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-V "prove all things; hold fast rnAT which is good." ' V V '- ' V:-A
t THE EXAMINER;
Waakljr. JWTcraM A., Best doer lt ow
" DhaaU w n?n. la r
t Pnsbytcrian. Church, f rank-
V ' r indelibly inscribed upon the
tary. Cexihage once disputec
' tae supren acy oi uie orw.
lend snow-clad Alps, not le
29y plains of Iutly, hu beei
aasic ground by die impetuou:
, persons. Neither the wise ant
' ireat of a Fabiua, nor the herou
let a Scipio could save the Romai
irom the I old a&saulu of Numkliai
LJsrthagenian valor. "Not Rome, bu
'-rte of Canhsge, has conquered Han
( ras the heroic exclamation of hin.
.Id planted his victorious standard a
ftte of the imperial city. In boldness
and intrepidity of character, in indoiniiabh
. ' I eouraje, in military genius and commercia
' j enterprise, Africa challenge a comparisoi.
M ' 't with the proudest nations of antiquity.
1 '-"i tnn w nriM rn ti( science.
( TLat now darkened and benighted land ha
i " 'Tea to the world the illustrious nanus o
f I -jtullian, a Cyprian, and un Augustine.
in coast of Africa are a proud vind.
of the claiiiis of licr cluldren to tht
of freemen. If prudence and dtscre
- n. a manly independence of character, f
St itgtud fjr the right of others an inti
:1c and thorough acquaintance with th
inciples of regulated liberty, are just am
' proper element of national character, th
people cf Liberia desen e the respect, tm
confidence and admiration of the civilized
It is evident, then fore, that the cause o'
the dfrrrtilauon to which the African is sub
j-cted in America, is the result of the neces
sary relations he sustains to government am'
to society. Government khelters him, it i
true ; but it affords no sustenance to hi.'
moral nature it does not, it cannot slie ltei
him from the blighung influence of publit
sentiment. His nature is dwarfed by the
impenetrable shade in which he lives. No
lite-giving influence penetrates the laeni
energies of his soul. No high born he pet
are awakened in his bosom, to prompt hiir
to dreds of noble darin. The faculties ol
his nature are never stirred within him by
r.ohle impulses which makes ambition vir
tue. H:s ear is never salutd with the
plaudits of a grateful people. The civit
wreath or the hero's chaplct is never per
mitted to grace his sable brow. He is the
victim of proscription. Even the reward?
of patient industry are embittered with a
curse. Wealth, while it entails upon hin:
the burdens of the Government, can no
Ievte him to the social rank, end true dig
nity of the citizen. Is this freedom ? Ar
these the blessings which it bestown ? Is
this the freedom which the Abolitionist would
extend to the objects of his solicitude, a
sufficient to satisfy the cravings of their im
tiiortal nature ?
The necessary and obvious effect of the
the causes to which I have referred is fully
developed in the character cf this people.
They are singularly deficient in enterprise,
'-industry, and foresight. Their improvi
dence and unthriftiness are proverbial.
Hence it is that we find them congregated
in villages and towns and cities, devoting
themselves to the most menial pursuits ol
life. As a natural consequence, they arc
prone to idleness, with all its attendant
evils. The free colored communities in
our land no where present the cheering
spectacle of a healthy, robust, and active
population. The moral causes which are
actively at woik produce their necessary
and natural results. Whilst all other com
munities, under the benificent influence of
our free institutions, are moving forward
with rap.d strides to the accomplishment of
their high destiny, this class constitutes a
melancholy exception. Whilst the op
pressed of other lands acquire new strength
and spring forward with elastic vigor as
soon as they touch our shores, we look in
vain for such indications of progress in the
liberated African. He is an exotic that
does not and cannot flourish in American
oil. There is that in the character of our
institutions and in the nature of man which
forbids it. The and destiny of this unhappy
race w presented to our daily observation in
colors which cannot be exaggerated. They
are surrounded by a growing population,
instinct with life, and multiplying with a
rapidity unequalled in the history of modern
tunes, whilst they are crowded, into dense
settlements and subjected to the fatal opera
tion of causes which surely mark them as
victims of ruin and decay.
Thus exposed to the combined operation
tf moral and physical causes, which are
constantly at work to sap the energies of
their nature, they necessarily sink in the
scale of being. This fatal tendency con
tinue and acquires additional force as time
rolls on. The outward pressure and over
shadowing influence of the millions around
them i increasing npere, whilst their recu
perative power is diminishing with each
succeeding generation. It docs not require
the gift of prophecy to foretell their melao-
This aspect of the subject presents a dia
aial picture to the mind of the philanthro
pe and the christian. A race of fellow
p'tigs pining and wasting away under the
tnflaence of causes as certain in their oper
ation m the laws of nature herself! Every
practical observer has witnessed the de
velopment of this truth. It is so well un
derstood and appreciated, that the public
Ph7 of most of the States has demanded,
l just prerequisite to emancipation, that
'ndand security shall be given, that the
the ; Commonwealth. Go to those commu
jutiet where this class of population is col
lected in die larrest numbers, and vou can-
IH foil to detect upon the aggregate masses
certain traces of social decay. The
!nul symptoms of disease in the man who
" J?" th consumption, are not more
Unlaas they are rescoad by actual benev
VW Irani th rl F-m aT i)xw mm.
n taapla&ted to a region whan the
shackles of the soul will be remove.!, their
Joom is inevitable. This thoutf it, startling
as it may seem to the unreflecting and
j-"--, wuiiiuj iu inp nuna ol the chrts.
uan philanthropist the desi.gns of a w ise and
beneficent Providence. It vindicates die
ways of God to man. Even the dark and
.n-entful past, burdened with the sighs and
-. i iimuuiu, is noi WltnOtlt ItS
neaning, Iraught wuh conization and with
lope. W see the hand of a merciful God
inducting the children of men through
lirv trial .1 t
-w7 uiiiu, uia. iin-y may at last return
aaen wIUi me bleshings of civil and reli
j.ous liberty. Behind the daik cloud,
hich looks to be charged with the wrath
uid fiery indignation of an offended God,
he eye of faith catches die smile of mercy
tnd of love. Oh! thai men would but
ollow the indications of die Divine will,
ind submit to the teachings of an overli
ng Providence ! Then the path of duty
vould be made plain before us. Then the
acts to which 1 have alluded would rise up
lefore us in all the majesty of truth, and
nunan reason, instead of attempting to force
De laws of nature, would direct its efforts
o accordance with the purposes, and in
luiijble dependence upon the will of thai
atrciful Being who controls the destinies of
It cannot be thai no good is to be evolved
rom the dealings of God with his people.
Vc have die blessed assurance, that He
loth not willingly afllct die children of
iien. His law are eternal. He has no
damped upon the African a distinctive
olor, and marked him with peculiar char
Kteristics without a purpose. He haa not
w ritten with his own finger upen the human
jean, that law which forbids the anaalga
nation of the races, without intending Uiat
t should bo obeytd. He has g'aciously
.wrtnitted the incalculable evils which re
ailt from die existence of this peculiar and
lisunctivs class. He does not speak to us.
-idier by sign or wonder, or "in die still
imall voice," without intending to remind
xs of our duty. These are the lights which
should guide our feet they are the indica
Jons of unerring wisdom, ami proclaim in
language not to be misunderstood, that the
hildren of Africa mu be restored to their
But we are not It ft alone to the indue
lions of our own f.xble reason. The light
jf revelation dawns upon us. " Eihiopia
shall stretch forth her hands unto God."
Africa shall be redeemed. The darkness
which has enveloped her for ages shall be
dispelled by the glorious light of the gospel.
The return of hrr own children is the ap
pointed mens for scattering the blessings of
civilization and die truth of relisrion over
that dark and benidited Und. If we mav
judge of the future by die past, this is the
only effectual means for attaining thi? glori
ous end. bust die efforts at colonization
by the white on the African coast have
been rendered almost abortive bv the fatal
effects of the climate, thev have had little or
no effect in civilizing the natives of that
All the etWt of the civilized world have
ben unavailing to suppress the accursed
slave trade. Neither that noble act of our
own Government, in which the has been
followed by most of the nations of Chri?
terniom, declaring the mercilets traffic to be
piracy, nor the -equally enlightened and hu
oujie policy of the British Government.
eivorccd by the power of her navy, and
Utistraied by the genius and the virtues of
a Wilber force and a Clarkaon, could effect
thif object. " It appears," in the languagr
of an eminent writer, " that notwithstaiMliu
these benevolent and persevering efforts, thu
homd traffic in human flesh U nearly as ex
tensively carried on as ever, and under cir
cumstances perhaps of a more revoking
character. During the period from 15 If
to July b2&, it is supposed that nearly
100,000 human beings were annually trans
ported as slaves from different parts of the
cow, of whom more than 43.0JO were le
gaily imported into one city.
I he only effectual remedy lor txs evil l
to dispel the thick darkness which has foi
ages bioxled over the intellect of Africa
it is to arouse her sons to a consciousness
that they are men, and to let in the light ol
divine truth upon the darkened intellect of
the nation. This cannot be accomplished
except by the colonization within her own
borders ol the natives of the land.
All history and experience prove that the
climate is fatal to the white man ; whilst
they furnish the highest evidence that it is
not only congenial to the physical, but that
it exerts a powerful and salutary influence
upon the moral and intellectual nature, oi
the liberabd African. He lives and fiour :
ishes where die white man decays and dies.
Th only sensible impressions which have
been made on the barbarous ami savjge
tribes have been mainly through his instru
mentality. These truths are most clearly
llusuated by a reference to the history oi
Towards the close of the eighteenth cen
tury, the idea of colonizing the free blacks
or le-captured slaves on the Western eoas'
r . ,. . ti-
of Africa was first presented to uie puDiu
mird. Lord Mansfleld had decided, in
1772, that the slave who touched the soil
of Britain was diercfore free. In conse
quence of this decision, a numt'er of blacks
in England left dieir masters and were
wanderers upon the face of the earth.
That distinguished men who had rendered
himself so illustrious by the defence of
Somerset, Granville Sharp, formed die be-
nevolent design of transporting tnem to
Africa. A colonr. principally consisting of
the idle, the ignorant and the dissolute, was
thus planted at Sierra Leone in 1787. Af
terwards, in 1792, about 1,200 negroes, who
had been seduced from their masters aunng
the RevoluUonary war, were landed at the
umA nlaee. tfo to the period of 1307,
this colony was wholly dependent upon
private and individual enterprise, omw;
that time it has been under the patronage
and protection of the British Government.
And notwithsunding the serious difficulty
rcsuldng fiom the peculiar character or die
colcttists, they now give the most decided
and cheering evidences oi morai ana p:iy
cal improverannt. Villages and towns
and settlements have risen up, and are
rapidly extending the circle of their influ-
SrUiration has thus obtained a fbothoU,
and as her wsxwces are moltipUed by the
growth of population and of wealth, bar
r.u: i Ivuorne mora rlonous and
enduriixx.- Tba ailtot jret cerum eCecta of
civilization thus introduced and thus extend
ed, will do more in all time to come to pro
led the defenceless tribes of Africa than th
combined power of the British navy.
The idea of colonization, as a practicabli
means of relieving the country or this evil,
was also conceived at a very early periot
in jhe history of our Government. li
1777, Mr. Jefferson, under a deep convic
t o i of die enormity of the evil, recommend
ed that some provision should be made fo
this object. He seems at first to have con
templated an appropriation of a portion o
the public domain; but no practicable o
el&cient scheme was developed. Tin
Legislature of Virginia, in 1834, in secre
ei.on, instructed Mr. Monroe, then Gov
crnor of the State, to open negotiation
wkh the Pres'dent, to see what could b.
done. Again, in 1816, the Legislature o
the same State passed a series of resolution!"
recognizing fully die purposes and object.
of the American Colonization Society. Ii
the same year this Society was organized
composed of men of die most distinguish
talents and enlightened public spirit. Th
work is now begun in the midst of opposi
lion from the North and fiom the South
In 1S19, the fifit agent of the Society wen
sent out to examine the western coast o
Africa, and to report. Encouraeed by th
representations then made, in"l82o", th.
Hut emigration from this country to Africi
was undei taken. In the year following
he hardy and adventurous colonists, afte
triumphantly encountering the most violen
opposition from the natives, succeeded ii
making a lodgment ujHin the coast. I
may be truly "said, however, that the firs
permanent settlement was not made unti
the year lb'2l. From that period down ti
1 S3 i, the Society continued to ga:n upo'
public confidence. Its high claims to pub
lie patronage had been distinctly recognize
by the Leg;s!ative authorities of fourteei
Staea. Em'grants applied as fat or faste
than they could be sent out.
At this time the AbolitionufU were arou.
cd to a violent opposition to the scheme o
colonization, i ney seemed to oe alarmei
by the success which had attended its efforts.
laealrr lata lar Camae which have lUtar
tarr4 th Accaaaalatiaa mf Wealth aa
lacrraar af Paaalaiiaa la th Baaiarra
Maira. Br a i'arallalaa.
I have bail the foregoing reasoning up"r
farts and 3tipr0tions which all must admi
to bccorrect and legitimate; but, to giv
the subject a more practical beaiin?. I wn
call to mv aid the voluminous statistical re
port of the Secretary of the Tieasury, re
Ct ntly published by order of Congress. I
is known to the reading public that Mr
Walker, during die past year, addressed cir
culars to all the principal Agricultural
Commercial, and Manufacturing men of thi
country, in which he piopouiuls to them nu
aieroiM questions connected with their Sev
ern ojcunat o:is. li s o!iect was to ohtau
Ironi them i.uch information in relation tc
die profli.i of cup! ml in iheHitnrent branl
es oi indus'jy, as would enable Congress to
apportion tlic tariff laws with an enlighten
cd regard to the interests of all.. U is no
par; of my purpose at present to express
any opinion upon die merits of the design
or the execution of die work; or to diaw
anv inference from it in reference to thf
Tariff Policy. I mav, however, make uv
of fai-ts in illustration of my subject, which
were collected far a totally difiVrcnt end.
Mr. Walker issued two series of questions,
marked Nos. 1 and 2.) e.ich scries cmbrac
n quite a number of inquiries with which
I have nothing to do at prcjcnt. The fourth,
n the first circular, inquires of the manufac
turer, what is die amount of his capital in
vested in grounds and buildings, water-powei
and machinery. The fifth inquires the aver
age amount of materials, and cash for the
purchase of materials and pavment of wn.
zt-s, nccessnry to be kept conitantly on hand,
riie twelfth inquiies the number of men,
women, and children employed, and the
average wajes of each class.
To these questions, Mr. Samuel Bacheloi
(I presume a director or agent) replies, thai
the York Cotton Manufacturing Company,
at Saco, iu Maine, has a capital, in grounds,
ouudings, and machinery, amounting to hve
aundred and fifty thousand dollars, ($550,
J0J.) Their business capital, invested in
materials and the payment of wasw, is four
hundieJ and fifty thousand dollars, (3450,-
J00) the whole is therefore one million ol
dollars, (81 ,0(30,000.) But I have reason
to think this sum is overstated, in this way:
The amount set down as the business capi
tal probably embraces the whole sum em
ployed in that way during a year But it is
not necessary to hava on hand the cash to
purchase materials and pay wages for the
.nirrent year in advance, since these changes
can be met. by the income of tho establish
nent, which I presume comes in almost dai
ly, or at short intervals. The only amount
of business capital necessary would be tha;
sum wliich would keep the machinery in
notion until die completion of a fabric and
its sale. I see confirmation of this view of
the matter in a cw which I will introduce
presently. However, in this case, let the
capital, fixed and floating, bo set down as
above, at a million. The number of men
employed is 2JJ -the number of women
from y)J to l.ticiU: let us put, oown tue
number of women nt the low average of 1
0J0. The whole number employed will be
twelvo hundred men and women. Here,
then, in a free Stateone million of dollars
invested in the manufacture of cotton, e n
ploys twelve hundred adult persons. In a
slave Sate, if slave labor be used, the cap
ital of a company doing equal business, and
employing an equal amount of labor with
that at &aco, must exceed it oy ine wnoie
value of twelve hundred slaves. That num
ber of slaves, at present prices, would be
worth little short of a million. They would
at any rate command $700 each, or 8S43,
)03 for the whole. This sum, added to the
other necessary capital, would make the in
vestment in an establishment like that at
Saco, but employing slave labor, one mil
lion eight hundred and forty diousand dol
lars, (l,84rJ,000.) It is true that the era
ploycr of slave labor would be exempt from
the payment of wages, diough not from the
charge of maintaining his slaves; andrf in
view of the cons'deration above adverted to,
that there could exist no necesstiy for keep
ingin hand the whole business capital span
in a year, I think little abatcmsnt nead be
nada on that s 30 re at any rate not mart
than forty thousand dollars, which would
leave the slaveholder's capital C-ht hundred
housand dollars (9800,000) greater ihan
.hat of the Saco company. ' i - -I
have here supposed that a slave will do
in equal amount of labor wrta'a freeman,
.vhile die experience of men in every de
triment of industry proves t contrary.
It has grown into a proverb in Ce'Southem
Mates, that the labor of a witte man it
vorth that of two slaves. Af $hat rate, it
vould require a large adcmion .tube nbovi
stimate of the capital necessar to carry on
nanufacturing with slave labor! If ia the
limnlesit agricultural operation there evstt
uch a disparity In the efficiencYof free am1
lave labor, it must, in the natup.of things.
K5 still greater where skill and fiAtelligen.
ire requisite, as is ino case in
uppo&;ng it pracucaDle to e:
xtensively in manufacturing, it will hence
K3 necessary to procure the most intelligent
md faithful, ana consequently such a com
uand the highest prices. But Mtwiths and.
ng that so large a cap'teHs, Taryjlc
ujploy slavesin nianufacturt-tTuihvesT-lcut
of that kind may yet be profi able
Che eiaress of capital, w hich consists in the
alue of the slaves, though h ptoduces i.o li
ng saves the payment of wages. It may:
n diat way, yield as large a dividend to th
wner as his other investment. 1 1 owever,
ind, bv Mr. Walker's report, that Sjutherr
uanufuc'urers almost invariably use hirec
abor fu generally, no doubt.
It is not my purpose to ahow that uinnu
'acturing at the South is imp a:ticah'e: oi
he contrary, I incline to believe that th
oarser fabric s may le made dicre with muel
id vantage to the capitalists and to the com
nunity. But die fact that slavery absorb:
he great bulk of Southern capital must al
vays present an obstacle to extensive opera
ions. So it is with commerce and all the
ther interests. They always exhibit r
Iwarfed or deformed appearance in" compar
on with occupations in free countries
ven agricultu.e, which is more profi.abh
n the South than almou anywhere in the
vorld, is conuuetod in the wciat way im
gineable. Slavery sits like the Old Mai:
f the Sea upon the necks of the pcojile,
laralyzing every effort at improvement. Thi--I
shall show, in another place, is not, as L
onunonly supposed, attributable to inert
less or indolence, but to slavery, as an un
Nmductive abio bent of capital.
Mr. Enoch Hews is a tibacco, snuff, aix'
itjar manufacturer. In reply to question
bur and five, he states his capital at thirty
housand dollars, ( 83.),0(H), ) of which twer
y thous.md is permanent, and ten thousam
lsed in the purchase of materials and tli
payment of wags. He employs one hur
ired person, mostly females. One htm
lied slat es of similar age, would be of tin
ivtrage value of 8GX each, or sixty thou
and in the aggregate. Add to it the capita'
n vested by Mr. Hews, and ninety thousim'
lollars w ill lie the sum neceasir) to conduc
i similar establibluncnt with slave lab-jr
The sum is however subject to some abate
nent, for me reason stated in the preceding
-ase. vii that die employer of slave laboi
s exempt from the charge of wages. Tim
tern, however, would not exceed two oi
t nee thousand dollars.
Mr. Calvin J. Mills states, in answer tc
ptcstion fourth, that the capital at the Eagl
'urnace, at Buffalo, New York, inves'ed ir
Muildings and machinery, is thirty-five thou
sand dollars, ( ?35,00'J) that expended ii
wages fifteen thousand dollars, (815,0'K).?
The fixec; capital, together with the busines
"npital absorbed in a year, is eightv thou
nd dollars, ( 883,000. ) But irTsn'swer t.
.he thirty third question, Mr. Mills states
that the capital of the companv Is fiftv tho i
sand dollars, ( 30,000.) He evident!'
discriminates between the whole busino
apital absorbed in a year, and that portioi
of it which is necessary to keep on hand a
any one time. This is the caje to which 1
referred in speaking of the Saco company
I have litilo doubt dial the sum set dowr
there as the business capital, embraces the
whole amount expended in a year. Ac
cording to the statement of Mr. Mills, th
current outlay in materials and wages i?
three times greater than the amount of cas!
necessary at one ume. If a similar abate
nent is to be mado in the other rases, it r
evident that I have not presented the ques
tion in its strongest light.
Mr. Mills states that the Eagle Furnacr
employs eightv men, at 81 ftO per dav.
Slaves, possessing equal skill, would not be
worth less than f UOO each, at present prices.
and aggregately, seventy-two thousand dot
lare, r8 2,000.) Hence, if we allow dia
the employer of free labor need 37,000 in
ready cash, to pay wages, an establishmen
of equal extent, cuing slave labor, will re
quire a capital of one hundred and fifteen
thousand dol lars, ( 8 1 1 5,000. )
But I deem it useless to multiply iiutan
ces, as any one who wishes to examine the
subject further may do so by referring to
the Secretary s report. 1 have searched in
vain for a case where slaves were exclusive
ly employed in a manufacturing establish
ment in the Southern States, in order that I
might present the subject under another as
pct. It is mentioned that a factory in Al
abama employs thirty laborers, fifteen o'
whom are slaves belonging to the propric
tors. The capital is thirty thousand dol
lars, (830,000.) If the fifteen slaves are
of the average value of $600 each, they
are sggregatcly worth 99,000, which, deduc
ted from the whole investment, leaves twen
ty-onc thousand dollars, (921,003) for the
productive capital employed. If none br
slaves were employed, their value would"
be eighteen thousand dollars, (918,01(0,)
which is more than half the capital stack.
I have not been able to find a distinction
drawn in the accounts of the production of
sugar, between the value of slaves and of
real and other capitals invcstel. But it is
stated that the whole capital engaged in th
production of sugar, in 1843, was fifty mil-
boas of dollars, (53 J,oou,uu and thai
fifty thousand slaves of all ages are employ.
ed on the estates. Suppose the slaves to be
worth 8400 each, their aggregate value will
be twenty millions, (f 23,000,003,) which
is an unproductive capital. ' But in the su
car growing business, a great number of
tree laborers are employed, directly or indi
rectly.' If all such persons were slaves, the
capital nnproducuvelf employed in that
branch of industry would bear a much lar
cer Dronoruon to the whole.
I hava used tha phxaia nnjppwJucdfeIy
amploed' for. convenience, bat wuiout a
proper regard to. accuracy. Capital iovst
tad ia abmi cannot b satd to U arrjbyad-
JUNE 2 6, 184 7.
The food and c!o thing of a slave is a pro.
uucuve investment, Decause it is an essen
tial outlay; but his value as property cannot
contribute any thing to production, for the
reason that the destruction of the property
by the liberation of the slave would in no
degree destroy the efficiency of his labor.
It follows from the foregoing reasoning,
which I humbly think incontrovertible, thai
pioperty in slaves has nothing to do wit!
pic-duction; for in every instance of the
employment of slave labor, the capital inu
'xceed the amount necessary where free
abor is employed, by the value of the
ilavea. And hence all the wealth of iudi
iduals which has assumed that shape has
idded nothing to the resources of die
Siate or Nation. It adds nothing to the
axable value or productive energies of the
tountry : and yet has not been accumula
ed without die same expense of capital and
ndustry which are necessanr in producing
I fiber spades of. wealth. The abohdon o!
lavery, mere lore, while it would be atte ri
led with much individual loss, if effect
vithout compensation to the owner, would
lestroy none of the resources of the country.
It would possess the same labor, and the
ame land and other materials to employ it
the same means and stronger motives
he hope of gain in a greater number. The
ax which the slave bears as property, hr
vould be equally able to pay in the har
icter of a free citizen. The military
strength of the country would be augment
d, not simply by the number of slaves
nanumitted, but by that number tngethe
vid the number of freemen wliich would
low be necessary to hold the slaves in sub
ection. Slavery merely serves to appro -riate
the wages of lalior it distribute
vealth, but cannot create it. This will bt
egarded a a strange peculiarity of slave
ropcrty : that is actively employed in pro
luctive pursuits, and yet yields nothing.
The reason is this: It is the necessit)
vhich exis's of appropriating the brute cre
it'o.i, and all inanimate substances, in or
ler to render them productive, and the ab
nce of that necessity with reference to hu
nan beings. The ox nev,?r voluntarilv as
i lines the joke, nor the hon the Kiddle
both req'iire a mister to give them anv
igency in the production of wealth and
he same is true of all inanimate Mihotan
:es. But man, a all experience proves,
vill labor more assiduously in the a-cumu
iation of wealth, under the incentive of in
.rrest, than at the bidding of a master the
tope of gain having a more salutary effect
jpon him, than the tear of punishment.
Since property invested in slaves is un
rodu -tive tad useless, as is apparent fpjm
he above riasjning, the direct effect of its
ulm'ssion into any State, is, consequently,
o divert the energies of the people Irom it?
mprovemer.t. But slavery is not simply
m productive : it has a peculiarity whirl.
belongs to ro other species of unpro luctive
apital. It substitutes the place of tree cit
Zen, by cusplyl4 all tku drmaiwLt lUi la
xr; and yet the substitute, ns I have fie
nonstrated, requires several times more
capital to furniali it dian is nrce.ssary to ob
:ain a supply of free labor. Thus, if the
:otton planter of Alatiama desires toe xteni
i s operations by the cultivation of an ac'
litional hundred acres, with ten additional
laborers, (the same suppositions remaining,)
ie must nrst accumulate nine thousand del-
But if the farmer in Ohio of equal nuaa
should desire to extend bis operations ii
qual degree, it would be necessary fo
iim to accumulate only two tho isand dol
ars for that end. Or if a citizen of New
V ork should emigrate to Ohio with two
housand dollars, a number of laborer
vould thereby be induced to follow him.
it he would ackl as much to the populatior.
ind resources of the State as would be add
d to those of Alabama by an em:gran
rom Virginia with a capital of nine thous
ind dollars. This, of course, supposes
is beftfre remarked, tha: slave labor h
ixclusively employed in Alabama, and
that the price of land is the same, ten dol
lars per acre, in the two States.
Tnc slave population of Virginia, in
1843, amounted to within a fraction of fom
hundred and fify thousand, (150,003).
rhey have been acquired, like other spe
.ics of property, by the joint operation o'
ndustry and capital : and if the average
value of the slaves be three hundred dollars
ach, the sum of their value will be one
.lundred and thirty-five million of dollars.
(133,000,000). Had slavery never been
idinitted into Virrinia. the wealth which a
present exists in that shape would of course
.lave assumed some other ul would now
ippear in the form of improved lands, bet
.cr and more numerous houses, towns,
2iues;raore commerce and manufacture;;
ind the place of the four hundred and fiftv
.housand! s!aveswouId have been supplied
by nearly five times the number of free cit
zens, as I have demonstrated above. Su:h
in addition to the present free population o
Virginia would place her, in point of num
ben?, before any State ia the Union. Bu
f the immense amount of wealth in slave
property which has been taken to the South
west would bo brought into the computa
tion, the population of Virginia would a
this lime have exceeded that of her sistei
States in a degree proportionate to her su
periority of numbers fifty years zo.
The monopoly which the Southern State?
have enjoyed, of supplying the market o
the world with the important articles cot
ton and tobacco, has had great effect in pal.
liating the evils of slavery ; or rather, it has
introduced, sustained and extended the sys
tem much further than could be done under
other circumstances. This end baa been
seconded, likewise, by the vast extent of ter
ritory over which the institution has been
extended. This circumstance has admitted
of the abandonment of exhausted lands,
which I will presently show it is impossi
ble to improve to any extent in aslaveholding
country, 1 be Southwestern ataiea, in con
sequence of these favorable circumraaces,
hava increased rapidly in population; but
there is every jpasMi to think that the pros
perity of these States ia doomed to be as
shorUiTed as it has been rapid. There is
no airoabIe causeway it should go be
yond the point at .which that of the older
Southern Suites ceased, viz: ine occupation
of all tha good lands. Th census tables
show that Virginia and th CaroCnaa in
creased mtflr fn powifcfioa ea to tho p
riod of im a'nc vfclc tlnM there etac
in the eastern part of thoee States, to whicl
slavery is "almost exclusively confined.-.
Those who have the curiosity to examini
the census tables minutely, will fiod tha
the slight increase in the population of Vir
ginia, from lt30 to 1840, has been confine'
to the western part of the State, while then
has been an actual diminution east of th
nountains, and this in spite of the fact tha
he tobacco regions is chiefly confined
the east. Tho same small tendency to in
crease in the wes'ern couniiea of North Cai
jL'na is observalde, with a correspond
stagnation in the east. The number o
xhite inhabitants of South Carolina exhib
ta no increase from 1830 to 1810 thi
blacks increased slightly. The result, con.
uon to the three S-atts, is clearly trace
ble to the same origin, the occupation of al
he lands in them adaryed to the growth o
obacco, cotton, and nee.
The surplus labor arising from the nature'
.ncrease above what ia necctsary for tin
.'ultivation of those lids, is taken to
.S- ."I!" "a
ooutnwest, wtucti accounu lor the rap t
ucrease of the new States. But the sanx
-irctuns'nces will necessarily brine abou
-he same redundancy in the supply of labo
.here, so soon as the lands adapted to cot
t)n and sugar are occupied ; and the sarin
.endency to the deportation of the slave
will exist, io long as there are other new
lands further West to place them on.
It might be supposed that the adaptauoi
to die production of articles of prime mar
Xetable value, as tobacco, cotton, rice, &c,
Aould hold 'out uie greatest encouragemen
o the tmproveiiient of the soil; and a State
Virginia, (z instance, wliich had been ea
raged in the profitable cultivation of on
of those articles for more than two ceo-
uries, would be in the highest conditioc
if iinprovemenL The case, however, i?
luite the contrary ; most of the good land?
n the eastern part of the State having beer
leared and worn out, a large part of then
laving undergone that process two or thre
jines. 1 ei hans the river oottoins mav
brui an exception to this rule, as thev
ire nourished by occas'onal inundations.
that the lands are suffered to wear out if
.ioi attributable to die idolence and ba'
lusbandrv of the people, as some imagine.
but to die expens veness of the process,
Jie inadequacy cf the means. Nearly all
he p.'Ople of eastern irginia are engage
n ariculrurc. Ihere being scarcelv a re
pcct&blc town or village in thai section o'
.he State, excepting Kichuiond, Norfolk.
uid Petersburg: w hich places would hard
Iv afford a market for the
boef and buttei
The scarcity o!
f a dx:cn siuare mi !-.
population, 1 have shown above, has re-
siifted from the system of lavery, which
absoifw die chief part of the accumulated
wealth of the people, leav.ng bm little P.n
investment in the manufacturing .arUj, com
nerce, &c. Its effect is to dispense wfth
he necessity of breeding beef cattle, there
being no market to justify it. and conse
quently to cut off the principal source froitH
wlr.cti niannre ts ODtatned. otrw touUI
afford to breed tattle uicrtly for the sak
of the manure; and experience, as well a
;he cuo.n of the country, shows that beef
will not be sjb.tiratel for boron in sulsiT
ing the slaves.
So trifling is th market for products of
this kind that they are almo-4 wltollv neglect,
od w hertver slavery abouncb t a considera
ble exte nt; and even such markets as ex
ist arc tadly supplied, at a high price.
The consequence Ls that the living., in
tho towns of tho Southern States, is great
ly more expensive than i the case ia the
Xjrih, which arcounu for die fart that the
.ncchanic arts are found to languish in the
slaveholcing States. The mechanic is co n
pelled to advance the price of manufactures
n proportion to his expensive living, which
brings him in competition with the similar
article admitted free of duty from th Nor
.hern States. It U dius that slavery at fLs
oflposes the introduction of the manufactur
ing arts, by turning the chief part of the
wrnldi of the South into a different and
unp.oductivc char, net, and then dtscoura
;es their prosecution by the extra expense
which attends the n. Such of the mechan
ic arts as can only be exercised at the spot,
o. near where the manufacture is to be con
jumed, being exempt h o n Northern com
petition, are found in the h'ghest decree
profitable, whenever a demand exists. Tliis
s true cf house-building, some kinds ol
smith's work, &c.
The census table shows thai slavery ex
ists to a very limit! extent in the moun
tain regions of the So ithern States, which
are unsuited to tobacco and cotton; and the
number of Slaves in Kentucky and Tenn
e&aee is also disproportionately small, com
pared with the more Southern 1 and 'A'lan
tic States. These States and parts of S-ates
contwn the bulk of the white population of
the South, and exhibit a slow, steady
growth. Tha towns and villages in this
region, though smaller and less prosperous
than thoss of the free States, present an
agreeable contrart to the squalid dilapidation
which is everywhere visible upon the bor
dcrs of the Atlantic. There is scarcely a
respectable town in any part of the South
ern State where slavery has loog been the
chief interest, excepting those engaged in
the external trade, and these are retrogra
Jin in population, or making no advance
deserving of mention; such is the. case
with Norfolk, Richmond, and Petersburg!),
Charleston, Williaanton, North Carolina,
and Savannah. The counties irt the inte
rior, wherever slavery exists to a cons'der
able extent, are almost destitute of these
evidences of civilizauon. But . in those
counties further back, where there are but
lew slaves, ths vi J leges are numerous, and
firesent a lively appearance; and the manu
acturing arts ana agriculture are (bund to
flourish in a ratio inversely to the amount
of the slave property. Here but a small
portion of the accumulated vealth of the
people assumes the shape of slavery, and
the consequence ia that the general fa of
the country presents ao.na sgns o. im
provement. But it is quite apparent that
slavery, though exisung but pirtrally in this
pout of the country, has had great . effect
in retarding its improvement and popula
tion. This is manifest, by comparing it
with the contiguous parts of the free States.
""cias essftVa Wealth af Kallonsw Vat 1, fg
Cms tnts is
IucBTi A lltua tni oaaa ia aaataar, la
i reat wroaf don to Mrae'vca, Ta Styiiast
aatohment of aa lajary. k th caaflclaajaaaa
f havtaf don it; and as saaa aafirs ssara
aaa ka waa U taraaif rrar ta tha faia af ia
rrrr 9cokH that hath pity aaauV
r iui'i aorraw, ahail ba free iraa It ktaaw t i
-ad ha that deiigktath ia a ad aearaaih tha
ry cf another, shall a time ar athar LU lata
t hunanlf. Sir W. Raleigh.
A Corom Mia. A maa that to aoa
eoteJ with a little, ha taangb; he thai csss
Miia, haa taa much. A alct a ad eaatamftad
oladlitheaunaat fjiieUy maa b caaahlaaf
a thia world U U tha nr crawa f vtarr
Bkactt Rcfnamber, that If thaa
ar beauty, thaa lladeat thyaelf all thy Ufa
bat which. pTch ., will srtther bat aar
leaas thee aaa yar i tad whaa thaa haat,lt vU
a ta thaa af aa aitce at all ; for tha aaaUa
th whea It H attaia aad tha adaetloa aar
heth whaa tt b amtu&ed Sir IT. KmUtgh.
Rxjm.xc It li maalfjat that all i
faction b to ba got by kaswladgs;
uch b NaUnf SPdm
A atom following atom, aad war nexai
ng wave, glvs rt liloa! har fata to th ahell
hat aoctoaro tha paari, aa b th atanM aad
tave cf llfi add fjreo ta tha charactw of ssaa.
How aolike b tha ChrbUaa worti to th
hriatjo octrtne ! -4"ha aaal b f ir aad oa
-Heat, bat tha uopressloa b UagnLJor sot vk-
Avrraecso Ttwrtavict. A Uackaslth
aca coaiplaiacJ ta hi Iran Michaat, that n
ro the KarcitT cf caooey. fc ttuld not av Lis
eat. The Bierchaat asked how atach raai h
ied ia hi fur.lly la the eaein t f th day. l'r
calca.alloa, aJ hoep tkatht
'.manteJto more in a w' ,Mh
eat Th eaWaiioa. aitoaiehad th ss
haaie, eaat h atfraai tha plodf d artara: to
J to bay a4 driuk a bmts sf bits ef aay ilad.
h aeat year ha aali hi rout aad baafht a aall
f clothe, sat of tho tavlug of hb toapataae.
ioper.UteJ 1 It throagh 11 fa, aai tha roaae
lueac in, eomptmc aad rsetaLUry.
WaM. 01 tms ruii.-Mu roMra
teinber that bat March th Sioux la!
iileJ a rartv of AO Nemaha. Mr. Khara.
rrlved f-om Fort Laraiaie, repartf that TOO
oJgoof UtaSloam were, whea ha left, aa their
ray aonth to fight the Pawaee. Th DaU
(area, Shawaeea. aaj Cawa. were aba aa their
rT ljplnM the Pware. Th chaae b ttat
here wi.1 be hloaJy work aa tha abiaa,!
ar Goveruaieut ahoalj hers a atroag'- Iwaa
ODfttantly aa tho alert fr tho pratectloaof ear
rdiasaniemlgraota. JSr. Ltuia RntUU.
AssiDrrrt aiDPtMivcaxrx. The moat aaa
I way amoog jroang mea who bar a roaalw
toa ef their owa, K firat toaak oae f toad' ad
ice, aad fallow it fr aeaaeiiae; the t oak
xiviceeX anothrr.anJ turn to that; a of a third;
till Muatetdr, aJwa) chanjinir. However, ha
aaarej that even change of thb aatar b fjr
'he wora?. Propie mar tell jre of year beiag
mat far mme peculiar occupation la life; bat
teed then aot; what;er emploTiaeat yaa f al
ow with peraereranre audaasliuity tU bo faao!
'it fjr roa: it will be your eanpart ia vaathaad
y ur comfort in old age.
Ctimv. Ce-aiT. The Gardaer'a Chraa-
cl rrcrommemta, fsrthe pretty appearaaco pro-
eaiea. aa wchi ae roe ino improvad flavar, ta
rraft currant of different colors aa tha nri,
lark, mni white varionsly iateraiuied, oa atock
'rimne.1 op, the iocle trn thre or four fiat
tilk. The top n b teaaed dewa to a deaea
"owpart head, or tnine I aa eeaaliaro ia the hor
izon! d or fia method, tho taa latter moJe of
Imiuinj, by th f ee exposure ta ana aad air.
aach impreviac tha qoalily of th fruit. Th
importaDce of trlrnittia' the bash aa to ala
;le ata ta l.nprore the fralt aad f cl itat clean
ulture, iaatevi of suffering tw baadrei aaj
Cly suckers ta shoot ap all around lata a deasa
Srash h"ip, b very obvloaj to thoe who bar
trie J both.
Rich Nrwsirarca. I Pi-kln, a newpaper of
atrjorjinary size, b ph'khe4 weekly on silk.
It Lt claim J to have been la xienc mora than
yeira. IT b thit la l-iC, a public
itBcer eaaarl ome filw latINenca to ba pub
i'heiio this paper, for whirS hois aatt
lejtlu Several anmbcrs of thb stper or pra
rnreJ ia t to rovl libnrv of Parts whi:h ar
l 1-4 yard lonr- "
Vct!!cTToi or lTiixsnia Dicov
rT. Dr. Q te-nwitte. the eJltor of tho ft
Votf e, of Paris, in a hi aambar of tht
eurnal.gWea aa aceouat of aotn expert waat.
t which he wn preraf, to teat tha merits af
itw dicvery ia the art ef embalmiar;.
-AgTeenhly la the iDTit.iltoa." ho ivs 'which
wasaddrewal ta as la ( with n brga
lumber of physicitna aaj journal! its, wo wera
treaent at tho eia-nallon of a holy that had
Seen nbitmej after tho methoi of GiikI
Tbii Uok place In the eemHry of Per La
Chain, and wo wera attr jcuJ by no oruiairy
fueling of men cqrl3itT. A recent ropart to
ti Academy of Me :kln bad c died In aa vnjoa
tho reality af thb d1every, Mnpoaed Inclsa
I tby tah:ihi. A public dofinae had been
thus given to thit celebrated embalms, wh
wis aot slow in taking up the glove thus thrown
a hln. We found on the. spot a largo con
sents of curioa spectators; bat th f Mr.lt y
would not content ta admit mar than al ahy
id taa out of mora thaa a hundred and fifty
wh cam to aarwrtala the result of thb curioa
xhaw-Uoa. Th bJy la ooeeiloa, embalmoJ
In 141, wis fjand In a perfxt atato af prassr
ration. Thus hare f.iestherefjr, theias
!ieaM efforts af thb lenraej bofy. fiM aa
hart a tha, to destroy th reputation af a dif
3ovry oxtollej by their aw a fab.lihai tasri
oiony." A si ArncrJ3 bcKjis.-Tac lata Ceo.
Dunn, jailor or, as modern maniloqa nc
will have it, rove nor of &hnftnJkta,
was a blunt, kind-hearted Northaoabrian.
who had witnessed many a Reeling act a
n h:s time. Being required to natnooa th '
'niden conce ed with cap'til pun'ahmeat.
which had most affjeted him during kjs long
experience, he selected ae so aimpla, said
so touching, as pros him. to hava beast
possessed, not oiy of very tender feelings,
but of a ttioo correct and dclkare judgment. .
At the last interview between a condemned
CTiminal and his wife Jieir child, bonny
we thinju! begirmin? to prattle, waa
playia abo-jt the cell. Her little eya Was
caaght by the glitter of the bolts which
oifioed the father's leg-, and she cried out.
;n- blissful ignorance of their use "0!
daeldy, what pretty things ! Yon never wot
these at home."
" Many a sad thing I have seen," sad the
honest jailor, "and many a bitter cry I
hare heard within these .walls; bat never
one that loado me blubber like a child ull
then. The mother, sir, aad the poor fellow
himself 0 ! s'r, it waa terrible, terrible.'
Taif't Mefizi. . . - '
A Goon Joes. Coder this head &
Xashua Gazen tells the following rxxfz
Ina certain town in thia State, wbicb
shall be nameless, a man who bsnl tmm -bereaved
of his wife, had tho cuahxnaiy
'not' read in tho church where bo tSHj
worshipped. ' Within six week after, its
mourning widower took tf iiassS.tsszT'
wife. A ho.t timo after kia sasnLts tta
clergyman of the parish txdssS xt -tiaighborinr
miniate,-Tbo, Cndlnf tt
-- i t
not, in the pulpit, ary CTrtirj . w .