S.
main lines. The screw spike appears
almost universal. Rail chairs are
somewhat used, but not as much as
in England, and appear to be in the
discard in modern construction. I
have yet to find an Englishman who
did not believe that the lack of rail
chairs meant necessarily a weak and
inferior track in which safety had
been sacrificed to cheapness. I have
much yet to learn to be convinced of
the correctness of the English point
of view, however. Certainly, if the
direct laying of the rail on the ties
is satisfactory in the U. S. with our
enormous axle concentrations, it
ought to be perfectly satisfactory for
the. light European traffic.
Nearly all roads are double tracked,
even where all the traffic could easi
ly be carried on a single track in
American practise. Part of this is
due to conservation, and part, doubt
less to the inferiority (as nearly as
I can make out) of the signal systems.
Electrical operation is unknown, and
the endless miles of wires and pulleys
must put a heavy premium on get
ting along with as light block system
as possible. I honestly believed that
a single track road with' a modern
automatic block system and skillful
train dispatching, can handle more
traffic than many of the French double
track roads can manage without seri
ous delays and disturbance.
The permanent way leaves little to
be desired, though It Is probably not
so good as In England. Of course, as
I have already said, the clearances
are too small to meet, our ideas, but
that Is something that was decided
long ago and must be almost im
possible to change today; and other
wise the permanent structures are
well and soundly built. Almost all
structures in France are permanent,
too. Grades are light, curvature
moderate, and grade crossings large
ly eliminated even at very large ex
pense. Where they still exist the
manner of operation leaves little to
be desired from the standpoint of
safety, though much from that of
time-saving (not a large matter over
here). All the crossings are equipped
with steel gates, operated by hand by
a gate tender, and running out across
the road on a little steel track. These
gates are closed about a quarter of
an hour before the train puts in an
appearance, and are a fearful strain
on an American's temper. In the
country the normal position of the
gate is closed, and It must be open
ed to let a vehicle through.
One striking fact Is the larger use
of stone masonry. In a deep cut the
amount of excavation is always re
duced either by retaining walls the
full height, or breast walls going up
part way, and the drainage gutters
along the tracks are neat stone-lined
conduits. Of the bridges more here
after. Of course the locomotives are very
queer looking things at first sight,
without the familiar cowcatcher, and
with the two round spring bumpers
that are common to nil French roll
ing stock. The older locos, and they
seem to have them still in use of all
ages, are especially queer, with two
huge domes of brass towering above
them. They are for all the world like
some variety of metal camel. These
old engines are all very light affairs,
and the more modern stock, much of
which has come since the war began
and Is American built, seems very
good indeed. The heaviest I have
seen is about 74 tons (metric)., which
is not much as measured by our
standards, of course, but these new
er engines seen) well designed and
built. A common feature is a sheet
metal pointed brow over the nose of
the boiler to cut down air resistance.
It looks as though it might have con
siderable value In fast passenger ser
vice. I have never made out how the
boiler tubes were cleaned with this
device, and do not know whether it
is removeable or not.
The great difference in the passen
ger cars is the universal compart
ment system, and the general light
ness of the cars. For suberban serv
ice around Paris especially, the cars
are tiny things, with the usual four
wheel rigid wheel base, with compart
ment. They weigh next to nothing
with a consequant saving in engine
weight and in time of accelaratlon,
but are not suited to any high speed
at all. Of course they are remarkably
quick loading and unloading, which Is
a natural advantage of great weight
in suburban work, that is not by any
means offset by the hard task of the
station tenders to close all the doors
as the train starts. This must be done
from the station platform, as there Is
no way of going up or down the train
when it is in motion. For through
trains the cars are more like Ameri
can ones, though lighter and smaller,
and run on swiveling trucks (3
wheel). In them there is a coridor
for walking the length of the train,
and vestibuled ends, though the
coridor is along one side and entire
ly distinct from the compartments
that open off it by doors.
The freight service Is tremedously
affected by small size of rolling stock.
The usuai car of any character has
capacity of about 6 tons, and all run
on four wheels with a rigid wheel
base. You can imagine how tiny and
dinky they look. However there is
doubtless an advantage in this coun
try of small industries and smalt
businesses. A car load lot Is only
six tons, and can undoubtedly be used
to much greater advantage than if a
ftfty ton car had to be packed with
about ten different consignments.
Their inadedency is of course more
marked in such traffic as coal. The
cars here run up to 20 tons, but there
is a bfg disadvantage in the small
car. The serious reason for the light
weights of engines and cars appears
to be the inadequacy of the coupling
system. This is nothing more or less
than a plain hook and chain, with a
turnbuckle to take up the slack, at
tached to an ordinary spring draw
bar. Coupling is 'a slow and danger
ous hand performance, and the capac
ity of a drawbar without a friction
clutch is strictly limited. I am now
where I probably see the heaviest
trains in France every day. They are
run with a loco in front and one be
hind to reduce the drawbar strain,
;ind the large amount of slack in the
couplings combine with the distance
between the engineers is a very obvi
The street railroads or "tramways",
for the English word has been adopt
ed in France, differ in narrow gages
and small clearances, which are al
most necessary in traveling the nar
row crooked streets of ancient towns;
the widespread use of underground
conduits In Paris, sometimes a center
conduit, and sometimes along the rail,
which can only be commended high
ly, and the use of extremely flexible
trolleys with a wheel in univers.il
coupling that allows the wire to be
offset as much as fifteen feet from
the center line of the track. They
seem to have to use a separate wire
for each direction, even where the
cars run on the same track, and I
suppose that the flexible wheel will
not take a trolley wire switch. In
one town, an interior city, they do
not use a trolley wheel at all, but
have a big loop on the end of the
trolley that makes a rubbing contact
with the wire. I should think that
there would be a tremendously waste
ful wear both on trolley and wire.
To go adequatedly Into the differ
ences in bridge design would take n
book. About all that I can say here
is that there is much more pains
taking effort toward theoretically per
fect forms, and economy of material
even at apparently great expense of
fabrication and erection, and a fine
regard to beauty. Such forms as a
two hinged steel arch with the hinges
part way to the crown are most in
teresting. Arch forms predominate,
and the splendid masonry arches are
an object lesson to an American, but
even in the other forms the same ten
ancies are evident. Even the simpl
est little plate girder, as a foot bridge
across a canal will have curved lines,
either for beauty or for economy of
material, certainly bought at consid
erable expense in fabrication.
Here again you are probably well
acquainted with the story of French
roads, and the universal waterbound
macadam that has stood war traffic
and four years of differed mainten
ance is certainly well worth study.
It is most interesting to find how wide
spread is the most ideal material for
! LIBERTY CATERING it!
BY MAUI WOMEN
A Department Of Domestic Economy Intended To Serve A Patriotic
Purpose In Conserving Food Needed By The Allied Armies In Europe
Does the Food Administration ask us
to decrease our consumption of milk?
No; nor attempt to substitute other
foods for it. Use all the milk.
Children need plenty of whole milk.
Use sour and skim milk in cooking.
and for making cottage cheese.
If I can not afford whole milk, shall
I get skim milk?
Yes, skim milk is an excellent food.
Try to make up for the lack of fat
in some other way. But remember
that children should have whole
Is milk a cheap food compared to its
Yes. Even at 12 cents a quart one
gets protein as cheaply as In meat
at 25 cents a pound, eggs at 35 a
dozen, or fresh cod at 20 cents a
How can we avoid wasting any milk?
By using all remnants of sour milk,
cream and buttermilk in cooking
and lor home-made cottage cheese.
How much milk does a child need
At least a quart up to the age of 6
years; after that at least a pint up
to the age of 12.
Does an adult need milk?
Under normal conditions it Is not
absolutely necessary as it is for
children, but it is nevertheless a
desirabe food for adults.
What is the nourishment In skim
It contains all the protein of whole
milk, contains lime, phosphorus,
What Is the food value of milk?
90.5 per cent watar
.3 per cent unavailable nutrients.
3.3 per cent protein
.3 per cent fat
5.1 per cent carbohydrates
.5 per cent ash
87.0 per cent water.
.5 per cent unavailable nutrients
3.2 per cent protein
3.8 per cent fat
5.0 per cent fat
5.0 per cent carbohydrates
.5 per cent ash
1 pint of skim milk furnishes 170
calories; 1 pint of whole milk fur
nishes 310 calories.
Why is milk so important a food?
Because it is the most complete
and well balanced of any single
food and is a vital food need for
babies and children.
How much milk does the United
States produce annually?
About 33.000,000,000 quarts annual
ly. How is this milk usually distributed?
4.3 per cent goes to feed calves.
6.G per cent goes into production of
such construction, and It is also note
worthy that in general the automobile
and rubber tired traffic Is extremely
light today. My observation has been
that where these roads have been
subjected to the heavy truck traffic
of the war zone, they have gone to
pieces as one would expect, and that
their only advantage is simplicity of
repair (the dumping of loose rock as
in the old days of gravel roads.) How
ever, the excellence of the general
svstem and the still good general con
dition of the roads of the country are
an important lesson for the U. S. and
the strongest possible arguments for
centerlized, skilled technical control.
There is no question but that French
highway are a magnificent success,
but I have also no doubt that they
would be an utter failure In most
parts of the U. S.
The general thing that comes to
one from the west is that everything
is built to last. Stone or brick for
the walls, or more recently reinforc
ed concrete apparently of much the
design as ours, and slate or tile roofs
are. universal. I have been particular
ly Interested In the vast number of
limes, hydraulic limes, and cements
that are, or have been available. In
place of the three well defined groups
of Portland nnd Natural cements and
limes that we have, they have an end
less series filling up the gaps and giv
ing one an infinite choice ranging
from portland to the weakest lime.
There is (at least nowadays when
cement is so scarce) a wide use of
the weaker materials, in concretes,
and in blocks for building purposes.
Watersupply And Sewage
These are chiefly remarkable by
reason of their absence. As long as
there is no demand for water tot
drinking purposes, and but little for
any sanitary use, there is little Incen
tive for the creation of an expensive
and safe supply, and as long as the
supply remains doubtful in quality
and small In quantity there is not
much chance to change the habits of
a people in regard to the use of wa
ter. It therefore appears to be much
in the nature of a vicious circle that
has no end in sight.
Of interest in the waterworks line
is the universal-use of lead service
pipe, of great weight and extremely
small Internal diameter. It will
doubtless last for ever, but appears
most extravagant otherwise. Another
remarkable thing is the size of the
water meters. To meter a Bervlce
having a pipe of little more than a
quarter of an inch In diameter they
use a machine about the size and
general appearance of a 3" compound
meter with us.
Of sewerage there is even less that
can be said. The usual practise Is
to have a tight cesspool under the
house that is pumped out Intervals by
itinerant steam pumps and tank wag
ons. When the tank and pump do
not arrive in time the cesspool over
flows into the street gutter! There
ice cream and condensed milk.
80.1 per cent is used in butter and
cheese making and for fluid use.
TIRED OF SAVING?
Are you tired of saving food? Tired
of making bread from flour you never
used before, tired of going without
sugar, tired of having to say, "I can't
It's against the rules of conservation?"
Yes, and there are others who are
tired. The British Tommy and the
French poilu are tired of four years
in muddy trenches. The pitiful "army
of civilians behind the lines" is tired
of Hun servitude. Some of our own
American boys may be growing just
a trifle tired of being 3,000 miles away
from home with no immediate pros
pect of return. No one hears a mur
mur from across the water about the
fatigue that lies heavy upon the whole
Allied world. They are out to win.
They may drop for a moment, but
there is alawys "the second wind"
which never fails to come.
Here at home are persons who com
plain of being tired of their share in
the war when that share is merely
judicious eating. They long for peace
as a time of bountiful food, as If more
food in the future were the only thing
for which millions of men have given
Grim, determined and uncomplain
ing the American soldiers nnd sailors
go about their job. War to them Is
a task, an opportunity, a duty; so why
The morale of this army of ours
is dependent on the strength of those
at home. A whisper of complaint
goes far and grows louder as it re
sounds across the Atlantic.
Imagine the thoughts of a soldier
standing knee deep in trench mud
wth shells bursting all around him,
when he reads in a letter from Am
erica, "We are feeling the war now.
We get no more than two pounds of
sugar each month, and I have not
seen wheat bread for weeks."
Feeling the war? Well, pprhaps.
But not the way the women of North
ern France are feeling it. The strong
chain which pulls for victory must
not be weakened by a single link of
of complaint. The rules for saving
are not unreasonable. Remember
there are those in this woild who are
really tired and are too brave to say
PLENTY OF PROTECTIVE FOOD
Milk and the leafty vegetables( can
bage, cauliflower, Swiss chard, coll
ard3, Brussels sprouts, lettuce, celery,
spinach, onions, are known as the
protective foods. A diet without them
may be low In mineral salts. "See
that you use milk and some of the
leafy vegetables every day," says the
United States Food Administration.
appears to be a small use of little
septic tanks, for the flow of one
household or watercloset, but the ulti
mate disposal Is the same, and condi
tions can hardly be much improved
by their use.
In general I think that every Am
erican that does any engineering
work here will go back an ardent ad
vocate of the metric system. It
seems to me that America's best
chance for a universal adoption Is now
when so much of our Industrial dev
elopment Is in close touch with Eu
rope. I hate to think of ever having
to go back to feet, and inches, gallons,
pounds, per square inch, and all oth
There is a much more general use
of the grade for angular measure
the 1100 part of a quadrant, and is
the 1100 part of a quarant, and Is
devlded decimally). It has undoubt
ed advantages though I should be
more in favor of following Raymond's
lead and merely deviding our present
In general there Is a splendid spirit
of thoroughness and high scientific
attainment in French Engineering
that it will pay America well to watch.
The splendid thoroughness of the
technical schools and the equally ad
mirable devotion of the French
student to hard work would be magni
ficent training for many an American
engineer or student.
I am now in the heart of France,
the only American (or Englishman
rather) for miles around. It is ex
tremely Interesting and my French Is
standing the strain fairly well. I
am starting the foundations for a
cite of 50 houses, using French labor.
Our own men will probably come to
erect the houses. My best friend
here is a French mining engineer, a
refugee from the north of France.
My best regards to Mrs. Low and
JOEL B. COX
IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE
SECOND CIRCUIT, TERRITORY
In the Matter of tho Estate of Maria
da Costa. Deceased.
Notice To Creditors
All persons having claims against
the above ettate are hereby noti.lcd to
present their claims duly authenticat
ed, even if the claim is secured by
mortgage, to the undersigned, at Wai
luku, within six months from date of
first publication hereof, or -.hey will
be forever barred.
JOSEPH B. SOUZA,
Administrator, Estate of Maria
da Costa, Deceased.
Wailuku, Maui, October 2, 1918.
(Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25.)
K. MACHIDA Drugstore
The Best in Town
And a Up-To-Pate Soda Fountain
Give Us a Trial
MARKET STREET, : WAILUKU.
It means full-powered,
every drop I Be sure it's
Red Crown before you fill.
STANDARD OIL COMPANY
IIENNE'S EXCLUSIVE PUMPS FOR
THE DISCRIMINATING WOMAN
ALWAYS CORRECT IN DESIGN.
IN BEAUTIFUL BLACK GUN METAL
IN PATENT LEATHER
WE CAN PIT
Manufacturers' Shoe Co., Ltd.
P.O. Box 469 : : : HONOLULU
We've just received a new and complete stock of
AND A1ECHANICS' TOOLS
A high grade line recommended by first-class mechanics
throughout the mainland.
CLIMBERS SAFETY STRAPS
BELTS - PL1ER POCKETS
OF CANVAS OR LEATHER
MAIL ORDERS PILLED PROMPTLY
Lewers & Cooke, Ltd.
LUMBER AND BUILDING MATERIALS
169-177 So. King Street : : HONOLULU
Uime Oable-'J(ahutui Slailroad Co A
Daily Passenger Train Schedule (Except Sunday)
Th. following schedule went into effect June 4th, 1913.
1 as 8 42
U" Spreck- "A
a-.: ",Yiiie '.
U" llama "A
$ J3 3 2
5 3 7
5 3 07
S 93 05
4 5;a j3
4 5!a 47
4 Ji a 46
4 45 a 4o
4 44 39
4 4o2 35
7 49 .
.. l'auwela ..
C Haiku -A
1 I 1 I !
Passinfir ! Patunr Dlttasc. I
p m am Hlln
2 50 6 00 . 0 i'
3 00 6 10 2.5
1. All trains dally except Sundays.
2. A Special Train (Labor Train) will leave Wailuku daily, except Sundaysj
at 5:30 a. m., arriving at Kahulul at 5:50 a. m., and connecting with
the 8:00 a. m. train for Puunene.
3. BAGGAGE RATES: 150 pounds of personal baggago will be carried fr.a
of charge on each whole ticket, and 75 pounds on each half ticket, wa.Q
baggage Is In charge of and on the same train as the holder of th. ticket.
For excess baggage 25 cents per 100 pounds or part thereof will b.
For Ticket Fares and other Information see Local rassenger Tain I. C. O.
No. 8, or Inquire at any of th. Depots.
WAILUKU, MAUI, T. H.
Dinner parties given special
YOU BY MAIL.
1 3o' 33
4o J 4i
42 J 47
53 3 3
6 50 9
6 52 .
a 03 4 10
a o7 4
" 7 "1
a 15 4 ao
a a3 4 aS
5 4 30
STATIONS -j j i
L..Kahulul..A - M I u
A.ruunei.e..Li 2 5 6 22 3 18 1
I 0 6 12 8 05 1 f
Si ! ,