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THE POL YN
IM ItLlSlli:i WEEKLY, AT HONOLULU, OAIIIJ, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.
J. J. JARVES, I'jDitok.
SATURDAY, JANUARY 3, 184
Present Condition mid. Prospects of the
Oregon Territory ns regards the Soil,
Prolific Vions, Inhabitants, Commercial
and Political Interests, Arc., Ac.
The geography of Oregon is so well un
derstood, little need be said "about it. A
reference to the common school geography
will give all the information necessary to
any person who has not already made him
self acquainted with it.
The upper country has a fertile soil, es
pecially on the tribvlari" of the Columbia
River, producing Indian corn, wheat, oats,
barley, peas beans, potatoes, onions, cab
bages, etc., in short all the vegetables
which arc raised in the Northern Temperate
The country more distant from the Co
lumbia, and not bordering on a stream of
water is more sterile and produces grass on
ly. The fires which pass over the country
annually, effectually clear the hills and
plains of every kind of vegetable life. But
after the Hill rains, they are quickly covered
with a luxuriant growth of green grass,
which is very nutritious for cattle ; these
are being raised in all parts of the territory,
both by the few white settlers and Indians
who inhabit the different parts of the coun
try. Some Indians own from 1,500 to 2,000
head of horses, part of which are broken in
for use. The remainder arc left to roam
over the plains and increase for the benefit
of their owners.
The land produces much better where ir
rigation can be practiced by the cultivator.
The lower country embraces that portion
of territory which lies immediately on the
Pacific, and extends inland to ,1 ranee of
mountains a distance of about one hundred
miles, and is watered by threo largo rivers
known by the names of Rogue, Umpqua,
and Walamet ; also by a nnmber of small
rivers which empty into the above named
three, which are all navigable for shipping
a short distance from their mouths.
The soil is mostly clayey except on the
river flats, which are alluvial, producing
wheat, oats, peas, Indian corn, potatoes, etc.
Wheat produces better than any other grain,
averaging from thirty to fifty bushels per
acre, and of the finest quality in the world,
weighing from three to four lbs. more per
bushel than in any part of the United States.
Indian corn does not do well in consequence
of the coldness of the nights occasioned by
the snow-capt mountains, which bound the
upper and lower country, whose sugar-loaf
peaks (to the number of seven) may be seen
towering to the clouds, covered with perpet
ual snow. They present to tho eye of the
traveller a delightful and pleasant contrast
between tho surrounding country below,
where tho thermometer rises in summer to
100w in the shade at mid-day, but falls, per
haps to 70 during the night.
That portion of country w hich lies imme
diately on the Columbia for a distance of
about 50 miles from its mouth, is mostly cov
ered with timber of enormous size, chiefly
fir ; also oak, black-maple, cotton-wood fee.
Shipping timber may bo obtained of suffi
cient size and quality to build all the ship
ping necessary for the commercial interest
of the Pacific many years to come.
The valley of the Walamet is of the most
importance at present, and therefore will 10
ceivo a more minuto discription than any
other portion of the country.
This valley is watered by the Wulamet
river, which runs in a serpentine course, a
distande of several hundred miles, and emp
ties itself by two principal mouths into the
Columbia, a distance of about 15 miles
The upper, mouth discharges its water about
C miles below Fort Vancouver and is the
chief entrance for shipping and will admit
merchant vessels of all sizes during the high
water in the summer season. The high wa
ter is occasioned by the back-water of the
Columbia which rises from the melting of
the snow of the Rocky Mountains Sec.
The tide from the Pacific sets up the
Walamet to the Klackamas river, a distance
of nearly thirty miles from the mouth of the
Walamet, and within one mile of tho falls,
above which no vessel can pass, as the wa
ter falls perpendicularly over a precipice of
rocks ; a height of about 20 feet. Above
these falls boats and canoes pass up tho riv
er to the interior portion of the valley, and
will afford navigation for a steam-boat to
bring the produce of tho country to mar
ket. There are several small rivers emptying
into tho Walamet, the principle of which arc
the Klackamas, Quatity, Yamhill, Hanch
eucb, Santa, besides a few smaller ones of
The country in this valley consists mostly
of flat and rolling prairies, cleared by the
annual fires, which until recently passed
over all the country, clearing every thing
in its way except the timber on tho streams,
which is protected by a luxurious growth of
under-brush, kept green by springs of wa
ter and heavy dews. The timber is of suffi
cient size, quality and quantity to meet all
the wants of the settlers of the soil for farm
ing and building.
The soil being clayey, as before mention
ed, and deep, and as the land does not wash
away, it will be likely to endure for many
years without impairing its fertility. Sever
al crops of wheat have been raised in suc
cession from the same fields, and so far each
successive crop has proved better than the
The valley is extensive, and has but little
waste land. Many persons who have visit
ed it, think that the Walamet valley alone
is capable of sustaining as large a popula
tion as the six New-England states.
The better portions of the courtry is still
unsettled. The upper Walamet affords bet
ter soil and timber than the lower. The
country is inhabited by white men, mostly
from the United States and England, there
being but a few Indians remaining in the
lower country, and they are degraded and
will soon be extinct.
Tho principle settlement is at the falls of
tho Walamet, which has grown up within
the two past years.
The water privileges at this place are per
haps equal to any in tho world. The whole
river can be made to bear upon any and ev
ery kind of machinery, and can be taken in
canals on either bank for the distance of one
mile. This place will be the Rochester and
Albany of Oregon.
There is another settlement on a small
stream, about fifty miles above the falls,
where the mcthodist mission formerly built a
saw and flour mill. Tho country here is
well situated for inland trade, and probably
will bo densely populated on account of its
commercial advantages and water privileg
es. Several small villages have been com
menced in different parts of the valley.
Some settlers have preferred to settle as
farmers near the mouth of the Columbia and
are scattered along its banks all the way up
their. 1. Company's Fort of Vancouver,
ninety miles from its mouth.
Tho population is annually increasing
from the United States. In the fall of in 12
one hundred and fifteen persons came across
the Rocky Mountains.
In the fall of 1813, another party came
across which was estimated at twelve hun
dred persons, comprising among them, one
physician,three lawyers, two licensed preach
ers, several mechanics and women and
This party brought cattle, horses and
waggons with them.
In 1841 another immigration arrived,s of
about the same number as the above named
and of similar professions, These arc set
tling in different parts of the lower country,
from one mile to one hundred and fifty miles
apart. Most of them appear quiet and in
dustrious. Tho climate of Oregon is much milder
than in the same latitude cast of the Rocky
At the mouth of Calumbia river, in lat.
1G 19 snow or frost arc seldom seen.
In the Walamet valley, the winters are
rainy, commencing usually in November
and continuing till February or March ; af
ter which there arc only occasional showers
till the succeeding fall. Snow seldom falls,
and never so deep as to require the feeding
of cattle or horses.
Many of the garden vegetables are allow
ed to remain in the ground during the win
ter season, and only gathered when wanted
for use. Strawberry blossoms have been
plucked in each month of the winter as they
put forth upon the prairies.
The present political state of the country
is as follows:
The lower country is divided into five
districts, or counties, which elect their offi
cers by ballot, once a year, consisting of a
committee of three persons, who arc invest
ed with the executive power. One Judge,
who presides at all the district Courts, which
aro held twice a year in each County. He
also has probate power. One Sheriff; from
nine to twelve members of the Legislature
each district electing their number in pro
portion to the number of their voters.
Justices of the Peace and Constables hold
their offices for one year, orsUntil their suc
cessors arc qualified.
The exports of the country will consist
of pork, beef, flour, hides and tallow. Some
farmers own from fifty to five hundred head
of horned cattle, besides horses, hogs, &c.
Also raise from five to fifteen hundred
bushels of wheat per annum.
Tho principal market has been with the
Hudson's Bay Company, who have paid in
goods GO cts. per bushel imperial measure,
to complete a contract with tho Russian
settlements. Rut this will end soon, and the
only outlet will be among the Pacific islands.
The Hawaiian Islands at present arc the
West Indies for Oregon. The settlers must
depend on them for their sugar, molasses,
salt, &c. Perhaps from fifty to one hundred
tons of sugar would find a market in the
Oregon, in the year 1345, for which flour,
lumber, beef, &c. would be given in ex
change, there being but little cash in the
Should a good pilot establish himself at
the mouth of tho Columbia River, whalers
would do well to run in for recruits, as they
could be supplied with beef and vegetables,
at low rates. Wood and water would cost
nothing but the labor of getting them on
Be not penny-wise: riches have wings; and
sometimes they fly away of themselves; some
times they must be set flying to bring in more.
Forgiveness. Generous and magnani
mous minds are readiest to forgive; "and it
is a weakness and impotcney of mind to be
unable to forgive. Jiacon.
NEW SERIES, Vol. l.-No. 36.
) Y AUTHORITY.
Correspondence between II. M, Necretnrr
of State and the Consul of France, relative
to the case of Abbe t'nstan, a French
Statement of the Eva Magistrate, to which
allusion is made in the Attorney General's
Report, published last week.
Auwaipuu and companion Mahoe were
quarrelling, with high words, when Barena
ba came out and said to them, go away, you
disturb my school. Auwaipuu said, If
you have leased for yourself this place from
the mountain to the sea, from yonder to
yonder, from above to below, then you have
a right to interfere; but no, this is our
place, quite away from your school-house,
from the mountain to the sea, as we travel.
For this Barcnaba complained to the Kahu
kula Kaihcnui,saying,I come to inform you of
a quarrel between a man and woman, whom I
rebuked, and the woman abused me, calling
mc a French Priest who eats dung (aikukae)
and very many other abusive epithets. On
which Kaihcnui wrote to me that I should
try the case between Auuwaipuu and Barcn
aba. I sent for them quietly to appear be
fore me, when Auwaipuu came, andBarena-
ba also, with many witnesses his scholars
but Auwaipuu had no witness. I said to
Barenaba, let all your witnesses go out
except one. Barenaba said no, I never saw
that done in France or at Kauai. I said,
this is my custom. Barenaba said, if you do
thus I will proceed to Honolulu. I replied,'
you can do as you please. On which Kekau,
a Catholic disciple, came forward and said
to him, you are wrong, we will all go out
and come in afterwards: to this, Barenaba
assented. Then I called to Kekaipeleleu,
and said place your hand on the Book that
it may appear the truth which you are about
to state respecting the insult offered by
Auwaipuu to Barenaba. Barenaba thrust
the book aside with his cane, saying that
is not the Word of God, that is Binamus.
I said, it is the Word of God it is true as
I have heard and as I know. He said it is
Bihopa's word. I said, what is to be done?
We will proceed according to law, perhaps.
Barcnaba says yes. I then took the laws,'
and read in his presence, " If any one
appears and swears upon tho Book of God."
Then I took the Book in my hand, and he
struck it aside again with his cane, saying
this case must not be settled here, it must go
to Honolulu. I said, that is as you choose.
He said the oath must be taken on their
book. I said, no, it must not.
Done at Ewa, Decembers, 1844.
Honololu, Dec. 12th, 1844. 1
Appeared before me, Kahauolono, and
made oath beforo me, that all the words
of tho foregoing writing are true.
(Signed) M. KEKUANAOA.
1 in . .... ... i , J
Reply of M. the Consul of France, to H. H.
M.'s Svcrtlury of State for Foreign Affairs.
Consulate of France,
Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,
January 1st., 1845. )
Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge
the reception of your letter dated 21st ult.,
as well as of its enclosures.
I have communicated it to M. the Abbe"
Castan, and am authorised to make you ac
quainted with the letter that he has written
me upon that subject, a copy of which letter
you will find enclosed.
I am happy that they discover at Kauai
the merit of M. the Abbe Mandet, heretofore
so misunderstood at Hawaii; and I hope
that soon they will discover in like manner,
that of M. the Abb Castan, who, in my
eyes, is perfectly innocent of all with which
he is charged.
Receive Monsieur le Ministre, the assur
ance of the high consideration with which 1
have the honor to be, your very obedient
servant, J. DUDOIT,
Consul of France.
To M. the Minister )
of Foreign Affairs. $
hi h 1 m ii 1 1 11 ai mwmww
Reply of the Abbt Castan to the facts in the
Era Magistrate's Statement.
Honolulu, Dec. 26, 1844.
Mr. Consul, I have taken cognizance
of a letter of M. the Attorney General,