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The national Republican. (Washington, D.C.) 1860-1862, March 14, 1861, Image 2

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'"Our publication office ti on Seventh
street, adjoining Adannon rrnortical uepot,
and opposite the General Post Office.
NATIONAL REPUBLICAN.
Thursday, March 14, 1861.
A WORD TO BUSINESS MEN'.
This paper has now a circulation iu this city
larger ttiau all the city papers combined, with
the exception or one, and therefore affords a
most excellent advertising medium.
THE INAUGURAL.
Copies of tho inaugural address, in pamphlet
form, can bo had ut this office. Price, fifty
cents per hundred.
tvS" Tho Sonata yesterday confirmed the
following nominations:
George W. McLellan, of Massachusetts, to
be Second Assistant Postmaster Geuernl.
Dewitt C. Litllijohn, of New York, to be
Consul to Liverpool, and Win. II. Vosey, of
tho samu Stale, Consul to Aix-la Chapclle ; and
Goorge Harrington, of the District of Colum
bia, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
Colonel Sumner was nominated as Brigadier
General, iu tho place of General Twiggs,
(stricken from the roll by order of President
Buchanan for being a " traitor.'')
James M. Edmunds, of Michigan, was also
nominated as Commissioner of tho General
Land Office.
ft&r The Confederate States Commissioners
have, as yet, done nothing of special note.
S&- We understand that both Mr. Corwin
and Mr. Clay decline the missions to Mexico
and Spain, which have beeu tendered them.
J53?Mr. Fessendcn has introduced a resolution
expelling all the Senators of the seceded States
from the-United States Senate, on the ground
that they had reuounced their allegiance to
tho Government. This is designed, wo sup
pose, to supersede the resolution of Mr. Foster
for tho expulsion of Mr. Wigfall, which would
seem invidious, and invito them nil to the same
feast.
tgyThe nomination of Col. Sumner to the
Brigadier Generalship gives great satisfaction
to tho officers of the Army who are justly ten
acious of the rule of regular promotion. Tin
country will see to it that Major Anderson is
suitably rewarded fur bis gillaut sirvices and
loyalty under the most trying circumstances.
tSf We are gratified to learn that John L.
Hayes, E-q., an old and highly respected citi
zen, has bejn appointed Solicitor of tho Court
of Claims. His appointment has been made
strictly in accordance with the rule which we
hava before taken occasion to commend, that
professional recomendatious to offices of this
character should have tho dedided preference
to the political.
John Mitchel does not receive ranch
encourugement in his cffirts to convert the
nations o' Euro,e to his own views iuiegard to
the ' peculiar institution," ns appears from the
following extract from his last Paris Utter to
the CiarleiUn Mircurtj :
"On tho whole, I would beg m03t earnestly
to impress upon you tho conviction tint in
Europe generally, but in E igl.mil pntirulurly,
you have no chance, mi touts standi, no pre
tension to bu ( ousidor.d as Cmulinii men, or
perhaps j human lumj", excel t the cotton
field alutie. But for that, und tin- interest
hanging upon that, you would be hunted Irorn
the luce of the c nth, end erased fiom creation
by tho indignant vuico of uu outraged nine
teenth centurv 1"
The fjllnwing resolution in relation to inter
national copyrights was recently offered in the
Southern Congieas, at Montgomery, by Mr. 'P.
It. II. Cobb, of Georgia, and udoptcd :
" Whereas Great Britain, France, Prussia.
Saxony, and other European Powers, have
passed laws to secure to authors of other Stalls
the benefit and privileges of their copyright
laws, upon condition cl similar privilfgis be
ing granted bv the laws of such States to au
thors, the subjects of the Powers aforesaid;
therefore, be it
" JlevJuJ, by the Congteii of I'te Cmifeder
ale States, That tho President be and he is
hereby authorized to instruct the Commission
ers appointed by him to visit the European
Powers, to enter into treaty obligations fur the
cxtensiun of international cop) right privileges
to all authors, the citizens and subjects of the
Powers atoresaid."
North British Rev iew. Among the many
reviews which high intellectual, moral, and
national civilization necessarily develops, few
contain matter of more practical utility, and
none perhnis sustain superior literary merit,
than the North British.
The number before us (Fubruarv) contains
eleven articles, somo of them especially inter
esting at the present time.
Wo have long thought that the sterling worth
of the world's reviews has not been as fully ap
preciated as they richly deserve. Taylor A.
Maury, Pennsylvania avenue, near Ninth
street, are the agents.
BO" Tho Wnshiugton correspondent of the
Press, Philadelphia, tnys:
' " I think it may be taken for granted that
botliMcssrs. Forsvlh and Craw'ord, the com
missioners ot the Southern Confederacy, now
in this citr, despair not alone ol tho success of
their commission, but of the Confederacy itself.
Forsyth is a strong Union man at he irl, mid
cannot but feel and see, Irom all the evidences
around him, that he is luinsc-lt in a falsi) posi
tinn, and that the ultras who have hurried
Alabama into her present dilemma (an never
permanently hold tho confidence of the people
of that State."
The Washington correspondent of tho N. Y.
Tribune says:
"Tho nomination of Mr. Corwin as Minister
10 Mexico was quite unexpected to him, nnd
was not desired. It is only three days niueo ho
urged upon the President the selection of an
other person ns peculiarly fitted fur this post.
Mr. 1iocnln nominated him without any con
ference whatever, nnd was influenced mainly by
the leslre to securo his services in currying out
the P"-v which Mr, Corwin has advocated in
and out of Congress, as most desirable for our
future commercial, political, and diplomatic
nlntinns with that republic. If he consents to
accept that mision at all, which is yet unde
termined, it will be for the purpose of inducing
Mexico to adopt this policy, and for no other
r, uson. In this view, the mission is now among
the most important in the whole service. The
agents of Jefferson Davis are there, endeavoring
to oltnin recognition."
THE POLICY OF THE ADMINISTRA
TION. The question as to the policy of the Admin
istration in this, the most eventful crisis of our
history, presses home upon the American heart,
creating a profound and painful anxiety,
throughout the length and breadth of the land,
which can be allayed by no pomps of inaugu
ration and no distribution of Federal offices.
In judging of this policy, we look only to tho
sentiments of Mr. Lincoln's inaugural, as seen
in the light of his political antecedents and
personal character, nnd to the course of events
by which this policy not its distinctive prin
ciple, but its application to particular cases
must, or course, in some measure, be controlled.
Tue inaugural enunciates two cardinal propo
si ions : First, "that tho laws (shall) be faith
fully executed in all the States;" second, that
"the course thus indicated will be followed
with a view to n peaceful solution of our na
tional troubles." To reconcile this seeming
incongruity in the practical operation of tho
Government, is the most delicato and difficult
task of the present Administration. So far as
its general policy is concerned, this is suffi
ciently obvious, being as briefly stated in the
inaugural, " to hold, occupy, and possess the
propetty and places belonging to the Govern
ment, and to collect the duties on imports."
The questions of retaking tho forts captured
by the seceded States and oi the mode in which
the revenue shall be collected, may be snfely
left to be decided in the future, after the most
ample consideration. The first and most grav c
responsibility which meets the Administration
is in refcrenco to Tort Sumter, inasmuch as its
present condition imperatively requires imme
diate action. Shall it be relieved or evacuated,
is tho simple question. One tr ing is clear, no
half-way policy can be adopted. The troops
must bo at once withdrawn from the fort, or
they must be at once reinforced. The idea of
leaving seventy men cooped up in a Govern
ment fortification to perish by stnrvnlion or ns
sault in the prcenco uf thirty million of people
looking on in fearful solicitude and hopeless
imbecility, is not to be tolerated for a moment.
Tho consequences of such a catastrophe are
fearful to contemplate. The blood of these
brave and loyal men crying ulojil for ven
geance, and for the redress of the iinulted nnd
disgraced honor of the nation, would demand
the rccapturo of the fort, as the alternativ e of a
Northern revolution, at whatever cost of life
and treasure, and the country would be inevita
bly precipitated into civil war whose end no
man could foresee.
Shall the troops then bo withdrawn or rein
forced? 'lhere is much that may bo uigod
with great plausibility upon both sides of the
question. On the one tide, it is said that by
such withdrawal the Government iu effect ab
dicates its trust, and with its own hand hauls
down the old Hag upon ono ot its on fortifi
cations beforo the rebel forces, which are nr
rajel against it ; that it virtually jields to rev
olution and recognises secession as an accom
plished fact; that thereafter it must relinquish
the other forts and nhtiidou nil thought of tho
collection of the iivcuuc; and that the principle
is conceded lint the Government can onlv be
maintained, it at all, by moral suasion.
On the other hand, tho evacuation of Tort
Sumter is pronounced a military'tiecessity. The
oldest and ablest uiilil iry and naval comm tnd
ers in tho service are understood so to regard
it. The vessels of war necessary for tho effect
ual relief of the fort cojIJ not bo concentrated
at the port of Charleston in season to accom
plish it, and there is no available force to man
them. Again, tin- fort does not commaud the
entrance to a great inland sea, like the forts of
Flor da, and its occupation is chiefly desirable
for lo a1 dcfeiico, that of the harbor and State
of South Carolina, which, in these times, there
is no hardship in leaving the State to lojk to
itself. Lven if actual war existed between the
Government and the State, the furt is not worth
nil it it would cost to reinforce, nnd the true
policy of war dictates no useless cxpnd ture of
life nnd treasure. General Scott, it is said, fa
vors this opinion the old hero whose loyally
shines as bright as the sun at noonday, and in
following whoso counsels disgraca can never
come upon any people. If this assumed neces
sity exists and of this the Government has
the best, if not the only means of judgment
then there is nothing more to bo said ; tho ques
tion is concluded.
If the withdrawal of the troops is determined
by this necessity and this, in our view, could
alone justify it then it involves no surrender of
principle. It is no "acknowledgment of the
defeat of the Federal Government," or that
"tho Union is utterly dissolved, past nil possi
bility of reconstruction, except by the most ab
ject concessions." It would form no precedent
fjr the surrender of any other fort not in the
same extreme peril. It has no sort of connec
tion with the collection of tho revenue, which
is, after nil, the practical test of the Govern
ment, nnd the vital condition of the Union.
Nay, may it not be that the firmness of the Gov
ernment may be more conspicuously illustrated,
and with less offence, if it should yield what,
after all, may be regardod, in n great measuro,
a; a point of pride, rather than needletsltj, as
many would regard it, plunge the country into
war? The exception to a rulo often brings into
greater distinctness, or, in other words, " proves
the rule" itself.
The question of principle being disposed of,
that of policy mny well be considered ; not as
determining tin) former, but ns throwing nd
dilioanl light upon it.
Iu the first i lace, it is doubtless truo thnt
the officers of tho army and navy, however
loyal they may bo iu their feelings, and how
ever prepjred lo obey lho orlrrsof tho Gov
ernment, would feel it lo bo tho most paiuful
duty of their lives to go to tht reinforcement
of Fort Sumter. They must naturally reluct
against taking op arms against their country
raon.in bloody conflict in a time of peace, or
at least without proclamation of war. Is it
wise or humane to subject their loyally lo so-!
evera a test, unless there is the most impera
tive necessity for so doing.
Again, tho leaders of revolution ardently
desire that the attempt at reinforcement should
be made. Thr-y would, if possible, put the
Government in a f ilc position, ns seemingly
striking the first blow. Their only hope of
success in their revolutionary movement is by
provoking a war, in which the border States
would mako common cause with the secedud,
and be dragged into eventual secession. Is it
best to gratify them ?
In the next place, the true Union men of
the South, who are tho best judges of their
own position, nnd of the public sentiment of
their own section, desire that tho relief of lho
fort should not be attempted. They are strong
ly of the opinion that they would be greatly
strengthened nt home, nnd the loyalty of the
doubtful confirmed, by the solid assurance
thus given that the policy of the Administra
tion is not of subjugation, but of selfde
fence that it is pacific and conciliatory.
They feci that South Carolina should be
treated not as a revolted province, but as n
disobedient child, to whom forbearance should
bo shown, and who should bo reclaimed by a
wise paternal authority, but not destroyed.
Lastly, our Government is n peculiir one.
It is nu experiment of the self government of
tho people. It is founded, not so much on
brute force, as on moral power. If by that
moral power it can achieve a bloodless victory
over those who have conspired ,against it, if it
can accomplish a peaceful solution of our na
tional troubles, and in time bring back the
seceded States into their orbit of ob-dicnt revo
lution round the central authority, it would
afford a spcctaclo for the admiration of the
world. In all other countries, n revolution
such ns ro have experienced, would have
caused rivers of human blood to tlow ; if in our
own it shall be subdued by the natural nnd le
gitimate operation of the Government in the
execution of the laws, and by the returning
conviction of its superior Westings uud adapt
edness to our political condition, it will be the
most sublime, and perhaps ultimate, triumph
of representative institutions.
Wo havo thus favored the policy of peace iu
the present emergency. We may hnvo erred,
for to err is human; but if so, wo feel confi
dent that we have erred in the direction in which
the. public mind of tho couulry is tending.
Very few of us, wo apprehend even those who
have been most strenuous for the maintenance
of the Government by the high hand of power
do not find Ihat n gradual "chnngc has come
over the spirit of oui dream" within (he past
few weeks, nud that time has softened the
asperities of our feeling. Should nut this fact
remind us of the danger thit the clearness ol
our vision may be obscured by the excitement
of the hiur, and nlmonish us that wo do not
allow any remiius of human passion and vin
dictive tentiinciit to incite ns to a course our
calm and more dclibeiate judgment might
not approve. Lat us all lojk at the present
difficulties calmly, trustingly, in tho full con
viction of light nnd purpose of duty, and in
cheerful reliance upon that Piovidcnce which
has heretofore guided our destinies as a people,
and we muy yet bo enabled to say: "It is
will" with the couuliy.
Toi oursrlvev'enre willing toleavetue grave
question to the decision of those to whom it is
committed by the Cjiistitution and the laws, up
on whom its ch'i f responsibility rests, nnd who
c njoy the best opportunities of forming a broad
and comprehensive judgment upou it ; and i
have all eoulidcnco that this decision, as it will
be guided by hone-sty and sobiiety, by wisdom
and patriotism, so it will receive tho geuernl
aud generous ajq roval of the American peotlc.
tSJ The .X 3". Titbunc has the following:
"The following is r.n extract fiom a piiv.ate
letter received in this city by one ol cm work
men, from his Irolher in Chaileston. 'lliose
are the men with whom the miserablo traitor
Jeff. Divis is to inaieh upon tho Northern
Stales. Wo begin to kel peifcctly easy about
the nttucl: on Port bnnter.
''Cnjfiti.E-.Tov, lb. 20, 1H31.
"'Now something nbout politics.
Here everybody is a soldier. I havo been iu
the field service tho past two mouths. A sol
dier, und how? ith shoes without soles, poor
food, mil norso clothing. Mi God havu mer
cy. Should thu North raaich an army down
here, two thirds of our men would join them.
Don't be sui prised that all people hero seem to
be in favor of secession Otherwise, many a
poor fellow would bo starving. Whoever re
luscs to be a soldici mu.,t leave tho city. Fort
Sumter still stands quietly, and the garrison
appears to be in good spirits. Our army have
nut yet attacked it. Tho ustcs appear to betoo
stupid to undertake it. In order to do that, they
want another Garibaldi, or keep their mouths
shut. Humor has it (hut it is to ho taken ne.t
week without fail. The commander, Mnjor An
dcrson, I have known iu Florida, and believe
him to be a brave man.' ''
For the National Itsubllcin.
Ni i.ih Exi'Lan'ation". An adi ntiteiiient ap
peared in the Star ol Saturday evening 1 ist,
in favor of tho appointment of our esteemed
fellow citizen, General Ed. C. Cairinglon, to tho
office of Distuct Attorney, ' bnsiiu his claims,
iu part, upon his lale mil'lnry services iu " or
ganizing, perfecting, mil drilling'' a volunticr
militia corps in this city. In a speech solicit
ing volunteers, made by Genual C. iu tho
Seventh Ward, on the evening of tho 9th of
January lust, ho alluded to a report "that ho
had undertaken this movement becanro he
w nhcd to lay thu loundilion lor the District
Attorneyship under lho lneonnug Administra
tion," aud denounced the n poitnsaii "infamous
imputation," and tho author ol it as n"an
dercrmvl a hat." Iludc el.ued,nlso, that " he.
wanted no oIIkp,'' nud tin r, by got ci edit for
disiuteic&led patriotism. Who could huvo been
su malicious its to publish (uud uy for) nu
udvcrlisanu'iit ti iidiug to en iilethi inipiissiou
that the report, no indi 'nnntly di nicd, is not
altogether unfounded Surily it cnuld not
liavo been dunu with tho sanction ol Lien. U.
Aud yot, although s lid ndvciliieiucut has beau
tho subject ol reninik iu tho ei'y for suverul
days, tho Geucial has not repudiated it. Per
haps ho has overlooked it. Q,
EXTRA SES3I0S OF THR SENATE.
Valneiday, .1jtci 13, lefil.
Mr. Douglas offered lho following resolution,
which was rend for information,
llesohed, That the Secretary of War bo ro
quested In inlorm tho Senate what forts, arse
nnls, navy jnids, and other public works, within
the limits ot the Slatcsof South Carolina, Geor
gia, Floiida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
nnd Texas, are now wllhiu lho actual possession
and occupation of thu United States, and by
what number of men each is garrisoned and
held, nnd whether reinforcement nre necessary
to retain the same; and, if so, whether lho Gov
ernment has the power and means, under ex
isting laws, to supply such reinforcements with
in such time us the exigencies nnd necessities
of the case may demand : and whether the de
fence nnd protection of the United btate and
their interests make it necessary and wise to
retain military possession of such fort k, places,
andotherproperty,exccpt at Key West nnd Tor
lugas, nnd to recapture mid reoccupy such
others ns the United Slates have beeu deprived
of by seizure) or surrender, for any other pnr
pose, and with a view to any olher end than the
subjugation and occupation of those Slates
which have assumed the right to secede from
the Union, .and within whoso, limits such forts
and other public property lire situated ; and. it
such be the motives for recapturing nnd hold
ing the foils nnd oilier public property, what
military force, including regulars and volun
teers, would be necessary to enablo the United
States lo reduce tho Slates nforesiid, and such
others as nro supposed to sympathize with Ihem,
to the subjection and obedience to the laws ol
the Union, nnd to protect the Federal capital.
Objection being raised, the resolution lies
over till to morrow.
Mr. Fcssoiiden offered a resolution, that
Messrs. Benjamin of Louisiana, Brown nnd
Davis of Mississippi, Clay of AlabamaMallory
of Florida, and Toombs of Georgia, having an
nounced that they aro no longer members of
the Senate, their seats have become vacant, nnd
the Secretary of the Senate is directed to strike
their names from the roll of members.
The resolution lies over.
After nn Executive session, the Senate ad
journed. DEPARTMENTAL.
AiTMXTMFNTs. M. II. Cobb, Esq , of Penn.,
has been appointed disbursing clerk of tho
War Department, in placo of Mr. John Potts,
promoted lo the chief clerkship.
Professor Muson, of Tennessee, has been ap
pointed to a vacant $1,200 clerkship in the
General Post Office Department.
Mr. Hutchins, lately clork toCommiltco
on Nnvul Affairs, lloufo of Representatives,
hss been nppointcd to ft $1,200 clerkship in tho
Interior Department.
Hi.sicvATiox. T. C. Da Leon, of Louisiana,
a $1,200 clerk in the War Department, has re
signed. Removals. B. P. Porter, a $1,200 clerk in
the Census Office, was removed on Tuesday.
Howard Tuylur, n watchman in tho General
Pest Office Department, has received n notifi
uition that his turvices will not be required af
ter tho :Ust inst.
Bella, Bella, IIontnA Bella 1 The
Charleston corespondent ol tho Richmond Dii
patch is becoming terribly oracular iu his com
munications to that journal. His letter of the
7th instant is strongly spiced with the following
sanguinnry hints:
" The project which I hinted at yesterday of
an invading army, I find is now the order of
the day, nnd that the battleground will be
changed fro n South Carolina to another lo
cality not ten thousand miles from you, is, in
my ju leruiuiit, ti fixed fact. If I were to predict
that iu sity days tho city of Washington wculd
be razed so that n ploughshare should be run
iivur the place whcie now Lincoln nervously
icstc, und that magnificent monument of former
sfreatness, tho Capitol, would be blown tky
high, 1 might no', in such n prediction, bo ti
falo prophet. I, like many n Southern man,
have a lew cents invested in that other monu
ment begun y.'nrs ago to lho memory of George
Washington, which monument, if left to Black
Repiibliinn keeping, I hope to see rent in twain
tioui lop to bottom. Some of your submission
readcra may call this vandalism. It matters
not with inn what liny c ill it; that monument
will never be ullowed to stand oil Black Rcpub
lit. in coil, and you may tnKo that ns unolher
prediction. Jf )ou will look to the Couiiu, of
the dnto of the Bib instant, jou will see my in
vading plot hinted ut there. ' The Southern
heart is tired now, and that fire will not be
easily quenched, nor will it be, I fear, unless it
bo quenched iu htojd.'
" Wo heard heavy cannonading seaward this
morning, at nbout sunrise the city was agog.
It turned out that 'tho Crusader' was expected
last night, nnd tho guns were ' shotted,' aud
thia morning they were unsliolUid,
" The floating bbllery is iioivBKly for mount
ing, and they wait for two heavv guns of the
Dahlgrcu order. The front of the battery is
about four feet Ihiek, made bo by four thick
uesse-s ot Pulmetto logs and the planking and
iiou. If they can ever get it securely anchored,
Anderson may vent his rage and it will all be
abortive. Anderson bus not a mnrtiir in his
prison at nil, apd if he throws shells it will be
out of n Colmubiad, und they are said lo ho
entirely unsuited lo that work. Fort Sumter
is the hollow tree, Anderson is tho old buck
baro ice will smoke him out."
Ax Owxer'u RioiiT to the Soil Fikintixo
ov Stiilkts. Judge Mellon decided on Wed
nesday that parties onninu ground fronting on
streets or alleys nro entitled to soil to the
middle thereof, and that a city or boiough has
no other than a light of way therein, nnd such
other nets upon them as may bo necessary to
keep them in repair; that a city or borough
cannot excavate lho stone, giavel, sand, or
other mateiial therein, for lho purpose of mak
ing incichandiso of it, nor nuthoil7o any one
to do so ; nud that lho owner of n lot or alley
can sustain nu action of trespass against any
one entering into lho street or alley in front of
him, between the lino of his lot and tho middle
of lho street, for tho purpose of taking out ma
terial, or for disposing thereof to others. Under
this decision, the jury in the caso of Chailes
Slipper and David Graham rs. Samuel Hood,
rendered n verdict of $100. The authorities
of Manchester gave defendant the privilege to
remove sand from the street fronting plaintifl's
property, iu that borough, and a suit foi tres
p.i!3 being brought, it resulted as above stated.
1'itlsbnrgh Diipatch.
II. O.Bulklcy, of Kalamazoo, Michigan, has
made the discovery that, by slightly steaming
Chineso sugar cano beforo it is prcsked, all tho
juice can bo easily extracted with a common
set of pressure lollcrs. As the pressing ol this
cane constituted the chief difficulty with farm
crs in obtaining syrup from it, this discovery is
of great iuipoitauco to them.
It having been stated that good3 shipped for
noil-seceding States by w.i) o! Savannah, would
bo inude to pay duties ut th it port, lho Collector
there suys :
" Dului nil! not be requited on goods pass
ing thiough this port, and dtstined for Slates
not belonging to tho Confederates. Unless in
structions to tho contrary shall he received, lho
only obligation that will bo required is, that
such goods will, in good faith, pass to their des
tination, and not be stopped in the Confederato
States." -
UKSArc Railway Bridom, Tha well
known American enfdneor, John B. Jervis,
says i "The length of time timber will last
in n bridge is quite uncertain, and there is
danger thnt it will bo trusted too long for safe
ty. The first decay will bo in the joints of
framing, and in the interior of scantling ; this
may be to a seriout extent, whle all apoied to
obset nation appeals sound and safe. The trav
eller on lho ruilwuy cannot examine the bridge
he must depend on the railway agont, under
the proprietary interest in the question ; and
the agent may be satisfied with the exterior ;
or from other cause neglect the proper exam
ination until some train falls through, when it
will be sadlr certain that it should not have
been trusted so long. I have seen tho record of
tour serious clisisters thu past year Irom tuo
(living way of bridges, causing tho loss of
fifteen lives, and iujiuing forty-seven persons.
Others, less serious to life, have been attended
with great loss of properly. The present year
will not be less disastrous." Mr. Jervis also
speaks of the very insufficient width of em
bankments often seen, and of the inferior
drainage of our roads, adding to danger aud
to wear nnd tear. It is therefore real economy
for railway managers to anticipato accidents
by vigilant repairs. Mr. Jervis says i " As a
gmeral thing, our railway bridges ate Jar short
of the stability ncceuatifor safety and econo
my. Many of timber ham stood as long a
they should be It listed, and it is quite time they
were tcjilaccd by stone or iron." Such words
from such n source aro too serious to be disre
garded by a public who travel as we do."
Skatixo IU.TntNS Tho following figures
show the number uf persous who have availed
themselves of tho skating privileges on Central
Park ponds, for the past two years. During
tho winter of 1839 and 18C0, the total number
was -182, COO; the greatest number on any ono
day was tho 2Glh of December, numbering
100,000. During the skating season just past,
tho aggregate number reached 1,085,700; tho
greatest number present on any one day was
103,000 on lho i7th of February. Notwith
standing the skating soason of-1800 and 18G1
was shorter by eleven days than that of 1859
and 18G0, the number of visiters has been
more than doubled in the aggregate. The
former season was of thirty soveu days duration,
while the one just closed was but twenty-six.
Tho proportion of la ly visitors has also boen
much greater. K. 1". Commercial.
EoriopEAN Politics. Public attention con
tinues its eager gaze at Italy, whenever the
Srospccts of war are discussed. It is pretty cvi
ent that, ere long, Napoleon will abandon the
protection which he has given to tho Pope,
since 1848, leaving that Pontiff to scttlo mat
ters with Victor Emmanuel ns best he can. In
a shoit timo Victor Emmanuel will solemnly
assume thu title of Kiug of Italy. He appears
inclined to act wilh discretion and modeialion,
and has probably influenced Garibaldi to the
adoption, for the present, of similar views. Ho
will endeavor to cieute a powerlul Italian army,
winch is tho best security against aggression.
Austria, if let alone, will scarcely btcoino his
assailan', and the threatened revolution in Hun
gary will occupy her attention for somo lime.
The cud, wo dare say, will bo the sale ol Ve-ne-.
tin, which will enable Victor Emmanuel to
round off his kingdom very handsomely.
Shuuld ihe expected revolt in Hungary be
come serious, there is reason to think that
Russia mny interfere, unless Prussia, which is
very warlike just now, should take thu initia
tive iu defence ut Austria, trance is prepared
for v.ar, which England will endeavor to avoid.
What Italy wants is test. Nations, like indi
viduals, must sometimes pause to recupeiate.
Five j ears ol peace would make Italy prosper
ous once more tho very garden ol Europe.
But pence ciuuot bo secured, for some time at
least. Philadelphia Piess.
Our Ministers to Mexico have been, from the
beginning of lho legation, of tho same obnox
ious sort ns the majority of those recently sent
to Spain. Of the (ilieen who havo been ap
pointed, eleven have been slaveholders, includ
ing the uutouous traitois, John blidellof Louis
iana, and John Forsyth uf Georgia. In the
present crisis, tho mission lo Mexico may be
come tho most impoitniit of all in cur loreiga
relations, and it is fortunate that so alio and
skillful a statesman as Mr. Corwin has been
selected for tho responsible bisk of counteract
ing in that quarter lho filibustering projects of
the Southern Confederates. As long ngn at
184b, wiuiu in tnu Senate, Mr. Uorwin clistiu
guU'ued himself by the force nnd inrnestness
with which ho opposed the acquisition of terri
tory to increase the nrcn of slavery, nnd his
denunciation of the war waged nn Mexico for
that purpose will long lie remembered for lis
vivid eloquence, and it is well known thnt he
has since given his attention specially to the
subject of tho Mexican policy of tho United
States. N. Y. Tiibune.
HENRY CLAY UPON THE CRITTEN
DEN PROPOSITIONS.
" And now, sir, coming from n slave State, as
I do, I owe it to myself, I owe it to truth. I owe
it to tin subject, to state that no earthly power
could induce me to vote for a specific measure
for the introduction of slavery whero it had not
before existed, cither South or North of that
lino. Coming as 1 do Irom a slave state, it is
my solemn, deliberate, and well matured deter
mination, that no power no earthly power
shall compel mo to vote for tho oositivo in
troduction of slavery either South or North of
that line. Sir, while vou rcpioach, and justly
too, our British ancestors, for the introduction
of this institution upon tho continent of Ameri
ca, I nm, for one, unwilling that tho posterity
of tho present inhabitants of California and
New Mexico shall reproach us for doing just
v.hat we reproachGreut Britain fordoing to us.
If tho citizens of those Territories choose to
establish slavery, I am for admitting them with
such provisions in their Constitutions; but then
it will bo their own work, and not ours, nnd
their posterity will havo to reproach them, und
not us, for forming Constitutions allowing the
institution of slavery to exist among them."
lltiny Clay'sspeech m the Senate, Jan. 20, 1830.
GEN. JACKSON ON NULLIFICATION.
Vasuiotox, May 1, 18JJ,
I haye had a laboiious tusk here,
but nullification is dead, and its actors and
courtiers will only bo reuiembeied by the peo
ple to bo execrated for tht ir wicked designs to
scvci nnd dustroy tho only good Government on
the globe, and that prospenty and happiuesswo
enjoy over uveiy other portion ol the world.
Unman s gallows ought to be the fate of all suck
ambitious nun, who would involve their coun
trj iu civil war, nud nil the evils in its truin,
that they might reign and ride, on its whirl
wit ds, and direct lho norm. Tho free people
of these United States have tpuLeu, and con
Bigncd tlii)-" wicked demagogues to their proper
doom. Tuke taio of join ntilliliers; vou huve
them nniongjou; let them meet wiiii the in
dignant lioiviis' of evciy man who lovis his
country, 'ihe tariff, it is now known, was a
ineio prctoxt. 'Iherefou-, lho tariff
was only thu pretext, uud disunion aud a South-
ern Confederacy tho real object The next
pretext will bo tho negro or slavery ques
tion. Axdrktt Jackson.
COLONEL BENTON1 ON THE SLAVERY
AGITATION.
From vol. If of "Thirty Years In the Senate."
"Tho regular innugurulljii of this slavery
agitation dates from the vear 18.15 ; but it had
commenced two ymrs before, nnd in this way i
nullification and disunion had commenced in
1830 upon complaint against protective tariff.
That, being put down in 18311 under President
JnckBou's proclniinlloii und energetic meas
ures, was immediately substituted by the slavery
agitation. Mr. Calhoun, when he went home
from Congress in tho spring.of that year, told
his friends ' that the South could never be uni
ted against the North on the tariff question
that the sugar iutet est of Louisiana would keep
her out aud thai the basis of Southern union
must be shifted to the slate question.' Then all
the piipm in his interest, and especially the
one nl Wnshiugton, published by Mr. Duff
Green, dropped tariff agitation, and commenced
upon shivery, nnd in two years had the rgi
talion ripe lor inauguration on the slavery ques
tion. And, iu tracing this ngitation lo its pres
ent stage, and to comprehend its rationale, it is
not to be lor.'olteu that it is n mere- continuation
of old tariff disunion, nnd preferred because
mora available."
NEWS ITEMS,
APiiEiiiCTiox Vruii-iEn. In 183C wo said
thetime woulj conic when uny man who should
oppoec Ihe leopening of (he African slavotrado
would be denounced as an abolitionist. Such
a timo crime a vcur ugo. In the lust Presiden
tial canvass we- euid tho liinu would soon come
when every man who opposed the dissolution
of the Union would bo denounced ns an aboli
tionist, Such a time has como now. Louis
title Join ttal.
Co i.leo k Rebellion-. Sixty students re
belled in the College of St. Charles. Parish St.
Landry, La., the oilier day. At a given signal,
immediately on the conclusion ol grace, they
arose, each one smashed I).s plate and glass,
and then they overthrew the table. They im
mediately left for their homes. Most of them
aro young men grown.
A Cure for Slhter 8idewalK8. The
Niagara Falls Gazelle tells a story of two young
ladies who were promenading along the street
recently, when one of them slipped and camo
down on the icy pavement "liken thousand of
bricks." Jumping quickly up, she exclaimed,
sotlo voce, " Before another winter, I'll hnvo a
man to hang to j see if I don't I "
Important to Orncs Seekers. An enter
prising individual in Troy, N. Y., advertises to
furnish aspirants for cfhtc with signatures to
petitious at tho rate of one dollar a hundred.
SixocLAit CoixcinEN-CE It is said that
Major Audcrson, holding Fort Sumter, Lieut.
Slemmcr, holding Fort Pickens, nnd Capes.
Hill and Riekctts, holding forts in Texas, all
belong to tho first regiment United States ar
tillery. Tho lights at Mobile Point and Sand Island
hnve been extinguished by order of the Com
mander of Fort Morgan.
Tho prevailing opinion among tho lcadiug
masters of the Royal Geographical Society is
favorable to the idea ot the North Atlantic
telegraph cable as proposed by Colonel
Schuflutr.
On Wednesday, ono of tho richest veins of
oil thnt has ut been discovered was struck in
Walnut Bend, Venango county, Pa. The well
is situated on tho north side of the Alleghany
river. When lho vein was struck, nothing un
usual occurred ; but ns soon as they commenced
pumping, ihe oil flowed spontaneously, uud
now contiuues flowing, jielding six barrels per
hour of pure oil. and could be made to yield
more if the proprietors had sufficient vat room.
This well is iwo hundred and sixty-five feet
deep.
A lady of Pittsfield, Mas., received a valen
tine, ut which sho was somewhat indignant,
and was about to tluow it in ihe stovo un
upencd, but was persuaded to opou il, when it
was found to contain $50 ftum an old friend
and employer.
A fumily named Pate, residing in Spoltsylva
nia county, Va., near the Orange County line,
has lost seven children by diphtheria within
tho last three weeks. The father nud mother
have thus been bereft of their entire offspring,
the youngest, an infant, dying Ia3t.
An improvement has beou made in sugar
rc'finiiijr in New York, bv which srrun null
from common muscovado molasses is pro
nounced by sugar refiners who havo tested it,
as being nearly, if not equal, to sugar-house
syrup vvhii h is sold foi family use. The pro
cess of refining involves an expense of about
one cent per gallon, and the value is increased
about seven cents per gallon. The process is
entirely mechanical, no ucid being used.
So far as heard from, the Republican major
ities ut the election in New Hampshire yester
day nre not materially different Irom those of
the Presidential election hiit year. All the
Republican candidates for Congress are elected,
and the Republicans have carried four of tho
five Councillors, eight or niuo of the twelve
Senators, and, so far ns heard from, 107 Rep
resentatives to 27 Democrats. ;V. Y. Trtlnns.
Tho tender of the Livci.,ool consulate to
Speaker Littlejohn is a well-merited nnd sub
stantial compliment to an cnrnoit, efficient, and
devoted Republican, and a capable and up
right man, who will discharge the duties of tho
office with an intelligence and fidelity credita
ble to himself and tho country. Albany JCvc.
Join tial.
Anothvb Mysterious Voyage. Tho Uni
ted States Bteamship Star of tho West sailed
yesterday afternoon, from Pier 29, foot of War
ren street, at about four o'clock. Her destina
tion was not mndo public, not even the hands
who shipped on board knowing whero they were
going. For this reason, much difficulty was
experienced in getting her full complement of
men. 'lho lading consisted of coal and pro
visions. Ar. V. Sun, 13A.
In lho Georgia Convention, n resolution has
been adop'cd, requesting tho Governor lo oiler
n reward of $500 each for tho following works,
to be written or compiled by citizens resident
in tho Confederate Stales of America, viz : A
Spelling Hook for the uso of Common Schools,
an Arithmetic, nn English Ginmniar, u Geog
ruphy, nnd two Rending Books, one for begin
ners nnd for moro advanced scholars; tho
prize to be awardid by a committee appointed
by the Governor, nud the books selected, to bo
published and printed vviihin the confederacy,
und the copyright to bo owned or disposed of
by lho uuthois or compilers of tho several
v, orks.
The Nashvillo llantter says that lho following
paragraph is a specimen ol the general charac
ter ol thu business letters received iu that city
Irom citizeus under Jeff. Duvis's Government i
"This infernal secession basinets, I nm
fenrlul, will mm the cuuntry. It was Certainly
conceived in 8 it and born in iniquity Us
father's eldest sou tho Devil; and 1 have no
doubt ull the little Devils, together with the
Enquire, are now having a good timo over it,"

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