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VOLUME LXXXTI.-NO. 15.
i Grand Demonstration By
A Marvel of Discipline, Order and
THOUSANDS WERE MARCHING.
Impressive Literary Exercises at
SEVERAL ELOQUENT ADDRESSES.
<;oms of Thought on tho Croat Labor
Problem v.y riov. Drs. Ijevy
Ii v.a<? indeed label's dayi
A finer-looking body of men never
trod the streets of Sacramento, and for
order, discipline and sobriety the demon
stration of yesterday was never sur
And such a big turn-out! Hut then
that was not unexpected, as the prepara
tions of the wage-earners had been going
un for several weeks, and it was fre
quently given out that on the day of tho
parade an immense body of men would
be in liii".
K\ erything came up to the highest ex
pectations, and taken altogether it was a
treat triumph for organized labor.
A t the conclusion of the parade- literary
exercises were held at the Plaza, which
were listened to by an immense concourse
; >le. The addresses wore unusually
The great day concluded with a grand
ball in the Assembly Chamber of the
Capitol in the evening, which was
largely attended, and at which every
body had a good time.
Business was generally suspended
throughout the city during the afternoon,
flags floated gaily from every mast, and
manyhousi decorated with bunt
Competent Marshals and Aids Prevent
Had not every detail with reference to
the formation of the long column been
Led to by Marshal Hantzman and
his Aids, it would have been s difficult
I ik to get the procession started at the
advertised time—2:3o i-. m.
But as it was there was little delay.
«;r.':it crowds of people blocked the
throughout tho line of march,
ami expressions of admiration and praise
for the line appearance the men made
could be heard on all sides. Windows.
balconies, and all points of vantage were
The line moved up M street, where it
bad formed, to Tenth, thence to X, down
■ cond, to J, to Tenth, and counter
marching <>n Tenth, 1 and Ninth around
The j n was headed by a squad
of eight police officers, in full uniform, in
charge o( <'hief 1 'rev .
Then came i.rand Marshal Hantzman,
mounted, and wearing n scarlet sash.
With .him. also mounted, were his Aids
and Division Marshals, wearing hand
s' 'me i'lue silk Bashes.
!•'• [lowing these came an open carria«o
containing President of the Day C. M.
Harrison, 11-\. Dr. Levy and Rev. Dr.
Another carriage followed containing
Supervisors Jenkins and Black and
< lounty Cierk Rhoads.
[n the third carriage were Sheriff Stan
ley, Chairman Greer of the Board
pervison and Supervisors Miller and
Ir-on Mulder-. Typos. Clyrar-mnkcrs
Marshal John A. Sheehan had charge
of the First Division and bis aids were
WilliamTihlitts.il. W. Ucrmain, John
Zittinger and .1. il. Shelton.
The Hussar hand headed the division
nrnished some «>t' its choicest
After the band came the Iron Molderß*
Union, nearly a hundred strong, and the
men well deserve the applause and ex
. >n of commendation they received
from the spectators. Each inembi rof the
union w ireahan I ami ■ arplo sash over
"ui>ier and carried a small flag in
This union was organized in su-ra- ;
mentoin LSBO. The officers, also charter
members of the organization, were: c.
A. Askwith, President; John Norton,
Vice-president; I'd. F. Ashworth, i;.
oordiu I ary; Michael T. Goethe,
Financial Secretary; .'amis McMurray,
iponding Reporter; Henrj Schweit
.••-., Treasurer. The present offiN
ronmolders 1 Union are: Edward
'■■r.t; William Sheridan,
\ •■■ President: Richard McKnight, Re
- Dickman, Fi
•.ticiai Secretary: William Elliott, Treas
urer: Henry Guttenberger, [nd
Fred Cutting, Doorkeeper; John Hantz-
William Tibbits, George Bat ton,
i dw.ird Galvin, I \ icutive Board; John
Uantzman and William Til';m;>. dele
to < kranciL
Til i: rv PS-SKI rERS.
il Union, No. v<. followed
..-, and made equally as
: n appearance. The members wore
Jtraw hats, all alike, handsome red
. and all carried ligh: canes, decor
ated with red, white and blue ribbons.
There were over a hundred of the union
rncmtx ra in the line.
The Typographical Union is the oldest
i-i Sacramento. It was organized in 1850.
Tho nrst officers of the union were: John
McComb. President; David Norris and
A. A. Stickney, Vice-Presidents: li. A.
Appleton, Recording Secretary; John P.
Rkelton, 1-inane.ai Secretary; John H.
Russell, Treasurer: s. n. Conklin, <;. N.
Parkier, Charles Babb, David Norrisand
D. Yoaehum, Directors.
On the Ist day of July, 1862, the union
was incorporated for twenty years, and
arnon;* tJie names of the then* members
are to be found the following, well known
in Sacramento: John A. Anthony, Alex
ander Badlam, Jr.. Andrew Black, .». R.
Botsford, .fob Court, T. P. Fcard, Henry
George. H. J>. liiekok, li. P. Humlcy, K.
<>. Judd. a. \v. Lewis, W. .). Shannon,
A. A. Stickney, A. M. Thomas, .Jolin
Simmons, .). J>. Young and others.
The charter was sum a l< red Augnst
29, 1879, on account of general reduction
of scale of prices, causing it strike on all
tt<(! papers in the city. The union was
reorganized in 188Q, :it which time the
following officers were elected: B. P.
I-luntley, President; C. M.. Harrison,
Vicfr-President; J. H. Goldsmith, Re
cording Secretary; Thomas Gorman, Fi
nancial Secretary; James Wilson, Treas
urer; .J. N. blouse, Matt. Cuddy, W. P.
Lyon, C. A. Dorseyand L. R. Kidd, Ex
ecutive Committee; George E. Harber,
The present officers of the union :iro:
M. If. Strout, President; George i:.
Harber, Vice-President; J. L. Robmette,
ary; W. P. Preston, Treasuror;
Jacob Alexander, Sergcant-at-Ari
M. Glenn, Edward Stanton, W. W. Ellis,
Frank P. Curtis and James J. Devine,
BOOKBINDERS AND CIGABMAKERS.
The Bookbinders' Union followed tho
typos, about thirty strong, and all look
ing neat and fine.
CJGA RMAKERS IN LINE.
The cigarmakers came next, wearing
their aprons, and looking as if ready for
business. This union was organized in
December, 1886. The following were the
first officers: George Nusa, President;
Robert Stein, Vice-President; A. Mespelt,
Recording and Corresponding Secretary;
W. J. Hightower, Financial Secretary;
J. Madigan, Treasurer; i-'. C. Harrison,
Doorkeeper; L. Peterson, W. A. Herliger,
W. Hall, D. Condell, J. GalL M. Kelly
and J. J. Barry, Executive Committee.
The following arc the present officers:
M. Rittinger, President; W. C. Keller,
Vice-President; A. Mespelt, Secretary;
P. Oweger, Recording Secretary; A.
Hertzel, Treasurer; .i. Beck, Sergeant-at-
Arms; M. Rittinger, 11. W. Germaine
and J. Beck, Executive Committee.
TilF iAII ORB.
The Tailors' Union followed, but did
not have their "gooses" or needles with
them. This union was organized in !■■-:.
The first officers were: Fred Adams,
President; Charles Smith. Secretary;
1 hristopher Fredericks, Treasurer. The
present oUiccrs of the union are: Martin
. President; C. H. Lutterkort, Vice-
Preßident; John R, Week, Secretary;
■John A. Nelson, Treasurer; .1. li. Davis,
Sergeant-at-Arms; J. !>. Shoemaker,
Henry Woithe ana <;eorgo Trefzer, 'J'i as-
John Zittinger, Delegate to the
! cli rated Trades; «'. H. Lutterkort, al
-\I ETAIi WORKERS.
The Tin, Sheet-Iron and Metal Work
er.-' Union formed the rear guard ol the
first division, hall" a hundred strong.
The men wore badges and all looked
neat. These men banded together For
mutual protection in December, LBB9. 1 he
tirst officers of the society were: J. C.
Stuhlman, President; X. Fredricks, Vice-
President; Otto i.ell. Recording Secre
tary; A. LaMotte, Financial Secretary: .i.
T. Liness, Treasurer; W. D. Bessey, < on
ductor. The present officers are: J. Harry
Shelton, President; L. *;. Littleneld,
Vice-President; W. B. Ross, Recording
Secretary: Otto Bell, Financial Secretary,
Alex Gibson, Treasurer; < 'tto Raif, Con
ductor; Otto Bell, Delegate to Federated
Brewers, Carpenters, Boilermakers,
The second division was in charge of
Marshal J. K. Morell, and liis aids were
Herman Tietz, Charles Hastings, Waiter
It. Stockerand .T. LippeL
The First Artillery Band supplied tho
music for this division, and that means
that as good music as could be had in tho
State was furnished.
The Brewers' Union, about thirty in
number, followed the land, and their
unique uniforms occasioned much favor
able comment. The men all wore dark
flannel shirts and pants, and belts of red,
white and blue. They wore black, sou
bats,around which were wreaths ofhops.
They were a jolly sol and cut <;uite a
dash. This union was organized only
!;;-: year. The officers are: August
Geiger, President; Joseph Gardner, Vice-
President; Herman Samland, Secretary;
Theodore Erdman, Sergeant-at-Arms;
August Geiger and William H. Becker,
Delegates to the Federal ion.
Jl A RNESS MAX IMS..
The Saddle and Harness Makers'
Union, another receni addition to the
Federated Trades followed the brewery
workers. There was quite a delegation
of them, all wearing handsome badges.
This organization was formed in Febru
ary of this year. The officers are: John
Morrill. President: 11. X. Bauman. Vice-
President; George Hamer, Recording
Seer tary; Hall Trusdale, Financial Sec
retary; John Steinmiller, Treasurer: S.
Frazee, Conductor; James Duncan, Ser
geant-at-Arms; Charles Deming, Shop
Steward; J. A. Andrews and H. X. J'.au
man, Delegates to the Council of Fed
' \i:i'i;.\Ti:i!s ami BAKKRB.
The Carpenters Union, about thirty in
line, came next bearing their aprons and
carrying light Japanese parasols.
A stir i horn came the bakers, who were
one of the features of the parade. They
\y.n\ on the traditional white caps and
spotless aprons, over which wore
thrown handsome pink
Th< ir caps were also decorated
with red. white and blue ribbons.
The Sacramento Bakers 1 Union was
originally a branch of the San Francisco
union, but in June. 1889, took out a char
teronitsown hook. The officers of the
union are: George < tuenthner, President;
John Breitmeiser, Vice-President; Bauer
. Financial Secretary; Wilk Fried-
Csn tponding Secretary; (ieorue
Sieh, Berg ant-at-Arms.
Tho boQermakers come noxt, all wear
ing blue flannel shirts, colored belts and
-o:i black hats, the brims of which were
pinned up against the crown, with the
'Ibis union was organized in August,
1888, with the following charter mem
bers: W. J. Bryson, V. J. Quinn, E. A.
,>uinn, John Bean, Thomas Richards
James Myers, Harry Moselcy, Jno. Mad
den, Thomas Madden, <.ii> Roichart
William Allen, A. Schields, i-:<iu ird
Manley, C. J. P.. sore, Robert Drumgold,
John Drumgold, M. McMorry, Peter
Craven, Ed. Payne, Thomas Barrett B.
Granger,^. Davis. John Brown, J. 11.
Stocker, W. J. Kepner, William Canty,
!'■ !•■!■ Cap] er, Richard O'Heron, !•.
Weias, James Fisher, Walter I. Scott,
James Dunnigan, Richard Caverly, M.
J. Desmond, John West, J. H. Em<
E. W. Green, s. j:. Row, Charles Quinn,
D ;! vid O^ley.
Since then the union has doubled in
membership several times over. The
present officers are J. li. sticker, Presi
dent; PeterLorson, Vice-President; John
Schofteld, Recording Secretary: W. J.
Bryson, Financial Secretary; ".biim T.
Soul.-. Treasurer, James Sloate. Marshal;
Gus Reichart, M. McMorry. George Gib
son, Trustees; J. H, Stocker, Peter Lor
son, James Sloate, Richard Caverly, Del
egates to the Ft derate i i rades.
IMnmbers, Upbolaterera, Brleklayvra,
i .. ,iuT'.. Etc.
The Newcastle Band headed Urn Third
Division, which was in charge <>f Mar
shal L. \v. Mahoney. The latter's Aids
were w. i\. Larkln, iJ. A\'. Park< r, 6ea
Best, W. Frank Keli.-y and T. J. Pennish.
The feature of this Division was, with
out doubt, the magnificent showinf the
SACRAMENTO, TUESDAY MOTiXING, SEPTEMBER 8, 1891.
Roekljn Granite Cutlers, Quarrymen's
and. Tool-sharpener's Unions made.
There were several hundred of them in
lino, and besides being all fine looking
men, they were uniquely uniformed. All
%yoro soft brown felt hats, neat shirts of
light striped material, aprons to match,
and all carried colored fans. In i!ie
midst of them were two carriages cou
tainiog the officers of the unions. Verily.
the Rocklin boys turned out in style, and
they were the center of attraction all
along the line.
The Upholsterers1 Union carrried a
pretty banner, attached to which were
Long colored streamers supported by ilio
men. This is another new organization.
The officers of the union are: George A.
Pleasance, President; George W. Platt,
vice-President; W. E. House, Secretary;
L. A. \'o;:c'i. Treasurer; D. Sanders,
The officers and members of the Mu
sicians' Protective Union are: Charles
A. Neale, President; J.W.King, Vico-
President; E, Berliner, Secretary; J. J.
Bauer, Treasurer; <». W. Noack, LG.
Shaw and Joe Beebe, Directors; .'. It.
">\ beat and YV. ;;. Platt, Delegal « to
Federated Trades; L. Lothhainmer and
I>. VV. Knox, alt mates; A. L. Grimes,
The plumbers and gasfitters were next
in line in good numbers, and dressed in
their best suits of clothes. Tins is still
another of the younger labor organiza
tions of Sacramento, but promises to soon
be one of the strongest. Following are
its officers: V. J. Tolley, President; C.
Bockrath, Vice-President; Chris. Schmid,
Secretary; C. B. Conn, Treasurer; <r. En
« right, Sergeant-at-Anns; V. .1. Tolley,
1 lharles Bockrath, Chris. Schraid; '• leorge
i*>. stark and Jess Rodgers, Trustees.
After the plumbers came fciie brick
layers, wearing their aprons and badges,
and carrying fans. This union was
organized in iv^".. Tho officers are: <».
A. Henley, President; John Haley, Sec
retary: Nicholaus Buff, Treasurer;
i'atrick O'Keily, Sergeant -at - Arms;
< leorge Best, i delegate to Council of l-'ed
•1 H E PLASTERERS.
The plaster* rs, i,:ir'u(>:-s and newly
organized Car-Builders' Union formed
th< rear guard of tiic; parade. All pre
sented a neat and or lerlj appearance.
AT THE PLAZA,
AX IMMENSE THRONG FATHERS
THERE AFTER THE MARCH.
The literary Exercises— Addn'vm's by
C. ?.-. Harrison and Dr*. Levy
At the Plaza there was an immense
crowd of people. The number equaled,
and possibly exceeded, eight thousand.
A platform decorated with bunting had
been placed underneath the limbs of a
large tree near the fountain. The Hussar
Band occupied the music stand, and dur
ing the exercises discourse) 1 several selec
tions. On the platform were ''. SI. Harri
son, Joseph Hantzman, William Tibbits,
H. N. Bauman, F. J.S.Townsend, M. H.
Strout, Richard Caverly, 1. A. Hunter, A.
Q. Wilson, Rev. Tindall and Rabbi Levy.
rr.ESIDENT OV THE DAY.
C M. Harrison Delivers an Eloquent
Mr. Harrison, as President of the Day,
made the opening address, and ho was in
terrupted several times by cheers. Ho
-I oke M follows:
I'mu'ls and Fellow-citizens : I will
not attempt to give full expression to the
pride and satisfaction I feel at being se
lected to preside over such a large and
enthusiastic meeting of my fellow labor
ers oil the occasion of tiie lirst observance
of Labor Day in he Capitol City of Cali
fornia. This day has been set apart as
the laborer's holiday, on which to lay be
fore the world his oppressions and his
wrongs, his desires and his hopes.
We, who r. present almost every upo
ful calling in this glorious common
wealth, are here to advocate the right of
every man who toils to a just proportion
of the profits of his labor, to ask that as
mechanical inventions aud
Increase the rapidity with which work is
accomplished, the hours of toil shall bo
shortened, until every man who desires
employment can find something to do.
That none shall be permitted to labor
from the moment when jocund day
stands tip-toe on tho misty mountain
top, '•until night has let her sable curtain
down and pinned it with a star," while
others are searching in vain for a reason
able day'w employment at a reasonable
We believe there is something wrong
in a social or governmental system where
in a few years one man can pile up a for
tune of fifty to a hundred millions, while
those upon whose toil he has risen can
scarcely take a week's recreation in a
year. But we are law-abiding citizens,
and seek to accomplish desirable changes
by lawful means. It is useless at this
time to urge the necessity of labor organ
izations. Their utility and necessity is
admitted by every man whose judg
[fOT WARPED TtY PREJUDICE
Or blinded by personal considerations.
By dose organization and federation of
the various branches of skilled labor we
have been able to avoid many disagree
ments and Mrikes, and when trouble does
come we have relegated brute force to the
Limbo of the past, and use with ten-fold
effect tho more civilized and humane
weapon of public opinion, relying upon
the righteous and just Judgment of our
fellow-citizens for the vindication of our
cause. So iony as labor organizations are
governed in this manner—asking nothing
but what is just—they cannot fail of suc
cess. Their underlying principle is most
al.iy defined by the old illustration of the
bundle of .-.tirks. Separated each can be
easily broken —united a giant's strength
may be exerted in vain to destroy them.
One trade or occupation standing alone
may be easily defeated, bat with a federa
tion of trades and a just cause there can
■ ■«■ do such thing as fad.
\\ iiile l-i!><>r unions are opposed to
strikes, yet in BHpport of their rights,
when ail reasonable efforts at compro
mise have failed, they stand r ady to re
sort to tiiis remedy iv sell defense. A
trades union that will v >< strike v< henjne
cossity demands would boas - ;>.sa
military company that would not fight in
lof< nseof its Bag.
The gathering of to-day possesses no
party or religious significance. Side by
inarch Republican and Democrat.
Gtreenbackers and Citizens' Alliance ad
herents. Protestants and Catholics, Jews,
Freethinkers and Agnostics stand shoul
der to shoulder in our ranks; yet to say ■
that there is no political lesson to be
drawn from tlus gathering of the sons of
toil would be a mlsstatement. if rightly
interpreted Lt means that theyare awaken
ing to a fuller realization of their duties
to themaelvea and to their country as
rood citizens; that it is their individual
duty to judge, each one for himself, as to
what is the bent governmental poHoy to
fcx pursued and who are the most lit men
to be placed iv positions of public trust
and responsibility, and after having satis
fied his mind and conscience of these
facts it is ins inalienable right and duty
to oast his ballot according to his own
judgment, and not at the dictates of the
man or corporation by whom ho is em
ployed. It also means that the time has
now arrived when organized labor will
demand with a voice that cannot bo mis
understood that public officers shall be
the servants of the people and not tho
servants of corporations aud trusts.
Already following out this idea,
organized tabor has been in
strumental iv forcing: the pas
sage of the Australian ballot law, the
monthly pay d-.xy law, and in defeating
an unjust and tyrannous amendment to
THE CONSPIRACY i,.\W
Of this State, the, enactment of which
would have deprived us of the ri^ht to
combine for self-protection aud use our
patronage as a weapon of self-defense.
Fellow-laborers, I cannot refrain from
exhorting each and every one of you to
consider that the honor and good name of
your respective callings rests partly upon
you, and every man should honor the
trade of his choicQ by which he earns his
daily bread and clothe.;, feeds and com
fortably houses the wife of his bosom and
the heirs at least of his name. Lei ;;s
each, then, realizing our individual re
sp >nsibility to ourselves and our fellows,
ie;.d sober, upright and industrious lives.
Living for those who love us,
For tbose who know as true,
Forthe right tkal needs assistance,
For the wrong ih.it needs resistance,
And the good Hl»1 we can do.
REV. DI?. TINDALL.
Sonio Eloquent ami Forclblo Remarks
by ufe Divine.
President of iho Day Harrison after
concluding his remarks, introduced Etev.
Mr. TindalL who noke as follows ;
I abor is the couinion lot <v mankind.
Hence this grout multitude on this day,
set apart to do hcmor to it, and to those
engaged in it. Man was evidently created
to do work, lie is a most consummate
machine, wisely contrived and wonder
fully adapted to So many things. N<>
greater mistake could one make than to
think it v disgrace to do work. Wedo
well to take ;i pride in it. li we honor it,
it will honor us. yonder graceful statue
v. as happily conceived. It is ;i I rue orna
ment tojthu Capital • it y in which it stands.
such men as Mr. Stevens do honor to
labor. 1 iis genius has sanctified the very
idea of work. When such men devote
their talents, their 1 1i ;_;11 faculties of mind
and their manual skill to any industry,
who should not feel it an honor to follow
in tl'.i'ir footsteps? We will never fail
to realize what he did—that if we
honor labor it will honor us.
it behooves every laborer to magnify
his office. 1 i<-el greatly honored inad
dr< s.-in;.c so largea number of my fellow
men, and all the EBorc bo when 1 thir.k
how many things you can do. How ad
mirable that overruling Providence
which so arranged human affairs that
there is such a wopderml variety to hu
man achievements — that we have so
many kinds of work. And all these dif
ferent kinds of work are as so many serv
ants ministering to our individual and
personal comfort and enjoyment. Think
what one person oats and wears and en
ioysoneday! Each one of us daily en
joys more miniateriea than the number of
servants employed by any monarch of
the present time or of history.
Think how much society there is in all
this. We work,for each other. And con
sider how awards and premiums and
profits are distributed. Seldom is there
a mistake. Committees at State and dis
trict lairs may make mistakes in award
ing premiums, but Providence cornets
any su>-Ji mistak■■>, and when our several
works arc thrown out upon the great
world about us, that man wins the high
est honor whose work is most
beneficial to his fellow-man. The
business world gives him that.
He is the one who in the long run gets
the lirst premium, ii" who does the most
good to his fellows reaps the sure re
ward. And cacti individual can say,
how many people are working forme?
1 have manservants and maidservants,
I have skilled workmen and common
laborers, 1 have genius and the highest
order of talent working for me. One
man makes my clothes, yea. a whole
band of workers rise up to minister to
me as soon as I leave my bed in the
morning; from the soles of my feet to the
crown of my head, they come to dress
me for the breakfast table andthestreel
and my daily occupation. Suppose a
human being should at this moment be
here presented who had nothing and
needed every thing—how quickly you
could do every tiling for him ! He could
be both fed and clothed completely, and
have a house built and furnished.
1 think we have lived to see a now era
for labor. We have a country, and we
have institutions <>f government, and .1
condition of human society in which, as
never before in tho history of the world,
labor has come to a state ef honor. Wo
are seeing, as never before, intelligence
put into labor. We are seeing the tired
arm of human toil eased as never before.
We have come to an age of labor-saving
invention, to a tiniu when a man's brow
sweats less than formerly in getting his
We have passed beyond the age of serv
ants. Every worker is a nian, an intel
ligent, responsible, self-governing man,
and a full unit in the body politic, a citi
zen. In this case work itself is dignified,
by being done by a superior class of peo
ple And work is more efficiently done,
md in larger quantity. The work now
lone in this country could not possibly
be done by the old methods, our grain
would be unharvested, and the seams of
our garments would be unsewed, and the
bread upon our tables would be scum.
What 1 have said is true in theory;
have wo not need to make it more fully
true in fact? (me of yourown number
said to mo: We are retarded in aecom
plishi ug our object by the lack of intelli
gence in our own laboring people. So
many do not inform themselves so as to
think and act intelligently and indepen
Here then lot me say to tho rank and
file of all these labor organizations. Un
less you, tho mass of you, you who hold
no oilice and say little in the meetings,
become intelligent you will not escapo
bossism in your very labor organizations.
The situation of labor is now confront
ing many grave questions. There are
questions of political economy, questions
of finance, questions of social order, that
link themselves with this great matter of
wages. These are subjects which are en
gaging tho best minds of our country
and of the age. And unless you, the peo
ple, qualify yourselves to read and think
and investigate for yourselves, somebody
will do the reading and thinking and In
vestigating for you. And, as It nearly
always happens in that case, such leaders
will see to it that they shall be liberally
rewarded for services on which they set
a high price. And so you will find your
selvesnot liberated but transferred from
one set of masters to another.
As laborers, you desire to meet capital
on an equality: you have to meet it. Yon
aspire to make a contract with capital,
[n legal phrase, you, the laborers, are
the party <>f one part, and the capitalists
are the party of the other part. You, the
party of one part of tbe contract, aspire
to be the equal of the other. There is no
(food reason why you should not
be. i'mt the capitalist either has
the Intelligence himself, or ho can hire it.
In any event you as laborers have to
meet the highest intelligence, the shrewd
est financiers, yea, the most consummate
thinkers in business and financial prob
lems. How can you succeed without
education, intelligence, mental acumen?
Then let the educational idea be funda
mental with you. Jn mind, if not in
money, yon can become the peers of
capitalists. A monopoly of money by no
means implies a monopoly of intellect
and intelligence. I'hysieal labor, when
not overstraining, conduces to develop
strength of body; it is also beneficial to
the mind. Such workers may be the
soundest and strongest thinkers. As
labor m-ikos vigorous bodies, so does it
also produce vigorous minds, strong in-
This personal individual improvement,
both intellectual and moral, is a funda
mental idea in the constitution of all your
orders. I have not read them but, 1 know
what is in thorn in this regard, lv all
your initiations yon have, ovary one of
you, been reminded and exhorted to cul
tivate your nands, also. Improve your
characters and afld to your intelligence,
;md thus become a bettei* man and citi
You the laborers of this country
have a very high calling. Yo;i have a
great opportunity and a corresponding
duty. Your fathers and "yon have heard
this call and have entered on this work.
I desire to contribute my mite to aid you
lin this grand endeavor. You head the
; list of laborers of this age, and of all
countries and of all times. You can to-
I day outdo in work any generation of men
that over lived on this earth. You can do
more, and do it better, than any others;
and you can do many things which for
merly were not thouhht of as possible.
Look at the department of invention.
<io to the Patent Office in Washington.
: No building can hold the models.' The
Government has found it impracticable
to undertake to house them. Gotoour
State Library and ask for the thickest
i volumes <>!' recent publication, and you
i will be shown the monthly publication v of
the Patent Ollicc, a volume several inches
thick, on thin paper, and in not very
large type, livery month one of these
volumes is issued, and sometimes a second
volume. This shown the activity of the
minds of laborers, the fertility of Ameri
can genius under free institutions, <n u> re
everybody has the right and an incentive
As an inventive people we lead
the world. Fifteen years ago, at
the World's Fair in Philadelphia,
in Machinery Hal!, was the finest
exhibition of mechanical skfll the world
eversaw. The most enlightened nations
put on exhibition their best displays. In
that magnificent exhibition, American
genius, American intelligence, American
handiwork, took the lead. <>ut of six
teen hundred exhibits, in Machinery
ilall more th;i!i mir thousand were
from the United states. <>r two to
<>.\< against theworld. in watch-making
rprised th<> old-time watch-makers
of Europe. \\ hen the Swiss Commis
sioner took home our machine-made
watches and showed to his workmen
their time-keeping qualities, he said their
day was up. liven their attempt to in
troduce machinery into their own coun
try to manufacture watches was not, at
Leasi at first, successful. How thej
have succeeded since 1 know not. In
the manufacture oi sowing machines
i Americans have hardly a competitor.
The man who at the World's Pair took
the premium for doing the most of any
: man to send the sewing machine over the
world, had his pamphlet in thirty-four
Langu tges, was reared as an American
citiz i! in New York, though he manu
factured in Canada to snve duty. He,
howevor, was located at Hamilton, near
j the line, and had all his leadiug
workmen from the United states.
: His. largest sales were in Button and
Sweden was his distributing point. J
asked him why he did not manufacture
in England. He replied: "The English
viorkman is not adapted to work in a
sewing machine factory." It seemsthat
while Asm rican g(ini:is is most prolific
in inventions, American fingers can most
deftly make and handle them.
! h re underlies these facts a reason for
them. En this country, as nowhere else,
the laborer has a free mind, and he has
free Bchools, and is more generally edu
. !i' breathes the air of freedom and
catches the inspiration of mental activity.
He has eyos and he sees and studies
e\ ci ything he handles.
In countries where the old idea still
obtains that some men are born to rule
and others to labor, the one class who
claim to do all the thinking and none of
the working, do not handle machinery
and hence do not understand it. What
does the lady, who never does a stitch of
h'-r own sewing, know about the sewing
machine? What us.- lias she ibr otic
only as a piece of ornamental furniture?
JSut the intelligent woman or man who
i operates the Bewing machine, who is con
stantly using it, is also constantly study-
I iu<X it. She reads it, knows it through
i and through, feels it, handles it, knows
I how it runs, fast or slow, easy or hard.
and narrowly inspects its work, and can
compare one with another. She or he is
the person to point out defects and sug
gest improvements. But in aristocratic
I countries the class of people whoaroborn
to simply labor, breathe a different air
from what wo havo in this country. They
get no inspiration of free intelligence,
their minds are not sprightly, their eyes
are not quick at Beeing, nor are their
minds alert to think, to observe and
reason. Such a country, with this class
population, where the deadening weight
of caste is on everything, cannot compete
with this land of universal freedom and
universal education. The world is only
beginning to realize the results, tho bene
lits, the fruits of American civilization,
when the proposition that it is good, that
it is safe, that it is beneficial for every
body to think and be intelligent is
forever established. This intelligence
is everywhere; no one knows
what it may bring forth, bo
fore this day's sun shall set.
We see its fruits in the lowest forms of
labor. I knew a man who invented a raw
buck. 11* sawed his own wood. He cot
a patent. The other day I saw a Califor
nian using this very improvement made
of two boards. There was no stick con
necting tho two crutches at the center,
which the saw would always strike as it
went through the stick of wood.
By careful attention to the laws of
health, by intelligent eeonomj', by obey
ing the wise suggestions of strict toinper
auco, the laborer may usually have some
time for seli-improveineat in reuding
In this country of freedom labor has
already achieved the grandest triumphs
of genius and industry the world ever
saw. It was seen in Philadelphia fifteen
years ago, it will be exhibited again with
increased magnificence next year in Chi
cago, and upon this lino of universal
froedom and universal education it will
go on and on, and no man can set any
limit to its outcome. With this increase
of intelligence wiil come new discoveries
and new improvements, and now inven
tions without end.
Labor has gained much. With
intelligence and union and harmony it
will gain more; it will advance till the
laborer will havo what he ought to have.
Tho sentiment on yonder monument,
"Labor is entitled to its just reward."
will come to read, "Labor receives its
I say labor has gained much. It has
achieved victory over that oppression
when government fixed the price of
labor. The laborer is getting in sight of
the position, is largely now in it, where
he can say, "Let not another man set a
price on my work."
It has achieved victory over that un
just decision of a human, and so an
erring judiciary, that a union of labor
ers to increase their wages is a felony,
indictable by law. By the progress of
freedom and intelligence that decision
has been relegated to the past, as a relic
of an inferior civilization. Labor ap
pealed from that decision and won, and
it will not have to light that battle again.
In applied electricity we are leading.
There are many grave questions which
you are squarely facing, too numerous for
me here to dwell upon; questions of
purely political economy; questions
which enter into the current discussions
of the day; questions upon which you
may not all be agreed in opinion:
questions which you have not discussed
in your several organizations. These
many points will in the future pass
through the alembic of your thoughtful
minds. You will need'all the advan
tages which ednation and mental disci
pline can afford.
< »ur Government has instituted a Labor
Department, and has entered upon a
broad field of investigation. It is spread
ing before you a large array of facts.
I'pon these you can reason, from these
data draw conclusions. From them you
can learn tho prevailing scale of wages,
with its minimum and maximum
amount, with all its variety in different
industries. You can also gain an idea of
tiio value of labor in this country to its
I employers, how much is one man's work
.t year worth to the man who hires him.
Yon can compare these facts with similar
facts in other countries. You can sco
that wages aro higher. Are they high
enough? You can study legal decisions
and learn how far you can lawfully go in
the lino of combination and union of
effort for your own good.
Permit me earnestly to recommend to
the individuals of tins great multitude
give special attention to individual
.. personal improvement. Life is short
:u best, and as one has wisely said, very
much "what we make it."
Take that motto <m the monument,
"Think, look up, lift up." Man is supe
rior to all other animals, lie tfands
jhor for the breadth of his base than
any other living creature. While he
walks on earth his head is high as
heaven. While his hands handle earthly
things ins mind is conversant with spirit
ual and even divine things. While bis
body needs the food similar to that of the
lower animals, his soul needs tin- food of
angels, and he is not satisfied withoul it.
His taste and relish of material things
] may be no higher than that of sheep and
cattle, yet mentally he can enjoy tin-very
i bread of God with spiritual pleasure.
Then '•think and look ttp»" turn the
e\ c of pity and lo\ Q upon the needy and
I lend a hand to "lilt up.' 1 While helping
I others you will help yourselves.
The question of poverty and riches will
engage your attention. You wiil con
sider how much of this increasing num
: <>f poor people is affected by
the immigration annually of half
a million of very poor people into this
country, and how much by any nuil
istment between capital and labor in
| our own country. In all these things
n< ver forget that capita] is your natural
friend and ally in life's Immortal battle,
and that the solution which harmonizes
capita] and labor is the best for both.
Wnile in this country it is essentially a
, contract between the laborer and the cap
italist, the former must keep himself
abreast with the times in intelligence and
skill, so as not to be overeached in the
Before concluding, may 1 direct your
reverent attention to your greatest and
!"^r friend. Whoishebui the Supreme
■ in-, who gave to man a day o\' rest i
a week? The period of the week i> in
nature, in the human constitution and
even in the weather. The idea that the
changes of the weather are connected
with tin- changes of the moon is based
on the fact that, irrespective of the moon.
the weather very often makes a revolu
tion in the period of a week.
Did you ever think of it that the rest
day, or Sabbath Day, was insti
tuted by a laborer, and specially
for laborers? The record of its
institution reads "Remember the Sab
bath day to keep it holy, tor in six days
. the Lord made heaven and earth, the Bt i
and all that in them is, and rested the
That was a bis week's work, and the
• Creator A\as richly entitled to a rest day.
So is every human labor entitled to 'a
rest day and every seventh day is the best.
And do nol lose Bight of the fact that
it was eiven as a holy day and not a holi
. i.ci that holy day be accepted as the
beneficent gift of our Creator. Let it
ver be the grand leveler in human society
when the employed and employer have
both alike laid aside the cares of secular
business, and enjoy that rest which the
laborer pre-eminently needs. Noweari
i ness so readily and surely recuperates as
muscular weariness. Rising from the
Sabbath rest the laborer is refreshed, and
good as new for another week of toil.
My address would not be complete if I
did UOt also point you to the laborer's
greatest enemy. It is alcohol. Never
lose sight of the fact that alcohol is alw ays
a poison. As a poison it certainly
acts in the human system. Dilute it,
color it, mix it as you will, it does
not change its natures. Et paralyzes the
nerves of the blood-vessels, they lose their
power t<> contract, they become flabby,
and, being gorged with blood, trives the
I alcohol man a red face, red eyes and a
red stomach, and a red bruin: it para
lyzes his nerves of motion so that he can
no: walk; it will down him, even into a
. gutter. Then it weakens his muscular
and his will-power so, that.tested by a per
fect machine to measure strength, he is not
as strong when under its influence, even
though he feels strong enough to move
■i mountain; he cannot so perfectly con
trol, direct and concentrate his physical
force. Then, worst of all, while it excites
his heart action and influences his pas
sions, it weakens, often paralyzes his
conscience. And tho criminal comes be
fore the court and pleads for leniency in
the infliction of punishment that he was
drunk, his passions were hot, but his con
science was disabled, he was unre
strained, he knew not what lie was doing
when he killed his friend, perhaps his
wife. Now consider that alcohol has no
feet, it cannot walk, it has no hands to
handle anyone, nor wit or tongue to outwit
anybody. And there is one certain and
I sovereign remedy against all its physical
j and moral evils: Let it alone; touch it
| not, taste it not, handlo it not, and it will
never harm you.
1 feel proud to address this great and
noble assemblage of laborers. J delight
to look upon the high and honorable
position which labor occupies in our
American civilization. lam pleased to
see how it has won the front rank in
human progress; how the best intelli
gence, the latest science, and the deepest
research, and tho wisest philosophy are
each most eager to pay it deference and
contribute to its comfort and improve
ment. I would invoke universal thanks
giving for the heritage which labor has
found in this great and grand country. I
predict for it here to achieve its greatest
and most wonderful triumphs. 1 fondly
hope that here in these United States that
blessed trinity, univeral liberty, univer
sal education, and the true religion, will
illustrate to all men that these three are
God's best gifts to man, and that the civi
lization which they aro producing will bo
as a beacon light to the peoplo of all na
tions. When that great-souled and
man-loving and gifted artist of France,
Bartholdi, conceived the idea of present
ing to our country that magnificent work
of art, the "Statue of Liberty," which
now stands for tho admiration of ail be
holders in the City of New York, he
wrought upon it this sublime sentiment,
a!;i:e honoring the noble soul of the
artist and donor and the genius of Amer
ican institutions: "Liberty Enlightening
Be it our ambition to add a few words
to that sublime inscription. We can do
it. By improvement of the unequaled
opportunities of our country, of our in
stitutions and resources, may we so ad
vance in everything that renders a people
great and happy and glorious, that the
people of all nations shall be led to point
to America and say: "Behold where lib
erty, intelligence, industry and virtue
are enlightening tho world."
REV. r>l?. LEVY.
Some Gems of Thought on tho Great
At the conclusion of Mr. TindalFs ad
dress, Rev. J. Leonard Levy was intro
duced by the President of the Day. The
reverend gentleman spoke as follows:
Mr, Chairman and Fellow-citizens: I
am here, in response to the request of
your committee, to speak on a subject of
interest to all present.
We are not assembled either for the
purpose of offering or of listening to old
and oft-repeated compliments to labor.
It is sufficient when we realize that labor
is an institution, coming direct from God,
and that it was His will to make it tho
universal condition of mortal existence.
It is not so much the neeessitj' for labor,
nor the special merits of the laborer, that
we wish to discuss. But avo are here to
speak about thosodisturbing human influ
ences and conditions surrounding labor
and the laborer, which, in their operation,
tend to destroy that harmonious relation
among men that would prevail, if equity
were more generally tho basis, the aim
and the end in view.
We do this in the hop© that as a result
WHOLE NO. 15,5(58.
ot our deliberations the light that wi
alreauy have on this subject may become
elvarer, and the further hope "that mw
light. niAy come to us. To this end let uo
entreat our Heavenly Father for guid
In the twenty-tilth chapter of Deuter
onomy, tho fifth book of Mooes, we find
the following signiijeant verso: "Theu
shalt not muxzle the ox when he'treadeth
out the corn."
Let us go back to the early days of civ
ilization, when men had "no harvester;
when there whs no MoCormick r
Men bad to live, just-the same. Bread
had to be made from corn, just the same.
Sowing and reaping were conducted by
the ancients as best they knew how-in a
manner that would afford the modern
Uder of the soil amusement to read of.
When the corn was ripe it was cut and
gathered and carried houfeto d© threshed.
l be threshing was not done by approved
machinery, but by an ox that trod out
the corn on a threshing-floor. Gorawas
very valuable and the ox was not fed on
corn, as he now frequently is, but he got
(odder ot chaff, or straw cut fine. T:r.s
was all right, perhaps, during the greater
pari ot the year, but when harvest-time
came and the ox had to work, and to
thresh, and thresh all day. and when
there was a plenteous supply of corn, the
owner ot the ox, fearing that it might
eat a few mouthfuls of corn, stopped its
mouth by putting a muule over it.
w hat cruelty! \\ hat hard-heartedness!
What inhumanity! Moses knew of this
OUStom and hated it. His soul loathed a
a practice so irritating, so provoking* so
tantalizing, and he prohibited it. Urn
language is clear and unmistaß
Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when h«
treudethunt the corn." Kverv pen
of Moses was a statute. It v.,
Iranied for the statute-book alone, ! t
fulfillment; not for Jew alone, but for all
mankind, li was certain that he who
infringed it did so at his peril.
What has this to do with the labor
question? The letter of the Scripture
conveys its lesson, pregnant with mean
ing, but Car more exalted is the Bpiritunl
interpretation. What is the spiritui
ofthis verse? we ask. And our Inborn
humane tendency interprets it for us un
erringly. It was not only the intention
ot Scnpture to teach humanity towards
the ox, tho humble help in the means of
production; but it is clearly eviden 4
far above the mere animal'help, it placed
the human aid, the aid of a man with ;i
soul, who should receive that measure of
human kindness, that measure of equity,
that more than mere conventional justice,
from him, whose efficient aid he is.
lias this state of equity been estab
lished? The agitation between capital
and labor in this city, in this State, in this
country, throughout the world, is a sig
nincant answer, that equity has been
sought and has nol y. t been found.
what method, then, may be pursued tn
bring about a state of equity among men?
Plato evolved a theory in his "Atlantis,"
Sir Thomas More in his "Utopia," Cam
panella in his "City of the Sun." Karl
Marx and Ferdinand Lasalle express
their belief that a higher "socialism
would Bottle all difficulties. Henry
< ieorge gives his opinion in his "Progress
and Poverty," while Bellamy states his
view in bis "Lookingßackward." These
schemes nave in them much that is » ■>
and true, much that is visionary. Books
and ideas are, after ail. not real life. Thl f
are, however, so many signposts guiding
us right or wrong. But the difficulties
and experiences of daily lifo, the stern
reality of iis thorny path demand more
than speculation, no matter how pleasiug
t i the mind such an exercise may be.
What is the result? a practical ten
dency was given towards solving the
difficulty .an I organizations, trades unions
anil federations, on the part ..f labor,
took place, which have been and will
again be blessed with remarkable huc
in LBO2 the passage of the Factory Act
through tho houses of Parliament wan
tbe first step towards the emancipation of
labor. <>n April 10,1840, President Van
Huron issued a proclamation in Wash
ington that ten hours should constitute a
day's work for Government employes.
To-day eight hours constitute a day's
work for Government employes. VM'ty
years ago the struggle for "ten hours a
day was looked upon with disfavor and
alarm by all. except those who fought for
it. There can only be one answer to tho
< i nest ion as to the final outcome of the or
ganization of labor. By organization a
strength is obtained not otherwise pos
sible. The chief result is that it brings to
the front men fitted to direct, to com
mand and to guidejlor the general good.
Ideas, also, are evolved that tend towards
the more rapid accomplishment of the
state most conducive to the interests of
tho wage-earners. No one will deny,
not oven the dullest mind, that the state
which is most conducive to the best
interests of the wage-earner, ie calculated,
in the highest degree, to conserve and to
perpetuate free institutions, froejeommon
vvealths. This has hitherto not been
well understood. But it is becoming
clearer and more clear that for the up
building of the republic for the mainten
ance of tho principles office government,
nothing is so powerful as ;\ suite of things
by which an equitable recompense ia
meted out to labor.
Progress in this direction has not bn-ii
over rapid. Hut let us not be impatient.
Let us take comfort at ihe recollection oi
the victories gained during pas! strug
gles. Let us take a kaleidoscopic view of
even the past fifty years, and see the con
quests, real and substantial, in the direc
tion of tho right and the humane. Le( IIS
take courage thereat fur renewed efforts —
efforts winch, when, proper!} directed.
must tend towards improvement aud
progress, real, solid, lasting, singularly
grand, to the people, to the nation, u> true
civilization, to the whole world.
Then, wiil equity be established. More
conventional justice, like rank injustice,
is not only inhumanity, but it is short
sightedness also. It tends to deteriorate
and to degrade toja lower state of civiii/n
--tion. And it will ever remain so, as long
as human impulses are governed by con
ditions as they now cxisi. To lower the
standard of wages, to increase the hours
of labor, to remain insensible to the ]«sn
fitsjof good sanitary conditions, and to dis
courage co-operative measures, nui'-t
always have a bad, v deteriorating effect.
Skillful, honest, well-directed efforts
spring spontaneously from good-will.
Where, then, shall this good-will come
from if its source is choked by antago
nism and opposition? Calm ana delibei -
ale reflection must necessarily conclude
that the highest and best interests of the
employer lie in tho direction of bringing
forth this good-will from his several aids.
How can it be evoked/ By a closer sym
pathy, by a closer harmony, by a closer
identity of interests.
If the employer harness good-will to
the efforts of his employes he will find
that every blow of tbe hammer will be
given with manlier force, ever thrust of
the needle will be made with truer aim,
every motion of the plane will he di
rected with more unerring judgment,
every fall of the ax will split the wood
with more precision, The steel will bo
tempered with greater delicacy, the iron
will be molded with more exactness, tho
trowel will lix the brick truer to tho
plumb-line, anil the lever setting the vast
machinery in motion will be controlled
with keener and more watchful guard.
Under this condition of mutual good
will the employer will find that his
property Will be as sacred to his em
ployes as his own property. His cares
will be his employes? cares; his con
cerns will be his employes' concerns; his
employes' prosperity will be his own
prosperity. A thousand experiences, a
thousand themes, a thousand indeli»'>le,
ineffaceable lessons point to this truth —
a truth, clear, responsive, ever-present
in the minds of those capable of reason.
Nor need we tell an intelligent em
ploye that well-directed efforts are not
only profitable to the employer, but that
those same well-directed, honest, faithful
efforts are an upbuilding of character,
and form traits within himself directly
contributing to his own progress and
welfare. It may be expected that prog-
OONTI.N UKD ON SIXTH PAUE.