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"PIIOT13 ALT THINGS; HOLD tiST THAT WHICH IS GOOD."
LOUISVILLE KY.: SATUKp AY, DECEMBER 11, 1847.
fffrrwanfH,,ti ior bat on
rwwd "'v. re ove
.. . mnmum. m aannce, Tnais
" W . m A. k.l
T the people of Wta irgxnia;s)uncing
hatshvcry xs to the public
vtlfure, ai that it may be gradually
abolished. V unoui mi ..w 3
luffnrrrrrfi of klattlioldert; by Henbv
RcriNtt.D. Islington, a.
Let us now torn to the third great branch
of productive inJusiry,
CowMiere and Sarigation.
The Norton people derive wurh f
heir wealth from commerce and riiipptng.
But the slave State, are more denotent.n
. .. .1, re in manufactures, lhey
eocW and r Nher
ea and foreigners to buy .no wip.
have mentioned, in general terms, the excel
lent facilities which our State possesses for
commercial pursuit., "y U,a
her bav and tide rivers all make one great
lavfii '500 miles long, situated midway be
tween the Northern and Southern extremes
of our Atlantic coast. Norfolk is the natu.
ml centre of the foreign and coasting trade
of the United States.
We shall now advert briefly to the effects
of slavery upon
Common Schools and Popular Educa
turn. There are two ways of estimating the de
gree of general education and intelligence
among a people: the one is, to judge Ly the
number of children going to school; and
the other, to judge by the number of grown
people who are unable to read or write.
The laM census contains returns of all the;
1. The number of scholais that at-ended
mile, and ended with a population of eleven
and a half souls to the aiiuaie mile.
West Pennsylvania increased in the time
' I M J
time, atwut seven to the square mue, ana
ended with a popultttion of nearly twenty-
five to the square mile.
The Great Valley of Virginia, between
the Blue Ridge and Alleghany, and from
Montgomery county to tr.e rotoraac river,
has an area of 10.100 square miles. The
same Valicv with no material change of
character, extends fiorai the Potomac to the
Suanuel anna river, containing an area of
school during some part of the year, wa3 in 5,100 square miles, in the counties of Cuui
New England and New York, one to every berland, Franklin, Perry, Huntingdon and
four and a half white persons in New Jer- Bedford, in Pennsylvania, and Washington,
It oudit to have com-
i i .l . u f VnrtS Carolina, of all
..Aniiii.i iris nuc J i v "
the countries upon the waters of the Utesa-
..,i on.1 al halt ttie
.'.n 'nve been the second, if not
m.nercial citv in the I nited States
orfolk is au ancient Uirough. and once
uood in the first rank of American seaports
But its trade declined, iu population was
Ion at a stand, and uothing but the public
Nan- Yard has kept it up. Meanwhile,
Vorthem towns have grown up to ciues, and
vUn ciiieai to ereat and wealthy empo
riums; until our Virginia seaport, once their
equal, would cut a poor ftsrure among their
Dh that Norlolk were as nros-
as her citizens are kind and hospi-
.sketch of the natural advantages ol
W,r..'L ..nmnnml With its COIMiaOR, IS a
.r of die commercial history ol ir
in fart ihe commerce of our old
slave-eaten Commonwealth, has decayed and
Buair tn a mere pittance in die
general mass of American trade.
Th value of her export, which twenty
ve or thirty vears ago, averaged four or fiv-e
millions of dollars a year, shrunk by 1S42,
to 2,S20,O)0 dollars, and by IS45, to 2,
Her imports from foreign countries, were,
In ih rear 176). valued at upwards o
1VuliMii'l r.f rlnllars: in 1791. tliey had
sunk to two and a half millions; m 1W1
tlv had fallen to a little over one million,
in 15l'7. thev had come down to about half
this sii ii inJ in 1613. to the half of this
r.;n nr nhrtiit one auvter of a" million:
nd hre they have stood ever sinri
next to nothine.
So our creat Virginia, with all her natu
ral facilities for trade, brings to her ports
about one five-hundredth part of tbe goods,
wares and merchandize, imported into the
Shall we be told thai the cause of this de
cline of Vireinia commerce, is the growth o
Northern cities; which, by means of their
canals and railroads and vast capital, drawn
off the trade from smaller ports to them
stives? And what then? The cause
:giied is itself the effect of a prior cause.
We would ask those ho take this superb
cial view of the matr: Why should the
rreat commercial ports be all ouuide of Vir
ginia, and near or in the free States? Why
should every commercial improvement, eve
ry wheel that speeds the movements ol trade,
serve but to carry away Irom the slave
States, moie and more of their wealth, for
the benefit of the treat Northern cities
The only cause that can be assigned.
that where slavery pieviils, commerce and
navigaucn cannot nourish, and commercia,
towns cannot compete with those in the free
states. I hey are merely places ot deposite
for such country produce as cannot be car
ried directly to the Northern markets.
Here Northern and foreign shir come 10
carry away these products of slave labor-
... ' . . , . r
and this constitutes nearly all lite trade
No State has rreater conveniences for
ship navigation and ship building, than Vir.
emu. et on au tier nne tide waters, sn
has little shipping; and what the has,
composed almost wholly of small bay craft
and a few coasting schooners. The tonnage
of Virginia that is, the number of tons
that her vessels will carry is shamefully
small, compared with that of the maritime
free Staurs. Maine and Massachusetts, with
about an equal population, have about fif
teen times at much; little Rhode Island has
considerably more; New York has at least
twelve times as much; Pennsylvania, widi
her one sea port, has more than twice
as much; and so has half-sl iveholding Mary
land. As to ship building, Virginia, tJiat ought,
with her eminent advantages for the busi
ness, to build as many ships as any State in
the L nion, does less at it than the least of
those free States. .All that she builds in a
year on her long forest-girt shores, would
carry only eight or nine hundred tons
that is, about os much as one good packet
ui me orm. Elaine ana Massacnu-
etu build thirty-five times as much; little
Rhode Island builds twice as much; New
ork twenty times as much; Pennsylvania
twelve times as much; and Maryland seven
times as much; and what would astonish us,
if we did not know so many like facts, is,
riat much of the ship timber used in the
North, is actually carried in ships from our
Southern forests, where it jnieht rot before
Southern men would use it for any such pur
pose. We do not blame our Southern peo
ple lor abstaining from all employments- of
mrw. hat could they do! Set their
negroes to building ships? Who eer ima
gined such an absurdity? But could they
not hire white men to do kJj things? No,
" wo una piace, ftouuiem white men
nave no skill in such matters; and, in the
econd place. Northern workmen cannot be
lured in the South, without receiving a heavy
premium wr working in a slave State
Here we close our reneral revw nf the
effects of slavery upon the population and
um prbaucbve industry ot atatea.
y and Pennsylvania, one to every mne;
n Maryland, one to every nineteen; in ir-
guna, one to every twenty-one; ouu m mc
Carohnas, one to eveiy twenty-seven.
2. In respect to the number ol grown
white persons unable to read or wn.e, we
have to remark, that the returns of th cen
sus for all th States, are somewhat defec-
tirr. for the Southern Stages nceediutiy so,
on account ol the great numbers ot tnis
class of persons, and their reluctance to
confess their ienorance. The scliool sys
tems in the North have made the number
erv small, excepting the foreign emigrants.
who broueht their ignorance with them. In
the South, not only is the number known
to be very large, but they are chiefly nutives.
tienc it is only in trie bourn, that tne de
fects in the returns prevent us from fo iling
an accurate ludgment of the amount ol popu
ar ignorance, resultinz trom tne want ot
-r - v
an efficient school system. In the ruturn
for Virginia, there are eight or ten counties
n which few or none of this cla were re
turned; and in many other counties, the
numbers returned are evidently far short ol
the truth. We ought certainly to add one-
third to the total return, to bring it near the
truth. The number returned for Virginia,
s 53.787 : the actual number could not
have been under 80.000. But to be sure of
not exc?eding the truth, we put to iO,
v .-.. .
0(H). We also put North Carolina t oO,
000. and South Carolina at 24,000; which
exceed the returns, but certainly fall short
of the actual numbers.
By examining the census, we find that
the adult part of the population is about
one-half of the nhole. We compaie the
numbers of white adults who cannot read.
with the total number in each State; and
find that in New England, these illiterates
ar a one. to one hundred and seventv: in
New York, as one to fifty-three; in New
Jersey, ns one to fifty-five; in Pennsylvania,
as one t forty-nine; in Mar' land, as one to
twenty-five: in Virginia, as one to five and
a half; in North Carolina, as one to four
and a half: and in South Carolina, aa one
to five arid a half.
We give these only as approximations to
the truth; but they are sufficiently near to
show, beyend any manner of doubt, that
slavery exeits a most pernicious influence
on the cauae of education. This it does by
keening the white population thinly scatter
ed and poor, and making the poorer part of
them generally indinerent aDout trie educa
tion of their children
A similar difference between the free
States and slave States, appears in the
West, when we compare Oiiio with Ken
tucky and Tennessee. Four times as large
a proportion of children attend school in
Ohio, as in the other two Stales; while the
proportion of illiterates is only one-fourth
as great. On the whole, the evidence on
this subiect is complete and unquestionable.
The people in tbe slave States are not, and
ran. in i lie. half as well accommodated with
schools as in the free States; and slavery in
flirt on multitudes of them the curse of
ignorance and mental degradation through
Having thus briefly, yet we believe attffi
rientlv. established the proposition that
. . i i , , .i i r
in Maryland; wmcn list, uiougn a lew
slaves remain in it, is a county of free
labor. But it might be omitted, with no
sensible change in the jrsult of our com-pariaon.
The Virgiuia section of the V alley con-
tained, ... ' " ......
lit 1600, a population of 154,000,
In 1830, " " 174.300,
In 1810, " 173,500.
The Northern section of the Valley, on
half die space, contained.
In 1820, a population of 129.600,
In 1830, " 155,500,
la 1840, 179,500.
The Virginia section increased moderate
ly, the first ten years; but scarcely at all, the
second ten. The total increase in twenty
years, was less than fourteen per cent.
I he INortheru section kept on, all the
time, increasing at a good rate; and gained
in the twenty years, thirty-eight and a half
per cent, nearly three times as much as the
v irgima section
et the Virginia section was at last only
half as thickly peopled as the other, and
ought, therefore, to have grown twice as last
Instead of that, it came almost to a full
stop, the last ten years; in lact tne newer
mountain counties, where there are almost
no slaves, and they only, increased a little,
the other and richer counLes, where slaves
were numerous, and had been gaining on
the white population these counties have
increased very little for twenty years; some
of them have rather declined. The land has
already 20t slave-sick, and is spewing Out
cj - w
What a pity that so rich and so lovely a
land, should be ahlicted with this yelloicte
ver and this black vomit.
fallible pioob, that
her parts and in a!
ered immensely froi
The bad policy of the Legislature in foe.
mer times, in respect to the roads and land
surveys west of the illeghany, did great in
ury to the country, iiut alter allowance is
made for this, a vak balance of injury is
hargeahle to slavery and to nothing else,
n the Great Valleyvwheie the ouVr causes
ad little or no operauon, tbe elfrca of bla.
very are most inariifef and most pernicious.
n those parts W est of the Alleghany, upon
die Ohio and iU navigable water, where
want of roads and disputed land t iles did
east injury there too, the corrosive touch
of slavery has also shown its etinkeroua
CONClXDtD IN OCt IIIT.j
11 ... -r
1$. 1. Jutau ;h, a gnert9
tru iiiau, i;v.iralen year
or' at lm xpreaiw it,
But let us return to the general
Ihc Aoicultuuk ot eat rennsyiva,
is much better conducted, and much
prosperous, than tnat oi v est ir
ginia. veiiave caicuiaiea its proaucuve-
ness roni the census table, in the manner
before described; and we find that the farm
ine industry of West Pennsylvania yield
the annual value ol two hundred and twelve
dollars to the hand; that of est v irgima,
one hundred and fifty-eigbt dollars to the
hand. This result is substantially correct;
for the lands of West rennsylvania are
much more highly valued than those of simi.
ar natural qualities in est V irgima.
This is true, both in the Great V alley, and
West of the Alleghany. Mnrk that fact,
fellow-citizens; it is worthy of deep consid
eration: it is lull ot inclining. Lianas in
West Virginia are much cheaper than simi
try North of ir
. . m
lar lands in the iree coun
. . . . , .i
gtnia. l et ramer man iuy
these good cheap irgima
farmers go farther, pay more, and fare worse;
so they do, ana 10 mey win. iney ioo
upon all Virginia as an infected country;
and so it is.
Thus it uppearMMlow.citizens hy in.
W tt irgiiiLu in all
hen interests, has uf
llui institution of ula.
Next, the Iron-making Dullness,
West Virginia had, in 1S4U, as good
natural resources, in every respect, for mak
ing iron, as West Pennsylvania. Yet, ac-
slaved is pernicious to tf welfare of wording o the census of 1810, (when no
o. Alii i.u .1,- r,Lnt Kv stone-coal was used in iron furnaces,) West
of bar iron, a year; when West Pennsylva-
nia, made 116,530 tons. The value of the
West Virginia iron was 615,000 dollars,
that of West Pennsylvania iron was 4,763,-
000 dollars. The West V irginia iron mas
ters made seventy per cent on their capital,
and 390 dollars worth to the hand chiefly
slaves. The West Pennsylvania iron mas-
establishing the particular proposition, that
slavery is pernicious to the welfare of West
Virginia. This beine contained in the
general proposition, does not need any sepa
rate proof, yet, lest some people should una
mne that Went Virginia is an exception.
and has not suffered Irom slavery, we shall
demonstrate to you the contrary by plain
acis-tacu, aenveu u.u made 109 per cent on their capital, and
the very best evidence which the nature of hfl free la.
the case ailmits ot. e compire me joi
timcrresa and nresent condition of West
Virginia, with the pa prognsss and pre
sent condition of the countries adjacent to
Fellow-citizens, has it occurred to you to
notice the fact, that Wert Virginia is almost
as larre as the State of Ohio? If the coun-
ties of Allegany and Washington, in Mary
and. were added to her, she would De targ
ex than Ohio. "Oh, ImiI Ohio w a much
hotter ronntrv than West V ireinia. About
If the fejtftte of Ohio is better, w grw
tliat is, it is a better Canning country but
the other half is not so god. About one
third of Ohio consists of dismal nwamps and
poor hills. In mineral wealth our country
is decidedly supeiior. Taking everythicg ex
cent slavery into consideration, we say
that West irginia ought now to nave
had more than two-thirds as much wpa
lation and wealth as Ohio. Our great
valley is a comparatively old country,
not much inlenor to the Desi
But instead of two-thirds.
more than one-fourth of her
population and wealth. In proportion to
our natural resources and actual population,
we do not grow even one-tbird as fast as
Ohio, and our lands in proportion to quali
tv. are not on the whole more than half as
But West Pennsylvania furnishes a com
parison free from all reasonable objection
or doubt: for it is a courtrr in the same
parts of Ohio.
we nave not
720 doll&rs worth to the hand
There is no sign of material error in the
census returns, from which we derive these
results; and no error can be supposed, which
would materially change them.
Tbe iron business has since increased in
West Virginia; it has increased vastly more
in West Pennsylvania.
If to the value of the cast and the bar
r .11 .L. 1 C
iron ol eacn country, we aua uie vaiuo ui
the niannfiictures of iron and steel, nf wool.
cotton and leather, we get a total ot U,
000 dollai-s in West Virginia, and about
six millions of dollars in West Pennsyl
The cost of constructing new buildings,
amounted, in West Virginia, to about one-
fourth of what it did in V est Pennsylvania;
indicating an increase in wealth and popula
tion at the same comparative rare.
Manufactures make towns, and towns
make good markets for farmers; the larger
the towns the better the markets, and the
more valuable the lands near them. The
Pennsylvania towns aie larger and more
numerous than the Virginia towns, both in
the Valley and est of it. The boast ol
our West Virginia is the god city of Wheel
ing. Would that she were six times as
large, that she might equal Pittsburgh, and
that she grew five times as fast, that she
might keep up with her.
We glory in W heeling, iecauseshe only.
Itinerating la th SuUa of Illinois, Winconiu,
nd Indiana viallad Kentacky. TU result cf
that visit ha that (tstet: v
Keatacky aal EaBBcIpau
Having been so long associated with the
busy scenes of a new country, where ertry
man is conttanlly employed m opening up
his lands for cultivation, erecting houses for
the comfort and convenience of his family
and business, and where our towns and villa,
ges, mills and churches, are all coming for
ward by the untiring hand of udustry and
enterprise now to return to Hettucky, as
. ..... . -
we have occasionally done, an! see the
dilapidated houses, worn out landsi decayed
fences, old mills and farm-houses hrsaken,
one I arm so extended as to include two or
three of former times, portions of the conn
try measurably depopulated by emigration,
and, above all, to see the spirit of indclence
and inactivity that pervades the greatei por
tion of the people, large companies collect
ing in every village end town arout u.e
country taverns, spending hours and diys
in idle conversation or amusement, ai.d, in
some instances, worse employment; to
witness the great contrast, we say, strikes
us most strangely and arouses in our bieast
mingled emotions of the most sad and medi
tative character. There are a few counties
around Lexington which present a body of
land unsurpassed for bcajty, health and fer
tility, by any in America. All lands of the
first class are in high Hate of cultivation,
but in the hands of a rtw wealthy farmers.
Tbe great body of the State, however, is
made up of second and third tale lands.
Oo these tbe great masses of the popula
tion aie found, and it is in reference to these
our first remarks are made. It is till, how
ever, Kentucky, and in regard to the State
as a whole, we have a few remarks to offer
in connexion with its present condiuon and
luture prostects on the suoiect ot the re
moval of slavery, which is justly looked
upon as the cause of its want of energy and
It has net bn without effect that Ken
tucky, the oldest of the new States, has
witnessed the unequal march between her
self and other western States, which have
pursued a different policy in regard to
slavery. She has seen Ohio, Indiana and
Illinois, each bordering upon her limits,
emerging from a wilderness stati and enter
ing upon a high career of prosperity, and
either surpassing her in weahh, numbers
and improvements, or so near her in thtse
respects already as to insure their speedy
triumph. The Legislature of last winter
provided by law for referring the question
of a convention for a new constitution, to
the people. At the general election in Au
gust last, the people decided in favor of a
convention by a majority of about 90,000
votes. The same question is to be kept be-
fore them, in one form or other, for three
years. This gives ample time to get
the question or gradual emancipation fully
and fairly into popular discussion.
As it regards the chance lor success, in
this all important movement, we have taken
considerable pains u fonn an opinion
founded upon facta and circumstances favor
ing the scheme, in our late visit. We find
on the one hand, that in Lexington and the
counties adjoining, when the great weight
of the Blave-holding and pro-slavery popu
lation is found, there is a strong opposition
to the policy, and but few who entertain the
idea that it will succeed, lhey hold that
the grent majority in favar of the conven
lion is oo proof of public feeling in favor
of emancipation; that considerations wholly
of a different nature have influenced the
people to vote for the convention. This, to
a considerable extent, is true.
But, on the other hand, we find, in the
first place, that the councies most in favor
of Deroetuatinz the old Dolicv are lew in
. . . w . . .
vision is made to remove them from the coun
try, it is fatal to the whole scheme. Tbe
question then arises, in view of this difncul
ty, what is IikeJy .tp be .the policy pursued?
Four. methods are snokeu of,-, which, will-
collectively, answer the purpose or remove
the difficulty. , t irst, a portion wilt be sold
into the more southern States, second, &
portion will be freed and sent off into the
northern States; third, a larger portion will,
when freed, be coloniied in Kentucky, jn
Africa; while, fourth, a few will still remain
in the country.-7 - -
But as an onset osain, against these lia
bilities to defeat,' we have the following
circumstances highly, favorable to the pro-
jeets. 1. there are several public news
papers in this State, and outers whicli cir
culate there, disposed to advocate the true
interest of the State by advocating the Eman
cipation policy. 2. There are itump ora-
tor native Kevrtuckians, who will, brin
the sobjeouirectly before the people in the
public" field. These, w hether opposed or
not, will sway a wonderful influence in pro
moting the cause. Indeed we know ot no
enterprise or service in which we would
more willingly engage, than that of contri
buting to the emancipation of our beloved
native land, for we love her still. But we
hope no foreigner will attempt it. Let the
work be done by the sons of the soil who
still reside there. There should be at least
one good speaker for each congressional dis
trict, to canvass the whole country, time
and again, until the people are fully awake
to the subiect. As much as we are disposed
to admire the valor and courage of Generals
Taylor and Scott, in leading their victon-
ous armies into Mexico, we would much
prefer the honor and distinction of having
aided in the political redemption of the no
ble State of Kentucky from her thraldom,
than to share equally with them in their
"W isdom dwells with prudence," and
her iierfect work is accomplished in Ken
tucky, during the pendency of the great
questions now fairly before her citizens,
must be accomplished by the utmost caution
and forbearance. If it is successful, a tide
of prosperity will pour into the State which
will change the lace of the whole country
So far fiom riding for days through the Slate
and finding scarcely a white man at labor
you would see a new smrit pervading every
circle, and industry and enterprise doing its
wanted office, at every point in the State.
Her example and influence on other slave
States would be irresistable, and the peace
ful and all conquering power of free labor
will win its steady and onward way, until
every State of this Union shall by the laws
of self preservation, adopt its policy and
acknowledgt its power. This, however, is
the work of time, which to some may seem
too great to be endured, yet in the history of
a nation it will be short. We believe it
11 be accomplished. Colonizat'umist.
scenes, let your Heart cast i:s anchor, lei
your feelings and pursuits all ?.-e centered.
Leave to your husband tbe tax oi t.:nn.
ruiahinz himself bv his valor or hi ia!enu.
Do you seek for fame at home, and let your
applause be that ot your aeivants, your chil
dren, your husband, your God. Journal
of Commerce. . '
Tb aw Sman Wcanp! aa follawe
farai aravraa 4th Jfewci. Trm uptrw ta Mutk
JoM FaJrfteM. MSI
W. trmtbmy. ItUJ
Cbaa. G. AilMftaa.
Job P. Hui. . U03
ITUtiam tAo, 14
ui a. rktipt, itsji
Pml ar . IKM
Jkn iHwit, ItXl
AlkrrX C. Orwu, ieSI
J0in M. Clr. mi
Arlhar f. Bgi)f,
HvMjr S4ft Fool,
mmimmi I . bow as,
nopklM I- Turacy,
J tin J. CntlnU,
Jut. M. l'mirrm4.
Joha M.Mm, .
mmm max. -
Joha A. int.
baaiel B. Dtckmaoa.
William L. tMH,
Jmuk MT. Mill,
SlaMa C aaMtoa,
Jkm M. CUwttn,
Jmmtt A. Prc;
Jamea M. Maaoa,
ftokert M. T.MaaMr.
Gr-f C Bmdg tr.
A. P. Batlrr.
JutaM C. CallMMR,
J ah M. Btm,
ti WU-Ua, Al.
- . f. iaaiA
IK 4 t A. ffanuccia.
IUI immU. kWicM.
151 8lda BrccM.
ej3 Supltaa A. Ioc:aai, 1&3
1M DuU E. Airhao. 194
Irol TaunaaH. baauia, l-Ol
. R ff niL
Ml AaibrOM H. Imthi,
l-i3 CtMatcf Aable. M3
M lwiaCaaa. 161
itil AlplWM Pair. r-i3
lj J. O. W e.lrou, Jr.. IA49
KU DaMato, 1861
1S49 Thoanaa J. Soak. 151
leti inaaMcrai.l )t3
fTw in i
lci3 bWi Uaatoeiaiit
A ipolnl4 Vr Cn vr
aor la nil aaraact: 14
or uouoi; ,or n is a coumr in Virginia deservts to bo called a manu-
range of mountains, and similar in every facturin t'ov.n. For Alt her citiZensde-
serve to Ui crowned not "with laurel but
with the solid gold of prosjicrity. But how
came it, that Wheeling, and next to her,
Wellsburg of all the towns in Virginia
should become manufacturing towns? An
Thfv hreatho the atmosnhere of free
1. The comparative rrowUi tmd popula- c,nfM almost tourhin? them on both sides.
. . L - a, f avMwwi H
tion of W est V irgima and We Pennsyl- nf Pimin- that Wheeline. as a seat
I ()- o . o- -
i . I fnr mnmililftures. is finuat to 1'iiisoureu.
and infericc to no town in America, except
Richmond:- ard that moreover.: she has al
most no slaves: why is Wheeling so far
spect, except that it has a harsher climate
.! 1 . . . ... m .1
Some say that it is on the whole Je3s lertile.
It is not so large by 5,500 square miles; con
taininz 33.000. while West Virginia con
tains 33,500 square miles.
Let ns see.
Ia 1830, W. Virginia coclaiaed 378,000 inbab'ti.
IB 1B4U, " 432,0UU
Tb incraaae was 54,000, or 14 per cant.
Ia 1830, W. Penn. conUlaad 19.1,000 Inhab'U.
Ia 1840, 815.000
The lncreaa was 223,000, r 37) per cent.
behind Pittsburgh, and , comparatively so
slow in her erowtliT Answer: fehe is in
West Virginia increased in these ten! country in which slavery is established" by
yeeit, , about one and a half to the square law.
number and those but thinly populated, at
least so far as rotei are concerned. While
the counties bordering on the Ohio river
are both numerous and populous, and
strongly inclined to a change of jxlicy
Added to these, there are nil the counaes in
the north and east; bordering upon and run
ning into the mountains, settled by a non-
slave-holding population, who will strongly
favor the free labor systeai. Besides these
three divisions of the Sttte, it has always
been the desire of the southern or Greea
River section, to favor tht non-slaveholding
interest, end it will doubtless do so now
The several sections here named, when
united, can carry any measure they please,
allowing for the loss of an occasional mem
ber from their ranks.
While we make these statements for an.
agaiiut the success of th-5 gTeat cause
freedom, in our neighboring State, yet truth
and candor require us further to remark that
there are other interests and agencies in
volved in the question, which wield a con
trolling influence over it. 1 he whole com
munily are exceedingly seisitive on th-3 sub
ject of foreign interference in regard to their
domestic atlairs. I he lesst mis-step on me
Dart of her friends in other States, or an
out break of violence by northern Abolition
ists towards litem, would so arouse and
slavery men diere, that they would act widi
the pro-slavery party, rather than be driven
into measures, as has been the case hereto
fore. In other words, it is impossible
"conquer a peace," or by any violent
harsh measures promote the object ; the
tempt to do so will ensure defeat. '
; Again, nine-tenths, if not nineteen-twen
tieths, of the people are in favor ofentanci
pation, where the question is abstractly pre
sented: but when the matter comes up foi
action, the question is urg3d, what is to be
done with the blacks, when lreed; u no pro
To Wives. The first inquiry of a wo
man after marriage should be, "How shall 1
continue the love I have inspired? How
shall 1 preserve the heart I have won?"
1. Lndeavor to make your husbands
ablution alluring and delightful to him
t it be to him a sanctuary to which his
leart may always turn from the calamities . M,
of life. Make it a repose Irom his cares, "'...
shelter Irom tne world, a nome not ior nis
person only, but for his heart. He may
meet with pleasures in other houses, but let
m find pleasure in his own. Should he
be dejected, soothe him; should he be silent
and thoughtful, do not heedlessly disturb
him: should he be studious, favor him with
all practicable facilities; or should he be I Jk
peevish, make allowance lor human nature,
and by your sweetness, gentleness and good-
humor, urge him continually to thtnK,
.hough he may not say it, "this woman is in
deed a comfort to me: I cannot but love
her, and requite such gentleness and affec
tion as they deserve.
2. Invariably adorn yourself with deli
cacy and modesty. These, to a man of re
finement, are attractions the most highly
aptivating; while their opposites never fail
to inspire disgust. Iet tne ueiicacy ana
modesty ol the bnde De always, in a great
detrree. suDDorted bv the wife.
- t .. .' . . .
3. If it be possible, let vour husband sup-
pose you think him a good husoand, ana it
will be a strong stimulus to his being so
As long as he thinks he possesses the reputa
tion, he will take some pains to deserve it;
but when he has once lost the name, he will
be apt to abandon the reality.
1. Culuvate and exhibit witn me greatest
care and constancy, cheerfulness and good
humor. They give beauty to the hne3t
face, and impart charms where charms are
not. On the contrary, a gloomy, dissatis-
fied manner, is chilling and repulsive to his
feeling: he will be very apt to seek else
where for those smiles and that cheerfulness
which he finds not in his own house.
In the article of dress, study vour
hmhand'a tastes. The opinion ol others
on this subject is of but very little conse-
nuence. if he approve
" ' . . . L . . .1 u
13. .Particularly shun wnai me wunu
alls, in ridicule, "curtain lectures."
When vou shut vour door at night endeav
or to shut out at the same moment all discord
and contention, and look on your chamber
as a retreat from the vexauons of the world,
a shelter sacred to peace and affection
How indecorous, otlensive and sinttii n is,
a a 1
for a woman to exercise authority over her
husband, and to say, "1 will have it
so. It shall be as 1 like!" But 1 trust
the number of those who adopt this unbe
coming and disgraceful manner, is so small
n in render it unnecessary lor me to en-
large on the subject.
Total. 30 Wbira, 31 Democrat, and Johi P
Hale, ladepondeat, elected by a Whig and Lib
erty union, r ive vacanciea to De nJl0 proba
bly I hi 7.X Democrats, beniu lowa
f John C. Calhoun and bia frienda are Dmo-
crats, but not very decided Polknten. They vote
aa they are fit, oiioit wilb the V higa-
IIOCSE OF EEPIEbENTATIVty
DaW Himaioaiaa. LawiaC. Lena.
Aaa VV H.l'lapp, Jmpk M Safara.',
Hirtm Stcaar, Ihariea Brown,
Janiea 8. W lie?.
Cbarlee H. fnaalee,
J limit Wifaaa,
Jaawa U. Jokaaa.
Jtaeart C. ffmlar.
ImwI r. a tar.
J.km O. 'airay.
Jk Qwnir -.
a e a.
tJlaar . (Vaaaraa,
beuj. B. IbLrMon.
Jaku -1. Aacawai,
O'Tg P. .Maraa,
Lu. iaa B. Pw:k.
Harr C. Muipbj.
VViliiam B. Macli.
FrUtritk A TllmJf,
Pavki S Jarkaoa,
lfitlB. St. Jtkn,
Put U. Sflwur,
Will lata Coilloa,
G. A. taarkweaiMr.
M ilium Dm',
Hmrmrn S. Cfr,
a) aa. r. L'iu,
fiJ B. Ut Imtt,
Xaaaat L. K.t,
A aiaa. AT. Mill.
Verne O. Bnmmf.
Y,UuLm A Jftwtii.
Dadtem a. O-ajary.
raawea L. C'jngmmm,
D. M. Bmmw,r
Aug. H. MkipkTd.
AiHaa W. vmaiae.
Jaiuea J. McKajr.
Joha t. I. TanM.
Jaaieo I. Faiaa.
Ratart C. Bcarart.
kkr4 J. Caa.
Joaaihaa D. Monta,
J. L. Trflr.
Tk: O. A Jweraa.
IMntl Ovate a.
Joha K. Miliar.
'Sanil '. Kialaa,
Thorn aa Bkber,
WUhaa Keaaoa, Ji.,
Joha O. Camauaa.
Jtskmm B. OUdtnfl.
Jtttfk M. Mt.
Saimaal U. Peytoa,
B. L. Clark.
Jku M. Tktmptn.
Ca. S. JfrtktU,
Jtkn P. Ont:
Jamaa B. Bowba.
Jamea 8. Greea,
Wtllara P. Hall.
John S. Pnelae.
Jtkn Frttd, f.
J. W Htrvatci.
.f. J. JtcJlaaiM,
W illiam (Hruac.
Dai4 V ilna,
Utrc J: Itkmrt,
Hnry Jt 'tt.
Jttprr E. Brtdf.
J. W. FrtU.
Jeina Thorn paoa,
Jtkd U. Iltmttn
Jtk Q. Cktpmtm,
J. xa Htmmu.
T. VYaikma Llaoa,
Bnfaert M. V Lane,
Jtku W. Cntttld.
Rxrhaa kl Mcarfe.
7 aaa. S. Flnrmmw.
Tboniaa 9- Borota.
iHia L. Otggin,
Jtka M. Bft. .
Ihmra H Bay).
B. T. 1-. Bal.
J.aa S. PtL0n.
Jaaaea M Dowall,
WiUiaaa B. Prttttm,
Atdrttt a faAaa.
Jamee A. Hlark.
Jo epB A. Wouewara'.
. D. Siai.
Iaae E. H.lin.
K. Barnwell Bhatl.
Tktnw B A'tng,
Jtkn W. Jtmtt.
Hath A. Haalaoa,
Joba U. I.aaipfcia,
Aln. S. Sutpkft,
Hnrt W . ililUmrd.
Paaipaoa W. Hurl.
William M. Ince,
GeorfO S. Hwiana,
W. K. rt'.Cobb,
P. W. Bowooa.
Pel. W. Tkampttm,
Albert G. Browa.
RutUe I a tore.
. t. Tkiktdfut.
J. M. HarmanaoB,
laaac K. Moraa.
tiutrd C Ltktil,
Thaanoa J- Healy.
Joha L. koHinaoa,
Cala B Swi'.
William VV. Wick.
Uttrgt O. fhtnt.
Hrk-J W. Tkamaaam.
Cftea. W. Cat heart.
WlUiam Bock bill.
Char lea E. Muan.
Kiaetey a. Binaham.
J. A. MXIeraaiMl.
Wm. A. Kteharaana.
, Themaa J.Taiwer.
kraaea i.1 .
A adraw Johnaoa.
Wiim jkf. Cca.
Jkn AT. Car,
M. a- v . H
Georye VV. JoMee.
Jaatea H. Tboa.
Mrrtduk P. O .
Lac lea B Cli-.
Prea'k P. Btaaioej.
H a. r. UklL
Kobert V. ubnaoa.
DeeM B. Kaafmaa.
Tiaaatby Ptflahwry. .
XM'gti (ao oia )
Jtkn B. TVrte'y.
Tat PiTino or raa Mmtooirr Caxaca--
writer la the NaaheUlo Chrbtia Adeoeate.
la a letter add named to Ray. Dr. Elliott of Cin
cinnati, threaleae. if the General Cacfereaoo of
the Nortbenk MetbodUt Charcb eboaU rafoam
to diride laa property w!tb the Cbarch Soata,
that a salt In chancery may be too roault. And.
bonld Ut Lyoart repair the orth to aatuei
wllb Um Soath an tit plan of arp ration, bo
aaya it voald obliro tkeaa to pay over to thai
outh at leant f,l&U,0JUkln anneal InaUlmcataof
J2i,000 aach. Should tho Ceart diarenrd tarn
plaa of neporation, and decido npon tho princi
pieoof geaeral equity, it will require tho North
ern Bock Room to pay over a iua equal to
$ 360, OOf . mora or leaw.
Tui Jwa. In tho laat fifty year, tho do-
aeendanla of Abrahaan bare malerUiiy changed
Uieir uatila. 1 boy eeaform mora aa4 aaor
to Um uaajeo of chriaijan naUona. Ia Cof-
many, at koenigaborg and Olfeabach, tho Jew
have iransferred from Saturday to Snnday tbo
felebratrtn of then relijioaa aenrlco; ngramt in-
oyattoa Uiw tbon. rsa-rer Co aid too UttereM
peieecntioa lndueo theoa to take eacb a a'et.
But in U iaalre wl.rrh. I Way aaat to llr It ho
their fetlTW-CiirxeBe, lhey flt ckmapo pfobaVy
eeTeral of their caatoina, mm4 tbio will b a aor
rreaaa of bringing them by degroao to embrace
tho chriatian faith.
Tut CnaJeria CimM ia patroauod by tbo
Covernoiont ia Ceylon. Tbo Scotch nnd Datca
cbaplaina are paid in full, and tho Miaaiouarie
or the Weyan Missionary Society, tbo
Charch Miaatonary Socioty. tho Propayatlon
Society, and the American Board, roceioaanu-
I rrautt from tho Colonial Troaoury. Tbo
Baptist decline receiving anything. Tbo fimca
receiyot) from thia aonrco by American anisBion
am, wo preaamo, aro all oipondod la the oop
port of achoola.
A Sana Caan Tho Booion Troyolor aara
that Rev. Jonathan Froncb. of NerthoaoptOM.
New Hamcebira,haa been Ihootficiatiag pastor of
thoConrjrrptionalchnrrh in that town for forty
si a year. He io nearly seventy years of r,
has eloTea chiidrea, aud al feairt Iwenty-threo
a rand-chiklren ; and hitherto no death baa oc
cur reJ in hia fimily, or ia tho family of aay of
hi children. He ban occupied tho parMaa?
where hs now 1 1 roe, for rnoro than forty yewre.
and no dnah haa ovor occurred in it.
Tho Rev W. A. Rixdl. a Roman Calami
priest, at HremJau, who bao filled aomo of tno -bizheot
cSoea in tho Charcb, and waa celebra
ted for b j learaiag a ad great attalamoaU, kt
fled from Vieaua, and openly ronouacod Ut
Roiuiah faith and joined tho German Catholic.
He baa published an interesting account of bio
life, and a critieUm on '.Monachianj" and tho
Ciajf am Cathoucs Tbo New York Journal
of Commrrce of 'he 24th alt. ayr. "Fifty-oigit
German Catholico Uat Sabbath publicly de
clared, their continued attachment to tho Catho
lic Apoelolie Chnrch, bal their secraaioa freak
tho j ok of Rom. They declarod Ibeir adhor
tnco to Cb rial and tbo Bible, but to no Sect, of
her. . 1- Adama, a atinietar of tbe Cato
berland Presbyterian Charch. of Ohio, and
formerly of Lebanon, Billed himself wita tho
Method!! Episcopal Charch, South, at Sou a
Chapel, Cincinnati, oa Tueaday tho loth. Ko
will immediately uko charge of a circa it ia
Boon county, Keatacky.
The WaLOiiaca. Thio poor and oppreaae4
people, aaull la number and afflicted with tho
rest of Europe, by a scarcity of broad, contribu
ted H),00 1 francs, tho lust year, to tho French
Society of Evangelical Mmaiona.
Socth Sea Isla.'o. A company of Mission
aries wbo have lately departed from London Ut
thePacioc,ok with them 5,000 eooira of tiio
Bible la t ie Tahltlin Inagoafe, and 4.1KJ0 eopieo
of tlie Pilgrunj'e Progreaa.
A PaiMCtLt Act. Tho King of Praeaia bio
cauaed to be printed at hia own expense, 17,000
copies of tlie Bible, to bo distributed la that
country. A glorious example for kings.
Tbo Methodists hay opened n TkflagicsL
Scliool ia Concord, N. H.
The Shakebs. la the course of de
bate in the Legislature of .New York, on
application of special grants of power iu
holding the property made by the Shakers
of Niskeuna, in that State, the following
rules, or orders, existing in that Society, be
came public :
Contrary to order to inquire into any bar
gain that the deacons have made.
Contrary to order to go to church with
Contrary to order to go out among the
world, or among families, without permis
sion of tl;e elders.
Contrary to order to shake hands widi a
world's woman without confessing it.
Contrary to order to shake Lands with
the world unless they rst tender tbe
Contrary to order to play with dogs or
Contrary to order for a brother and sister
ride together in a wagon without coin-
Contrary to order lor orotcex ana sister
to pass each other on the stain.
Contrary to order lor a person to go out
of the door yard after evening meeting.
Contrary to order to have right and leu
Contrary to order to pare the heels of
Contrary to order to read newspapers in
dwelling bouse3 at any ume, umcs indal-
gence for that purpose is granted Dy the bi-
Contrary to order to fold the heft thumb
or tho right in proror. Of when atajxlug
up in worship.
Contrary to order to kneel witn tne ten
Contrary to order to put th left boot or
shoe on first.
Contrary to order to kneel wLthhandki-
chief in hand.
Contrary to order to put the left foot on
the stairs first when ascending.
Wkm (la Itnhn) ll. Orasoerais (In Boomo) lt.
ladepeeaeMs (in canau
Clear Whig an). 4. Democrat o. la test Uouae, OVJ.
Gbacx Aovilab, the authoress of many
popular wotks in favor of the Jews, urging
their claims to free and equal civil and re-
, v.. ---j- .... , ai, i Urious liehts throughout the civilized wot id,
7 TU rarefiil never to iom in a lest and I ngiu ti" o . . ,
,. . . . , , . hh vpntpmrvr.
UlCu VI, wv . i --
Inncrh affnlnst vour husband. Conceal his
fauUs and speak only of his merits. Shun
every approach to extravagance. 1 h want
nf nnnmv has involved millions in mis-
v i -
erv. Be neat. Udy. ordeily, meuiotiicaj
Rise early, breakfast early, have a place
for evervthinz, and everything in its place
8. Few things please a man more than
notable and clever in the
in her thirty-second year.
Poets seem to have fame in lien of most
advantaees. They are too little
formed for business, to be respected;
often feared or envied to be beloved.
shrinks and withers as
management of her household. A knowl- much npon the approach ofinti
edge of cookery, as every other branch of the sensitive plant does upon the
house-keeping, is indispensable in a lemale, one s anger. '
and a wife should always endeivor to sup-
- .nn.,a ihm rhararter of the ladvl Persons are oftentimes misled in
and the housewife. to their choice of dress, by auending to the
9. Let home be your empire your beauty of colors, rather than selecting such
world. Let it be the scene of your wishes, color as may increase tneir own peatrty
.1 L a-... wkt.Mm fmi AVs-rtlArV!1 mnwam I - awmmsBmmWammmmtmmwmmmaanmmsnsmmnkmanao .
TV. :J?r r -,,k .nf mit il.KieDiiliof IheirMlief, hi juiciou.
Nis Thocsa.vd LlVSS S.4.VID. It is
stated on good authority, that the lives of
Nine Thousand people were saved by the
donations of provisions in the Alacedoniao.
This simple lact is stated in some half do
zen lines, which are huddled away among a
crowd of items, in the columns of the news
paper press. Nine thousand live saved :
Had the same number of lives of Mexi
cans been taken by gunpowder and cannon
ball, we thould have column after column, ,
letter upon letter, giving the details of the ,
bloody transaction, overflowing with re
joicings, and set off with the usual flourish
es "Glorious Victories American Arms
triumphant Our Soldiers covered tciih'
Glory Xine Thousand Mexicans Slaugh
tered," cfc These little facts speak voL
umes on Lie depravity of human nature.
0tf3i:3KS have appeared in Turkey;
a regular curse of thetn haa been eaubliah
ed between Constantinople and AdrianopIoV
by an Armenian company. These car
riages cany twelve passengers inside. tw
out and are drawn by aix horse. The
jcurcey occupies thirty-two hours; and the
fare is 130 pitw-.